Multimedia Principles
          for Optimum Learning


            After viewing this presentation, you will be able to:
 ...
Combining well designed visuals with text
                              improves learning
                           Text ...
If learners engage in active learning,
               they are more likely to understand the material.




               ...
Visualize how the instructional message can be
               presented using both words and relevant media.

            ...
Graphics and text must work together.



                 Integrated text,
                  graphics and
                ...
Graphics can be useful for explaining:



                Facts           Unique, isolated information


                C...
Learning is the active process of
                           making sense of something.



                  new          ...
Related words and graphics must be contiguous.



                      Adjoining
           (touching each other physical...
Two Contiguity Principles




           • Contiguity Principle #1
                                                       ...
Principle #1.
              Place printed words near corresponding graphics



                                           ...
How to coordinate printed words and graphics

                                                            This text descri...
Contiguity Principle #1 - Violations

            This text describes
            the graphic. Here is             1. Text...
Contiguity Principle #2
         Synchronize spoken words with corresponding graphics



                 “A flat surface ...
Contiguity Principle #2 - Violations



               1. Separating graphics and
                                        ...
Humans try to see the meaningful relationships
                       between words and pictures.



                     ...
Knowledge Check

• Can you explain what is meant by Active Learning?
• How does combining well designed visuals with text
...
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Multimedia Principles for Optimum Learning

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Multimedia Principles for Optimum Learning

