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Sentence structure

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Sentence structure

  1. 1. Sentence Types
  2. 2. Sentence Types Simple Compound Complex Compound Complex
  3. 3. SUBJECT PREDICATE Mary plays tennis.
  4. 4. SUBJECT PREDICATE Mary plays tennis. one subject one predicate
  5. 5. Tom and Mary Compound Subject play tennis.
  6. 6. Tom and Mary play tennis and swim. Compound Subject Compound Predicate
  7. 7. Tom and Mary play tennis.
  8. 8. Tom and Mary play tennis and swim.
  9. 9. Tom and Mary play tennis and swim. No comma before “and” in compound subjects and predicates!
  10. 10. SUBJECT PREDICATE and SUBJECT PREDICATE
  11. 11. Tom swims, and Mary plays tennis.
  12. 12. FOR AND NOR BUT OR YET SO
  13. 13. Tom swims, and Mary plays tennis. Clause 1 Independent Clause 2 Independent
  14. 14. Tom swims, and Mary plays tennis. Comma before “and” in compound sentences!
  15. 15. MOREOVER HOWEVER OTHERWISE THEREFORE
  16. 16. Bob is handsome; moreover, he is rich. Clause 1 Independent Clause 2 Independent
  17. 17. Bob is handsome; moreover, he is rich. Note: Semicolon before conjunctive adverb and comma after conjunctive adverb!
  18. 18. Conjunctive Adverbs “float” Conjunctive adverbs are sometimes called “floating” adverbs because they can be positioned at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of a clause.
  19. 19. Bob is handsome; moreover, he is rich.
  20. 20. Bob is handsome; he is, moreover, rich.
  21. 21. Bob is handsome; he is, moreover, rich. Note: Place commas before and after a conjunctive adverb in the middle!
  22. 22. Bob is handsome; he is rich, moreover.
  23. 23. Bob is handsome; he is rich, moreover. Note: Place a comma before a conjunctive adverb at the end!
  24. 24. Semicolons “If the relation between the ideas expressed in the main clauses is very close and obvious without a conjunction, you can separate the clauses with a semicolon” (Little, Brown Handbook, 9th Edition, p. 361).
  25. 25. Matt has benefited from his exercise program; he is slim and energetic.
  26. 26. SUBJECT PREDICATE even though SUBJECT PREDICATE
  27. 27. Bob is popular even though he is ugly.
  28. 28. EVEN THOUGH WHEN ADVERB CLAUSES BECAUSE UNLESS WHEREAS
  29. 29. Bob is popular even though he is ugly. Clause 1 Clause 2 Independent Dependent
  30. 30. Even though Bob is ugly, he is popular. Clause 1 Dependent Clause 2 Independent
  31. 31. Bob is popular even though he is ugly. When the MAIN clause is first, it is usually NOT followed by a comma!
  32. 32. Even though Bob is ugly, he is popular. When the ADVERB clause is first, it is followed by a comma!
  33. 33. Mike is popular because he is good looking, but he is not very happy.
  34. 34. Mike is popular because he is good looking, but he is not very happy. Punctuate each clause according to its rules!
  35. 35. SIMPLE SENTENCE My friends and I play tennis and go bowling every weekend. No commas before “and” in compound subjects and predicates!
  36. 36. COMPOUND SENTENCE: Coordinating Conjunction Men may exercise harder, but they may not exercise as regularly as women do. Comma before coordinating conjunction!
  37. 37. COMPOUND SENTENCE: Conjunctive Adverb Native and nonnative English speakers have different needs; however, some schools fail to distinguish between these groups. Semicolon before conjunctive adverb Comma after conjunctive adverb!
  38. 38. COMPOUND SENTENCE: Conjunctive Adverb--in the middle Native and nonnative English speakers have different needs; some schools, however, fail to distinguish between these groups. Semicolon after first independent clause-Commas before and after conjunctive adverb!
  39. 39. COMPOUND SENTENCE: Conjunctive Adverb at the end Native and nonnative English speakers have different needs; some schools fail to distinguish between these groups, however. Semicolon after first independent clause-Comma before conjunctive adverb!
  40. 40. COMPLEX SENTENCE: Adverb Clauses--Subordinating Conjunction People had continuous moderate exercise when they had to hunt for food. When main clause is first, it is not usually followed by a comma!
  41. 41. COMPLEX SENTENCE: Adverb Clauses--Subordinating Conjunction When people had to hunt for food, they had continuous moderate exercise. When the adverb clause is first, it is followed by a comma!
  42. 42. Writing Academic English, Second Edition, by Alice Oshima and Ann Hogue. White Plains: Addison, Wesley, Longman, 1999. The Little, Brown Handbook, by H. Ramsey Fowler and Jane E. Aaron, Pearson, 2004.

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