Influence without Authority: Establishing and Transforming Power


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To drive a cross-functional, organization-wide transformation like a unified content strategy, you need to be influential as an individual.

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Influence without Authority: Establishing and Transforming Power

  1. 1. Influence without Authority:Establishing and Transforming PowerAndrea Ames @aames Senior Technical Staff memberInformation Experience StrategistLavaCon Unified Content Strategy Workshop24 April 2013
  2. 2. Agenda Exercise Influence Establishing power: Creating anenvironment of influence Using power Exercise debrief
  3. 3. About Andrea Technical communicator since 1983 Areas of expertise Information experience design: Content strategy,information architecture, and interaction design forcontent display and delivery, within products andinteractive information delivery systems Architecture, design, and development of embedded assistance (content withinor near the product user interface) Information and product usability, from analysis through validation User-centered process for information development andinformation experience design IBM Senior Technical Staff Member on corporate Total InformationExperience team in IBM CIO’s office University of CA Extension certificate coordinator and instructor STC Fellow, past president (2004-05), former member ofBoard of Directors (1998-2006), and Intercom columnist (with Alyson Riley)of The Strategic IA ACM Distinguished Engineer3
  4. 4. Influence
  5. 5. Why influence? If you can: Design two UI panels Write three pages Create five icons Drive 10 marketing campaigns Track 45 project work items Write 90 lines of codein a day, how many are accomplished when three people are driving,tracking, writing, designing, creating? 50? 500? 5,000? Are you expert at every aspect of technical communication, marketing,support, strategy, project management, and your product function? If so, doyou have the bandwidth to be a one-person show? Most complex situations require multiple judgments, skills, and experiencesAnd most importantly…Have you ever had a great, innovative idea—like the need for a unified contentstrategy??—and wanted it implemented in your organization?5
  6. 6. From Wikipedia, influence is… When the actions or thoughts of individuals are changedby another individual Amount of influence you exert often determined by yourconfidence/self-esteem and perceived persona Ability to influence also affected by your perceivedexpertise, or credibility—others’ trust of you and yourknowledge or skill Sometimes seen as persuasion, guiding people towardthe adoption of an idea, attitude, or action by rational andsymbolic (though not always logical) means; a problem-solving strategy relying on "appeals" rather than strength6
  7. 7. Black magic? Lots of people think of it this way Charisma Good looks Money It’s a talent You’re born with it It can’t be learned,developed, refined,improved7
  8. 8. How I like to think of it It’s something youacquire via your actionsand attitude Managing yourself andyour attitude Leadership—the ability to(from Tom Peters) Inspire Liberate Achieve Gaining respect and trust Leading in every direction Setting andcommunicating a clearvision with enthusiasm Inspiring enthusiasmin others Getting things donethrough others that youcould not achieve alone It’s not black magic8
  9. 9. What does this mean for us, asindividual leaders?“With great power comes great responsibility” Understanding why people follow others means usingthat understanding responsibly There is a hard way and an easy way—and they willseem counterintuitive Harder: Causing others to change their minds Easier: Creating an environment of influence Others trust you They recognize value in your ideas The buy into and sponsor your ideas They execute those ideas 9
  10. 10. Causing others to change Why is this hard? It’s outward-focused You can’t change others Focusing on your sphere of influence vs.your sphere of control (which will affectyour sphere of influence)10
  11. 11. Creating an environment ofinfluence Become a leader Lead/manage yourself, first Focus on your sphere of control (you) That will positively impact yoursphere of influence (ourrelationships with others) Our biggest hurdle is us11
  12. 12. Establishing power: Creatingan environment of influence
  13. 13. What do the experts say? John Maxwell James Kouzes and Barry Posner Joel Garfinkle
  14. 14. 5 Levelsof LeadershipJohn Maxwell,Developing theLeader within You
  15. 15. 5 Ways to be InfluentialJoel Garfinkle, Getting Ahead: Three Steps to Take Your Career to the Next Level
  16. 16. 5 Practices of Exemplary LeadershipJames Kouzes and Barry Posner, The Leadership Challenge Model the way—go first, set the example Inspire a shared vision—enlist others in thevision, know constituents and speak theirlanguage Challenge the process—innovate, grow,improve, experiment, take risks Enable others to act—foster collaboration andbuild trust Encourage the heart—recognize contributions,celebrate values and victories
  17. 17. Key themes Credibility Trust Exemplar Enable others Inspire othersSelfRelationships
  18. 18. Where do you start? Goleman’s emotional intelligenceand (in backup) Covey’s 7 habits Maxwell’s approach to attitude& 360-degree leadership18
  19. 19. What is “emotional intelligence?”“The capacity forrecognizing our own feelingsand those of others,for motivating ourselves,for managing emotions wellin ourselves andin our relationships.”-- Daniel Goleman19
  20. 20. Emotional intelligence domainsSource: Primal Leadership, by Daniel Goleman, Harvard Business School Press, 2002. (my numbers/arrows)Self OthersSelf-AwarenessKnowing what we feel atthe moment and using thatto guide our decision-makingSelfManagementHandling our emotionsso that they enhancerather than interfere withperformanceSocialAwarenessSensing what people arefeeling, understanding theperspectives of others, andcultivating rapportRelationshipManagementHandling emotions in relationshipswell, being able to read socialsituations accurately, and usingthese skills to persuade, lead,and negotiateActionsAwareness201233
