SCOPE & FUNCTIONS
BBA 4th ( Morning) - A
SAMAN REHMAN ROLL # 01
M. AAMER WAQAS ROLL # 02
27th JANUARY, 2013
"Logic is the armory of reason, furnished with all defensive and
offensive weapons. There are syllogisms, long swords; enthymemes,
short daggers; dilemmas, two-edged swords that cut on both sides;
What is Logic ?
-Thomas Fuller, "The General Artist," 1661
“To discover truths is the task of all sciences; it falls to logic to discern
the laws of truth. ... I assign to logic the task of discovering the laws of
truth, not of assertion or thought.”
- GottlobFrege (1848-1925)
"Logic", the name of a discipline which analyzes the meaning of the
concepts common to all the sciences, and establishes the general laws
governing the concepts.”
- Alfred Tarski (1901-1983)
“The science of reasoning, teaching the way of investigating unknown
truth in connection with a thesis.”
- Robert Kilwardby
“The formal systematic study of the principles of valid inference and
correct reasoning .”
“The systematic use of symbolic and mathematical techniques to
determine the forms of valid deductive argument.”
-Oxford English Dictionary
The science or art of
exact reasoning, or of
thought, or of the laws
according to which the
thinking should be
conducted; the science
of the formation and
application of general
notions; the science of
WHAT IS LOGIC ?
“LOGIC tries to evaluate arguments by checking whether the
Origin of LOGIC
premises, the “starting points”, are jointly plausible; and whether what is
Middle English logik,
followed from them in the conclusion really does follow them. Logic is the
process of proper inference, a system of proper thinking, of arriving at proper
from Latin logica ,
conclusions. Proper thinking in logic is based upon principles that govern the
from Greek logikē,
validity of arguments. To reason effectively, we need to avoid contradiction and
accept beliefs that are adequately defined. Logic provides the appropriate
standards by which we can determine if our beliefs are consistent with each other
and confirmed by evidence.
First Known Use
Logic is the field of
Logic is the study of reason. It is the study of rational ways of
establishing conclusions. Logic encompasses many kinds of study. Some say that
logic is the study of truth, so it is the most basic and fundamental science. Logic
is the science of truth and tries to discover the truth about truth.
affinity for, liking
Others say that logic is concerned with thought, and thus tries to discover the
“laws of thought”. Logic explains what people ought to think. It tells us what is
right thinking. In other words it is the ethics of thought and belief, as it separates
right thinking from wrong thinking.
Yet, some say that logic is concerned with language. This is because logic tries to
understand the logical form of statements and structural relations between
sentences. However logic is concerned with all these three areas because they are
very closely connected. Logic is thus concerned with thought, which is expressed
in language and whose truth has to be proven.
It is the study of propositions. It studies human cognition and reasoning
and also the general structure of the world. It studies declarative sentences, which
expresses propositions. It is the science of how to evaluate arguments and
reasoning. It allows us to distinguish correct reasoning from poor reasoning. It helps us reason correctly. Without
logic we would not be able to arrive at the truth or sound beliefs.
SCOPE / FUNCTIONS OF LOGIC:
Scope of logic is very wide. It covers all types of knowledge related to art and science. The nature of logic is
like a tree and all the other fields are its branches. It is the main spring of all knowledge, because logic provides
reasoning for the existence of that knowledge.
Logicians are divided into 3 classes as they hold that logic is concerned:
1) With names and things only.
2) With the form of thought only.
3) With thought that represents reality.
Logic is concerned with names only –
It has found few defenders. It is taught by the French
philosopher Condillac (1715-1780). He held that the process of reasoning consists in verbal transformations
only. The meaning of the conclusion is identical with that of the original proposition.
The theory that logic is concerned with the form of thought –
irrespective of its relation to
reality was taught by Hamilton (1788-1856) and Mansel (1820-1871). Both of them believed that logic is
not concerned with the truth of our thoughts, but with their consistency. Hamilton says:
“Logic is conversant with the form of thought, to the exclusion of the matter.”
A distinction is drawn between ‘formal truth’ i.e. self-consistency and ‘material truth,’ i.e. conformity with
the object. It is said that logic is concerned with formal truth.
Logic deals with thought that represents reality:
According to the third theory, logic deals
with thought as a means by which we attain the truth. John Stuart Mill claims that:
“logic is the theory of valid thought, not of thinking, but of correct thinking.”
The terms nominalist, conceptualist, and realist logicians are employed to denote these three classes. However, these
names, nominalist, conceptualist, and realist, have for centuries been used to distinguish three famous schools of
philosophy. These schools are divided from each other on a question, a basis, which unfortunately, has nothing to do
with the scope of logic.
