Job Analysis I I P M


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Job Analysis I I P M

  1. 1. Job Analysis Job Analysis is a systematic exploration of the activities within a job. It defines and documents the duties, responsibilities and accountabilities of a job and the conditions under which a job is performed.
  2. 2. Job Analysis <ul><li>Job Analysis Methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observation method – job analyst watches employees directly or reviews film of workers on the job. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual interview method – a team of job incumbents is selected and extensively interviewed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group interview method – a number of job incumbents are interviewed simultaneously. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Job Analysis <ul><li>Job Analysis Methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structured questionnaire method – workers complete a specifically designed questionnaire. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical conference method – uses supervisors with an extensive knowledge of the job. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diary method – job incumbents record their daily activities. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The best results are usually achieved with some combination of methods. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Job Analysis <ul><li>The Position Analysis Questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>General, worker-oriented inventory that also involves all other methods of data collection </li></ul><ul><li>195 items grouped into 6 categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information Input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental Processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work Output/Physical Activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job Context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other Job Characteristics </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Job Analysis <ul><li>Critical Incident Technique </li></ul><ul><li>Describes an action of individual incumbent clearly responsible for the CI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clearly describes what the worker did (or failed to do) that directly led to (in)effectiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clearly describes the background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clearly describes the consequences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Principle: Concrete and detailed description of behavioural incidents that led to success or failure on the job </li></ul>
  6. 6. Job Analysis: A Basic Human Resource Management Tool Tasks Responsibilities Duties Job Analysis Job Descriptions Job Specifications Knowledge Skills Abilities <ul><li>Human Resource Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Recruitment </li></ul><ul><li>Selection </li></ul><ul><li>Training and Development </li></ul><ul><li>Performance Appraisal </li></ul><ul><li>Compensation and Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Safety and Health </li></ul><ul><li>Employee and Labor Relations </li></ul><ul><li>Legal Considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Job Analysis for Teams </li></ul>
  7. 7. Linking Organizational Strategy to Human Resource Planning Employment Planning and the Strategic Planning Process
  8. 8. Job Analysis
  9. 9. Relationship among Different Job Components
  10. 10. Questions Job Analysis Should Answer <ul><li>What physical and mental tasks does the worker accomplish? </li></ul><ul><li>When does the job have to be completed? </li></ul><ul><li>Where is the job to be accomplished? </li></ul><ul><li>How does the worker do the job? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is the job done? </li></ul><ul><li>What qualifications are needed to perform the job? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Area of Information Contents Job title and location Name of job and where it is located. Organizational relationship A brief explanation of the number of persons supervised (if applicable) and the job title(s) of the position(s) supervised. A statement concerning supervision received. Relation to other jobs Describes and outlines the coordination required by the job. Information Provided by a Job Analysis
  12. 12. Area of Information Contents Job summary Condensed explanation of the content of the job. Information concerning The content of this area varies job requirements greatly from job to job and from organization to organization. Typically it includes information on such topics as machines, tools, and materials; mental complexity and attention required; physical demands and working conditions. Information Provided by a Job Analysis
  13. 13. Job Descriptions/Specifications <ul><li>Job description - A document that provides information regarding the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of the job </li></ul><ul><li>Job specification - Minimum acceptable qualifications that a person should possess in order to perform a particular job </li></ul>
  14. 14. Contents of a Job Description A job description should be a formal, written document, usually from one to three pages long. At a minimum, it should include the following: Date written. Job Status (full-time or part-time; salary or wage). Position title. Job summary (a synopsis of the job responsibilities). Detailed list of duties and responsibilities. Supervision received (to whom the jobholder reports).
  15. 15. Job Description (Continued) Supervision exercised, if any (who reports to this employee). Principal contacts (in and outside the organization). Related meetings to be attended and reports to be filed. Competency or position requirements. Required education and experience. Career mobility (position[s] for which job holder may qualify next).
  16. 16. Job Description (Continued) Supervision exercised, if any (who reports to this employee). Principal contacts (in and outside the organization). Related meetings to be attended and reports to be filed. Competency or position requirements. Required education and experience. Career mobility (position[s] for which job holder may qualify next).
