Speech acts meet tagging: NiceTag ontology (Pragmatic Web)


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The 5th AIS SigPrag International Pragmatic Web Conference Track (ICPW 2010) at the International Conference on Semantic Systems (i-Semantics 2010), 1 - 3 September 2010, Messecongress|Graz, Austria.

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Speech acts meet tagging: NiceTag ontology (Pragmatic Web)

  1. 1. Speech acts meet tagging: iceTag ontology Alexandre Monnin, Freddy Limpens, David Laniado, Fabien Gandon (@aamonnz, twitter, slideshare)
  2. 2. VoCamp Nice 2009
  3. 3. what is a tag? received wisdom says "it denotes a concept"
  4. 4. not quite! examples… ☺
  5. 5. A typed link? <a href> + URI + microformat rel=“tag” + label <a href=http://technorati.com/tag/tech rel="tag">tech</a>
  6. 6. Hum… no! <a href=http://technorati.com/tag/tech rel="tag">fish</a> “the author indicates that the page (or some portion of the page) has the tag "tech". The linked page SHOULD exist, and it is the linked page, rather than the link text, that defines the tag. The last path component of the URL is the text of the tag, so would indicate the tag "tech" rather than "fish.” (Tantek Celik)
  7. 7. Hum… no! <a href=http://technorati.com/tag/tech rel="tag">fish</a> The choice of the label is of no importance the tags are already defined collectively… before the act of tagging even took place! But how and by whom?  Described this way, the process is turned upside down. Tagging precedes folksonomy, not the contrary.
  8. 8. a blank (inscribable) space on a material device, and the inscription it receives tags: a blank (inscribable) space on an informational network (and the inscription it receives)
  9. 9. a label and a URI/resource •reference to a resource (label) •access to its representation or to a community tag (URI) http://www.flickr.com/2327219507/ tags: And a string!
  10. 10. current models assign a fixed form to tags but tags take on manifold forms
  11. 11. model different tag dimensions subject, sign, relation, … capture different tag usages comment, sort, diffuse, describe, rate, ... bridge existing models Newman’s Tag Ontology, Tagont, SCOT, SIOC, MOAT, NAO, UTO,…
  12. 12. named graphs [Carroll et al. 2005] to embody social acts, communicate assertional intent
  13. 13. “nature” (1) (2) (3) at least three parts in a tag
  14. 14. “nature” (1) (2) (3) a tag is a link between a resource and a sign
  15. 15. “nature” (1) (2) (3) picture shows “nature” place located “england” ☺ editing makes me at least three degrees of liberty
  16. 16. Is tagging just another form of annotation? The Web as a plateform has its own specifities and tagging being first born on the should be understood accordingly.
  17. 17. … any new medium contains whithin it the characteristics of an older medium, obscuring what really new (…) Tagging, as phenomena, contains the existing medium of classification [replace with annotation, indexing, categorization, etc.], but it is its extension to far greater ratios of massification which makes it a new medium entirely. More really is different. (Scott Bradley) http://zope.cetis.ac.uk/member/scott/blogview?entry=20061117121859
  18. 18. And as we all know it the Web is all about… Porn R-E-S-S-O-U-R-C-E-S !!!
  19. 19. “nature” (1) identify the subject IRW: physical entity resource, web resource, conceptual resource… Halpin & Presutti (2009)
  20. 20. “nature” (2) sub-properties of isRelatedTo = open to any available RDF property extension of Golder & Huberman (2006), Sen et al.(2006)
  21. 21. “nature” (3) different signs symbol (text, URI), icon,…
  22. 22. http://.../tag23 “nature” tag actions captured/encapsulated in a named graph Carroll et al. (2005)
  23. 23. How to do things with words? Speech acts. How to do things with tags? Tag actions.
  24. 24. Action nt:TagAction nt:isRelatedTo Point/Designate nt:PointAt nt:hasPart nt:GrantAccessRights nt:canBeReadBy Grant/Deny access rights to To (etc.) nt:hasCommunityTag Aggregate nt:Aggregate nt:hasPersonalSign Share Nt:Share nt:sentTo nt:isAbout, nt:isRelevantToSo, Assert nt:Assert nt:isRelevantToSt nt:hasForMedium Evaluate nt:Evaluate nt:isWorth Set a task nt:SetTask nt:elicitsAction Express an emotion nt:ExpressEmotion nt:makesMeFeel nt:raisesQuestionAbo Ask a question nt:Ask ut
  25. 25. Such tag actions bear the mark of the technological mediation of the Web. It thus becomes more accurate to describe the :Send tag action as involving a sioc:UserAccount rather than to a person the way it is traditionally conceived). Compared to traditional speech acts, whether grounded ontologically (as in Adolf Reinach, founding father of speech acts) or not, this brings a lot of changes in the way we understand them.
  26. 26. sioc:has_creator http://.../tag23 #buttersg88 dc:date 11/03/2008 “nature” sioc:container http://www.flickr.com describe the tag action as any other resource
  27. 27. rdf:type http://.../tag23 nt:ManualTag “nature” even type the tag action sioc:Item rdfg:Graph TagAction ManualTagAction AutoTagAction MachineTagAction IndividualTagAction CollectiveTagAction
  28. 28. http://.../tag23 … scot:hasTag #nature choose any existing model SCOT, SIOC, MOAT, IRW, NAO, ES, Tagora, UTO, CommonTag, Newman's Tag Ontology, Tagont…
  29. 29. RDF Source declaration 1. <irw:WebResource rdf:about ='http://flickr.com/xyz' 2. cos:graph='http://mysocialsi.te/tag#7182904'> 3. <nicetag:isAbout>improvisation</nicetag:isAbout> 4. </irw:WebResource> 5. <nicetag:ManualTagAction rdf:about ='http://mysocialsi.te/tag #7182904'> 6. <dc:creator>Fabien Gandon</dc:creator> 7. <dc:date>2009-10-07T19:20:30.45+01:00</dc:date> 8. </nicetag:ManualTag>
  30. 30. SPARQL all the manual tags 1. SELECT ?t ?a ?g WHERE { 2. GRAPH ? tag { ?t ?a ?g } 3. ?tag rdf:type nicetag:ManualTagAction }
  31. 31. <irw:WebResource rdf:about ='http://flickr.com/xyz' cos:graph='http://mysocialsi.te/tag#7182904'> <nicetag:isAbout>improvisation</nicetag:isAbout> </irw:WebResource> rdf:about = 'http:// flickr.com/xyz'  http://flickr.com/xyz/
  32. 32. This URI… • Gives access to an image on Flickr irw:givesAccessTo • identifies a resource whose (private) nature is set by the owner of the URI that identifies it irw:identifies • Allows to refer to whatever I want (including a plurality of things at once: from a single resource/URI, I may tag a photo and then a landscape…) irw:refersTo
  33. 33. SPARQL request on manual tags 1. SELECT ?t ?a ?g WHERE { 2. GRAPH ? tag { ?t ?a ?g } 3. ?tag rdf:type nicetag:ManualTagAction }
  34. 34. summary tag actions as typed & named graphs + ontology rdf:type http://... nt:TagAction sign … … resource RELATION … …
  35. 35. http://ns.inria.fr/nicetag/2009/09/25/voc# n i c e dereferenceable t a g namespace *NiceTag speaks 5 languages.* Also available in French, Italian, Spaniard, and Dutch. Soon in German too!