John Stuart Mill
Here is another definition of logic extracted from a text book (The Art and Science of Logic by Daniel Bonevac,
Mayfield Publishing Co., 1990):
Logic is the study of correct reasoning. Aristotle (384-322 B.C.)
founded the discipline of logic as a system of principles on which all other
Logic does not describe
knowledge rests. Indeed, logic pertains to all subjects, since people can reason
the psychology of
about anything they can think about. Politics, the arts, literature, business, the
sciences, and everyday problems are all subjects open to reasoning. Sometimes
the reasoning is good; sometimes not so good. People use logic to tell the
reasoning, with its
flashes of insight and
oversight; it prescribes
The twentieth century has witnessed remarkable advances in science and
technology that have improved the lives of vast numbers of people. These
methods of justifying
applications of scientific method required a great deal of good and highly
sophisticated reasoning. But the twentieth century has also suffered the results of reasoning gone astray (political and
APPLICATION OF LOGIC:
1. LOGIC & SOCIAL STUDIES:
In the last generation the Instinctive logic of the social sciences was confronted with two tasks. On the one
hand, it had to show the distinctive peculiarity, the feasibility, and the necessity of history. On the other hand, it had
to show not only that there is, but also how there can be, a science of human action that aims at universally valid
cognition. There can be no doubt that a great deal has been accomplished for the solution of these two problems.
That these solutions are not "final" or "definitive" is evident, for as long as the human mind does not stop thinking,
striving, and inquiring, there is no such thing as "finality" and "definitiveness."
The demand is repeatedly made by those who champion political ideals that cannot be defended by logical
argumentation that thinking in the field of the social sciences be exempted from the regulative principles necessary to
all other thinking. This is a matter with which scientific thought, which considers itself bound by these logical
principles, is unable to concern itself.
2. ENGINEERING &
Engineering and Logic for our present
both the exploitation of logic in the future of
engineering disciplines, and an approach to
exploitation and automation of logic which
considers this an engineering problem rather
than a fundamental research problem.
purposes are to be construed liberally.
Engineering is about getting things done, generally building things which realize some preconceived purpose. Logic
is the sphere of formal a priori truth, encompassing mathematics, and crucially for engineering, all that supports the
construction and exploitation of abstract or mathematical models. Engineering is conceived as a discipline which is
to be increasingly dominated by modeling techniques which permit the construction and evaluation of a design prior
to physical fabrication of its implementation.
The increasingly dominant intellectual content of engineering problem solving, the business of modeling, is at
bottom pure logic. Software supporting these intellectual activities will be more effective when it is built on solid
This prospective future development may be related to the digital revolution which we are all now expecting or
experiencing. The logical revolution, as yet scarcely anticipated, flows from the same underlying imperatives about
the way in which information must be represented if we are to be able to manipulate it effectively.
3. LOGIC & MATHEMATICS:
Logic and math work well together because they are both independent from reality and they are tools that are used to
help people make sense of the world. For example, reality may contain 3 apples and 4 bananas, but the ideas of 3 and
4 are abstractions and math is made up of such abstractions. When they get complicated – at the level of algebra,
calculus etc. – logic can be used to simplify the complexities.
4. LOGIC & SCIENCE:
Science also uses logic to a great advantage. Like mathematics, science uses abstractions to make sense of the world
and then applies logic to these abstractions. Science tries to understand reality by:
1) Reducing reality to a set of abstractions called a model
2) Working within the model to reach a conclusion
3) Applying the conclusion to reality.
Logic is invaluable during the second step, and the conclusions drawn are logical conclusions. The areas of science
that rely heavily on logic are quantifiable sciences, such as physics, engineering, and chemistry. The qualitative
sciences – biology, physiology, and medicine – use logic but with less certainty. The social sciences – such as
sociology, psychology and economics – tend to rely less on pure logic because their models have the least direct
correlation with reality.
5. LOGIC & COMPUTER(S):
A huge part of the computer revolution rests firmly on logic. Every action a
computer performs is due to the complex structure of logical instructions. At
the hardware level logic helps with the design of complex circuits. At the
“Aristotle invented logic as a
method for comprehending the
basic structure of reason.”
software level computer languages are based on logic.
An important functions of logic in computer programming are:
“Philosophy relies on models of
reality to help provide explanations
for what we see.”
The importance of the study of logic is to help one learn to think properly and focus the mind so one can come up
with logical solutions. If one can learn to be logical, they can be more rational in their decisions. Using logic also
helps an individual adapt and make appropriate decisions. Studying logic is important since it helps people with
Through critical thinking, we acquire a means of assessing and upgrading our ability to judge well. It enables us to
go into virtually any situation and to figure out the logic of whatever is happening in that situation. It provides a way
for us to learn from new experiences through the process of continual self-assessment. Critical thinking, then,
enables us to form sound beliefs and judgments, and in doing so, provides us with a basis for a “rational and
reasonable” emotional life.
If a human being understands the logic and reasoning behind a given aspect of
reality, then he/she may be able to adapt and grow, using the same reasoning, in
times of difficulty.