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introduction and dental nomenclature


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the landmarks of the crown and tooth numbering

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introduction and dental nomenclature

  1. 1. Introduction and Dental Nomenclatures
  2. 2. These are the systems designed to identify the type of each tooth and its location in each quadrant of the dental arches.
  3. 3. 1. Palmer Notation System 2. Two Digits System (FDI system) ( Federation dentaire International ) 3. Universal Notation System
  4. 4. The mouth is divided into four sections called quadrants. The numbers 1 through 8 and a unique symbol is used to identify the teeth in each quadrant. The numbering runs from the center of the mouth to the back.
  5. 5. The permanent teeth are given the numbers 1 through 8.
  6. 6. The primary teeth are given the letters A through E.
  7. 7. Each tooth in the dental arch is given a number of two digits. The FDI Dental Numbering System for Adult Teeth For adults, the mouth is divided into quadrants numbered from 1 to 4 clockwise. The adult teeth are numbered from 1 to 8, going from the central incisor, canines, premolars to the third molar
  8. 8. The FDI Dental Numbering System for Children's Teeth For children, the mouth is divided into quadrants numbered from 5 to 8 clockwise the children's deciduous (or baby) teeth are numbered from 1 to 5, going from the central incisor, canines to the premolars.
  9. 9. Unlike the previous two systems, the first number 1 is given to the right maxillary permanent third molar. The first letter A is given to the right maxillary second primary molar.
  10. 10. Elevated landmarks Depresses landmarks
  11. 11.  Dental lobe : is one of the primary centers of growth and calcification present during the crown development. 1. Mamelon 2. Cingulum 3. Cusp  Tubercle
  12. 12.  Ridges : 1. Marginal ridge 2. Triangular ridge 3. Oblique ridge 4. Transverse ridge 5. Labial ridge 6. Buccal ridge 7. Cusp ridge 8. Lingual ridge 9. Cervical ridge 10. Incisal ridge
  13. 13. 1. Developmental grooves 2. Supplemental groove 3. Fissures 4. Sulcus 5. Fossa 6. Pits
  14. 14.  Mamelon : is any one of the three primary rounded projections in the Incisal ridge of newly erupted incisors teeth.  Cingulum : it is a convexity projection , at the cervical third of the crown in the anterior teeth.  Cusps : is a divisional primary pyramidal elevation on the occlusal third of posterior teeth and the incisal third of the canine.
  15. 15.  It is a small elevation produced by excessive formation of enamel.
  16. 16.  Marginal ridge : it is the mesial and distal elevated margins in the lingual and occlusal surfaces of both anterior and posterior teeth respectively .
  17. 17.  Triangular ridge : it descend from the cusp tip of posterior teeth toward the central part of occlusal surface .
  18. 18.  Transverse ridge: the union of two triangular ridges transversely at the occlusal surface of maxillary & mandibular 1st premolars.
  19. 19.  Oblique ridge : the union of two triangular ridges obliquely at occlusal surfaces of the maxillary molars.
  20. 20.  Cusp ridges ( cusp slopes ) : linear elevation extends from the cusp tip to the mesial and distal directions.  Labial ridge : linear elevation extends from the cervical line to the cusp tip.  Buccal ridge .
  21. 21.  Lingual ridge : it extends vertically from the cingulum to cusp tip of canine.
  22. 22.  Incisal ridge : horizontal linear elevation on the incisal third of a newly erupted incisor teeth.  Cervical ridge : horizontal elevation on the cervical third of the buccal surface of premolar and molars.
  23. 23. 1. Developmental grooves 2. Supplemental groove 3. Fissures 4. Sulcus 5. Fossa 6. Pits
  24. 24. 1. A deep groove or line between the primary parts of the crown ( lobes ) Developmental groove
  25. 25.  is a shallow linear depression in the occlusal surface , which does not demarcate the line of lobes fusion , but represents a branch from the developmental groove .
  26. 26.  A narrow linear depression present at the depth of the developmental groove.  Dental caries begins at the depth of the fissures.
  27. 27.  A long depression or valley between ridges & cusps.  It contains a developmental groove at its center.
  28. 28.  It is an irregular depression or concavity.  Types of fossa: 1. Lingual fossa : lingual surface of anterior teeth. 2. Triangular fossae : occlusal surface of premolar & molars. 3. Central fossa : deep angular depression on the occlusal surface.  Maxillary molars  Mandibular molars
  29. 29.  A small pintpoint depression located at the junction of the developmental grooves. Or at the ends of these grooves.  Central pit : is located at the central fossa where the developmental groove join.  Buccal pit : located at the buccal surface of molar.