  21. 21. Emotional Intelligence SkillsAssessment (EISA)authors: Steven J. Stein, Derek Mann, Peter Papadogiannis, and Wendy Gordon Perceiving—the ability to accurately recognize,attend to, and understand emotion Managing—the ability to effectively manage,control, and express emotions Decision making—the application of emotion tomanage change and solve problems Achieving—the ability to generate th enecessaryemotions to self-motivate in the pursuit ofrealistic and meaningful objectives Influencing—the ability to recognize, manage,and evoke emotion within oneself and others topromote change
  22. 22. Work from the body, as wellas the mindAmy Cuddy, Your Body Language Shapes Who You Are TED Talk it ’til you ARE it1. Stand up2. Raise your arms in a victory stance3. You ARE powerfulCesar Millan, Cesar’s RulesOwn the space
  23. 23. Using power
  24. 24. Once you have power… How do you use it? Only for good, not evil. 
  25. 25. Influence Model: ReciprocityAllan Cohen and DavidBradford, Influence without Authority Think in terms of currenciesInspiration-relatedTask-relatedPosition-relatedPersonal
  26. 26. Contextual forces shape behaviorAllan Cohen and DavidBradford, Influence without Authority
  27. 27. Power style—how we use ourpowerJay Hall and James Hawker, Power Management Inventory Discussion 1: .5 / .5 (share) Discussion 2: 0 / 1 (give it up) Discussion 3: 1 / 0 (keep it) Power spectrum
  28. 28. Power motivation—why we use ourpower, part 1Jay Hall and James Hawker, Power Management Inventory Personalized: achievement of personalgain Socialized: need to influence others’behavior for the common good Affiliative: need to be liked by others
  29. 29. Power motivation—why we use ourpower, part 2Jay Hall and James Hawker, Power Management Inventory Effective use of power within the org isnecessary Strong power motivation is essential togood leaders (managers) Socialized power leads to more successfulleadership (management) thanpersonalized power
  30. 30. Interpreting PMIJay Hall and James Hawker, Power Management Inventory Both Socialized and Personalized should be higher thanAffiliative—ideally 25% higher If Affiliative is higher than both Socialized andPersonalized, indicates aversion to power For maximum leadership (managerial success), scoreshould reflect greater preference for Socialized power If Personalized Motive is dominant, you might be doing acreditable job, but not without difficulties If Personalized is higher, stay alert to signs of potentialabuse of power Goal: Power motivation and power style consistency,which indicates consistent intention vs. effect
  31. 31. Questions?31
  32. 32. BackupStart with…Covey and MaxwellEmotional Intelligence details
  33. 33. Components of emotional intelligenceDefinition HallmarksSelf-Awareness • The ability to recognize and understandyour moods, emotions, and drives, aswell as their effect on others• Self-confidence• Realistic self-assessment• Self-deprecating sense of humorSelf-Regulation(Self management)• The ability to control or redirectdisruptive impulses and moods• The propensity of suspend judgment—to think before acting• Trustworthiness and integrity• Comfort with ambiguity• Openness to changeMotivation(Self management)• A passion to work for reasons that gobeyond money or status• A propensity to pursue goals withenergy and persistence• Strong drive to achieve• Optimism, even in the face of failure• Organizational commitmentSource: “What Makes a Leader?” Daniel Goleman, Harvard Business Review, Nov-Dec 1998.33
  34. 34. Components of emotional intelligence (cont.)Definition HallmarksEmpathy(Social awareness)• The ability to understand the emotionalmakeup of other people• Skill in treating people according to theiremotional reactions• Expertise in building and retaining talent• Cross-cultural sensitivity• Service to clients and customersSocial Skill(Social awareness)• Proficiency in managing relationshipsand building networks• An ability to find common ground andbuild rapport• Effectiveness in leading change• Persuasiveness• Expertise in building and leading teamsSource: “What Makes a Leader?” Daniel Goleman, Harvard Business Review, Nov-Dec 1998.34
  35. 35. Components of emotional intelligence (cont.)Definition HallmarksInfluence(Relationship management)• Finding the right appeal for a given listener• Knowing how to build buy-in from keysponsors• Building a network of support for an initiative• Very persuasive• Engaging when addressing agroupDeveloping Others(Relationship management)• Understanding goals, strengths andweaknesses• Providing timely and constructive feedback• Show genuine interest in others• Natural mentor or coachSource: Primal Leadership, by Daniel Goleman, Harvard Business School Press, 2002.35
  36. 36. The seven habitsDependence  Independence  Interdependence Private victory:1. Be proactive2. Begin with the end in mind3. Put first things first Public victory:4. Think win/win5. Seek first to understand…then to be understood6. Synergize7. Sharpen the saw36Source: The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People, by Stephen Covey, Simon & Schuster, Inc., 1989.
  37. 37. Attitude is everything Our attitude determines our approach to life Our attitude determines our relationshipswith people Often our attitude is the only difference betweensuccess and failure Our attitude at the beginning of a task will affect itsoutcome more than anything else Our attitude can turn our problems into opportunities Our attitude can give us anuncommonly positive perspective37Source: Attitude 101, by John Maxwell, Thomas Nelson, 2003.
  38. 38. Lead in every direction Key lead-up principles Lead yourself exceptionally well Lighten your leader’s load Invest in relational chemistry Become a go-to player Be better tomorrow than you are today Key lead-across principles Understand, practice, and complete the leadership loop Put completing fellow leaders ahead of competing with them Expand your circle of acquaintances (network) Let the best idea win Key lead-down principles See everyone as a “10” (give them an “A”) Develop each team member as a person Model the behavior you desire38Source: The 360° Leader, by John Maxwell, Thomas Nelson, 2003.