These are the systems designed to identify the
type of each tooth and its location in each
quadrant of the dental arches.
1. Palmer Notation System
2. Two Digits System (FDI system)
( Federation dentaire International )
3. Universal Notation System
The mouth is divided into four sections called quadrants. The
numbers 1 through 8 and a unique symbol is used to identify
the teeth in each quadrant. The numbering runs from the
center of the mouth to the back.
The permanent teeth are given the numbers 1
The primary teeth are given the letters A through E.
Each tooth in the dental arch is given a number of two
The FDI Dental Numbering System for Adult Teeth
For adults, the mouth is divided into quadrants
numbered from 1 to 4 clockwise.
The adult teeth are numbered from 1 to 8, going from
the central incisor, canines, premolars to the third
The FDI Dental Numbering System
for Children's Teeth
For children, the mouth is divided into quadrants
numbered from 5 to 8 clockwise the children's
deciduous (or baby) teeth are numbered from 1
to 5, going from the central incisor, canines to
Unlike the previous two systems, the first
number 1 is given to the right maxillary
permanent third molar.
The first letter A is given to the right maxillary
second primary molar.
Mamelon : is any one of the three primary
rounded projections in the Incisal ridge of
newly erupted incisors teeth.
Cingulum : it is a convexity projection , at
the cervical third of the crown in the
Cusps : is a divisional primary pyramidal
elevation on the occlusal third of posterior
teeth and the incisal third of the canine.
It is a small elevation produced by excessive
formation of enamel.
Marginal ridge : it is the mesial and distal elevated
margins in the lingual and occlusal surfaces of both anterior
and posterior teeth respectively .
Triangular ridge : it descend from the cusp tip of
posterior teeth toward the central part of occlusal
Transverse ridge: the union of two triangular
ridges transversely at the occlusal surface of
maxillary & mandibular 1st premolars.
Oblique ridge : the union of two triangular ridges
obliquely at occlusal surfaces of the maxillary
Cusp ridges ( cusp slopes ) : linear elevation
extends from the cusp tip to the mesial and distal
Labial ridge : linear elevation extends from the
cervical line to the cusp tip.
Buccal ridge .
Lingual ridge : it extends vertically from
the cingulum to cusp tip of canine.
Incisal ridge : horizontal linear elevation on
the incisal third of a newly erupted incisor
Cervical ridge : horizontal elevation
on the cervical third of the buccal
surface of premolar and molars.
1. A deep groove or line between the primary
parts of the crown ( lobes )
is a shallow linear depression in the occlusal
surface , which does not demarcate the line
of lobes fusion , but represents a branch
from the developmental groove .
A narrow linear depression present at the
depth of the developmental groove.
Dental caries begins at the depth of the
A long depression or valley between ridges &
It contains a developmental groove at its
It is an irregular depression or concavity.
Types of fossa:
1. Lingual fossa : lingual surface of anterior teeth.
2. Triangular fossae : occlusal surface of
premolar & molars.
3. Central fossa : deep angular depression on the
A small pintpoint depression located at the
junction of the developmental grooves. Or at
the ends of these grooves.
Central pit : is located at the central fossa
where the developmental groove join.
Buccal pit : located at the buccal surface of molar.