  17. 17. Job Specifications <ul><li>Minimum Acceptable Qualifications: </li></ul><ul><li>Educational Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Personality Traits </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Abilities </li></ul>
  18. 18. Job Analysis in Perspective
  19. 19. Typical Areas Covered in a Job Analysis Questionnaire
  20. 20. Stages in the Job Analysis Process
  21. 21. The Nature of Job Analysis <ul><li>Job Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A systematic way to gather and analyze information about the content, context, and the human requirements of jobs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Work activities and behaviors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interactions with others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Performance standards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Financial and budgeting impact </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Machines and equipment used </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Working conditions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supervision given and received </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge, skills, and abilities needed </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Job Analysis <ul><ul><li>Task : A distinct work activity which has an identifiable beginning & end. Ex:Hand sorting of a bag of mail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duty : Several tasks which are related by some sequence of events. Ex: pick up, sort and deliver incoming mail. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Position : A collection of tasks & duties which are performed by one person.Ex: mail room clerk prepares outgoing mail, sorts incoming mail, operates addressing machine & postage m/c. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job :One or more positions within an organization.Ex: 3 mail clerks have same job but different payroll position. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job family : Several jobs of similar nature at one place or spread out over the entire organization.Ex: clerical jobs located in different departments. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><ul><li>Job analysis : A systematic investigation into the tasks, duties and responsibilities of a job. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job description: A written summary of tasks, duties and responsibilities of a job. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job specification: The minimum skills, education, and experience necessary for an individual to perform a job. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Job evaluation: The determination of the worth of a job to an organization. Job evaluation is usually a combination of a internal equity comparison of jobs and an external job market comparison. </li></ul><ul><li>Job classification: The grouping or categorizing of jobs on some specified basis such as the nature of the work performed or the level of pay. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Process of Job Analysis <ul><li>Jobs can be analyzed through a process, which consists of six basic steps. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collection of background information: Background information consists of organization charts, class specifications and existing job descriptions. Organization charts show the relation of the job with other jobs in the overall organizations. Class-specifications describe the general requirements of the class of job to which this particular job belongs. The existing job description provides a good starting point for job analysis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selection of representative positions to be analyzed: It would be highly difficult and time-consuming to analyze all the jobs. So, the job analysis has to select some of the representative positions in order to analyze them. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Collection of job analysis data: This step involves actually analysing a job by collecting data on features of the job, required employee behaviour and human resource requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Developing a job description: This step involves describing the contents of the job in terms of functions, duties, responsibilities, operations etc. The incumbent of the job is expected to discharge the duties and responsibilities and perform the functions and operations listed in job description. </li></ul>
  26. 26. 5. Developing a job specification: This step involves conversion of the job description statements into a job specification. Job specification or job requirements describes the personnel qualities, traits, skills, knowledge and background necessary for getting the job done. 6. Developing employee specification: This final step involves conversion of specification of human qualities under job specification into an employee specification. Employee specification describes physical qualifications, educational qualifications, experience requirements etc., which specify that the candidate with these qualities possess the minimum human qualities listed in the job specification.
  27. 27. Job Description Job description is an important document which is basically descriptive in nature and contains a statement of job analysis. It serves to identify a job for consideration by other job analysts. It tells us what should be done, and why it should be done, and where it should be performed. The job description should indicate the scope and nature of the work including all important relationships. The job description should be clear regarding the work of the position, duties etc. (a) The kind of work, (b) the degree of complexity, © the degree of skills required, (d) the extent to which problems are standardized, (e) the extent of the worker’s responsibility for each phase of the work, and (f) the degree and type of accountability.
  28. 28. The content of Job Description <ul><li>The job description normally contains the following information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Job Title; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational location of the job; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supervision given and received; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Materials, tools, machines and equipment worked with; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designation of the immediate superiors and subordinates; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salary level: Pay, D.A., other allowances, bonus, incentive wage, method of payment, hours of work, shift, break; </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><ul><li>Complete list of duties to be performed-separated according to daily, weekly, monthly and causal, estimated time to be spent on each duty; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Definition of unusual terms; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conditions of work: Location, time, speed of work, accuracy, health hazards, accident hazards; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training and developmental facilities; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotional chances and channels. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Job Specification <ul><li>It is a written statement of qualifications, traits, physical and mental characteristics that an individual must posses to perform the job duties and discharge responsibilities effectively. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical specifications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental specifications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional and social specifications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioural specifications </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. EMPLOYEE SPECIFICATIONS Age : Sex : Educational Qualifications : Experience : Physical Specifications :Height, Weight etc. Social Background : Family Background : Extra Curricular Activities : Hobbies :
  32. 32. Job Analysis Process and Benefits Collection of Background Information Selection of Representative Jobs Collection of Job Analysis Drafting of Job Analysis Benefits of Job Analysis I II III IV I <ul><li>Organizational Charts </li></ul><ul><li>Class of Jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Existing Job Descriptions </li></ul>Job Description Job Specifications Employee Specification <ul><li>Organization & Human Resource Planning. </li></ul><ul><li>Selection, Induction & Training </li></ul><ul><li>Performance Appraisal </li></ul><ul><li>Job Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Wages & Salary Administration </li></ul><ul><li>Internal Mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Preventing Dissatisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Health Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial Relations </li></ul><ul><li>Techniques for Obtaining Data </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance of Past Records </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Incident Techniques </li></ul>
  33. 33. Department or Sub- Unit Present Human Resources ADDITION Consultancy and advice Permanent total Permanent partial Temporary partial Temporary total Forecasting of Changes in Manpower Supply Retirement Consultancy or advice Deputations out lay off Absenteeism (temporary loss) Loss of values, aptitudes etc. due to change in the attitude of existing employees towards job, department and organization Loss of some skills, capability etc. due to ill health or accident Transfers out Demotions out Promotions out Retrenchment, dismissals Deaths Voluntary quits Demotions in Transfers in Promotions in New hires Deputations in Acquiring New skills knowledge, values, aptitude etc. by the existing employees LOSS Permanent total Permanent partial Temporary total Temporary partial