  1. 1. Multimedia Principles for Optimum Learning After viewing this presentation, you will be able to: • Explain what is meant by Active Learning • Explain the two Contiguity Principles • Identify effective examples and violations of the Contiguity Principles This presentation covers Multimedia Principles for Optimum Learning. Instructional Objectives: After viewing this presentation, you will be able to: • Explain what is meant by Active Learning • Explain the two Contiguity Principles • Identify effective examples and violations of the Contiguity Principles 1
  2. 2. Combining well designed visuals with text improves learning Text label Leader Team Member Team Member Team Member Text label Text label Related Concept Process Process Related Related Step Step Concept Concept Main Concept Process Related Related Step Concept Concept Combining well designed visuals with text improves learning. This is particularly true for learners who have limited experience with the subject matter. This perspective, which is based on both cognitive theory and research evidence, results in the recommendation that eLearning courses include both words and graphics, rather than words alone. 2
  3. 3. If learners engage in active learning, they are more likely to understand the material. Integrating Organizing Attending The reason for this approach is that if learners engage in active learning they are more likely to understand the material. Active learning means a) paying attention to the material, b) mentally organizing it to make meaning of it and c) integrating the new information with one's existing knowledge. This is sometimes referred to as deep learning, where the learner “connects the dots” and the learning “sticks.” Using words alone may result in shallow learning, that is, not connecting new information with other knowledge. 3
  4. 4. Visualize how the instructional message can be presented using both words and relevant media. More effective organizational graphics interpretative graphics transformational visuals graphics with a single object decorative graphics Less effective To successfully promote deep learning, you need to visualize how the instructional message can be presented using both words and relevant media. The first rule of thumb is to minimize decorative graphics and graphics that simply portray a single object (e.g.., a single screen capture, a picture of a machine, etc.). Conversely, try to maximize graphics that help the learner really understand the material, e.g., transformational visuals that illustrate changes over time, interpretive graphics that make intangible phenomena visible and concrete or organizational graphics, such as a table, a concept map or diagram. 4
  5. 5. Graphics and text must work together. Integrated text, graphics and narration Separate text Separate graphics Separate narration Graphics and text must work together. This supports the dual channels principle which indicates that human beings have separate channels for processing visual material and auditory material. If the graphics and text are not integrated effectively, or conflict in some way, the brain must work harder to makes sense of the material. This causes cognitive overload, which is a waste of brainpower. 5
  6. 6. Graphics can be useful for explaining: Facts Unique, isolated information Concepts A group of related objects, events or symbols identified by a single name Processes A description of how something works Procedures A series of steps to complete a task Principles Guidelines that result in completion of a task Why use graphics? Graphics can be useful when explaining: • Facts (unique, isolated information) • Concepts (a group of related objects, events or symbols identified by a single name) • Processes (a description of how something works • Procedures (series of steps to complete a task • Principles (guidelines that result in completion of a task) 6
  7. 7. Learning is the active process of making sense of something. new Active Learning info new info existing info new new info info new info The knowledge construction theory explains that learning is the active process of making sense of something, and teaching is the attempt to foster the appropriate cognitive processing in the learner. Since the learner must connect the new pieces of information with their existing understanding, constructing pictorial and verbal representations of the material and mentally connecting them is more likely to happen with multimedia lessons that contain words and corresponding pictures that depict the same content. 7
  8. 8. Related words and graphics must be contiguous. Adjoining (touching each other physically) stern bow The front of the Neighboring boat is called the (situated next to each other) bow. The back is called the stern. Continuous (connected together to form an unbroken sequence in time or an uninterrupted expanse in space) The bow of the boat cuts through the waves. As explained earlier, people experience significant gains in learning when text and graphics are integrated. There is a reduced need to try and match up which graphic or part of a graphic goes with which words. More specifically, related words and graphics must be contiguous, that is they must be adjoining (touching each other physically), neighboring (situated next to each other), continuous (connected together so as to form an unbroken sequence in time or an uninterrupted expanse in space). This explanation is from the Encarta Dictionary. 8
  9. 9. Two Contiguity Principles • Contiguity Principle #1 Connect – Place printed words to printer near corresponding graphics • Contiguity Principle #2 – Synchronize spoken words with corresponding graphics Narration associated with this graphic This idea of contiguity is found in two principles. Contiguity Principle #1 – Place printed words near corresponding graphics Contiguity Principle #2 – Synchronize spoken words with corresponding graphics Let's look at Principle #1 in more detail. 9
  10. 10. Principle #1. Place printed words near corresponding graphics radio waves receiver where waves are collected waves converted into electro signals Contiguity Principle #1 - Place printed words near corresponding graphics Embed printed words near the graphic that they describe. This will result in the contiguity of printed words and graphics on the screen. In other words, corresponding graphics and printed words should be placed near each other, contiguous in space. 10
  11. 11. How to coordinate printed words and graphics This text describes the graphic. This text describes the graphic. handlebars This text describes the graphic. This text describes the graphic. seat This text describes the graphic. This text describes the graphic. This text describes the graphic. This text describes the graphic. This text describes the graphic. This text describes the graphic. This text describes the graphic. This text describes the graphic. Pop-up with more pedal info 1. 2. 3. a smooth ride obstacle in the way lose control The following scenarios explain how to coordinate printed words and graphics. •When a graphic is a diagram showing parts of an object, the printed names of the parts should be placed near the corresponding parts of the diagram. (Use a line to connect the name to the part). •When using still frames, make sure the text describing an action (or state) is placed near the corresponding part of the graphic (Again, use a line to connect the text with the graphic). •When there is too much text to fit on the screen, the text describing each action or state can appear as a small pop-up message that appears when the mouse touches that portion of the graphic. (This is called a mouse-over or rollover). 11
  12. 12. Contiguity Principle #1 - Violations This text describes the graphic. Here is 1. Text and graphics more info about the graphic… separated on scrolling screens. 2. Feedback displayed Screen 1. Screen 2. on separate screen from The Question Feedback the practice or question. Lesson 3. Covering lesson screens appears on this screen. with linked windows. 4. Exercise directions Screen 1. Screen 2. separated from the The directions The exercise exercise. 5. Captions at the Text, text, text, text, text, bottom of screens text, text, text, text, text. 2. 1. 3. 6. Legend appears below key parts 1. wheel 2. body of a graphic. 3. handles Contiguity Principle #1 - Violations 1. Text and graphics separated on scrolling screens. As the user scrolls to view the graphic, the text is no longer visible. Solution: use a fixed screen display and place text boxes over the graphic near the element being described. Or, use text boxes that pop up over graphics when the graphic is touched by the cursor. 2. Feedback is displayed on a separate screen from the practice or question. The learner must page back and forth in order to compare his/her answer with the correct one. Solution: include the correct answer in close proximity to the original practice item or question. 3. Covering lesson screens with linked windows, e.g., where a job aid is presented on top of the application screen to which it refers. Or, a link leading to an online reference opens a second browser window that covers the related information on the initial window. Solution: link to a window that is small, can be moved around, and/or can be printed. 4. Exercise directions separated from the exercise. Directions are placed on a separate screen from the application screen to which they refer. Solution: put step by step directions in a box that can be minimized on the application screen. 5. Captions at the bottom of screens. The learner must scan back and forth between the words and the part of the graphic they describe. Solution: relocate the text closer to the visual and insert lines to connect the text to the visual. 6. Legend appears below key parts of a graphic. When the legend is at the bottom of the screen, the learner must scan between the number and the legend. Solution: place the name and description in a separate box near the corresponding part on the visual. Or, the text could be placed in a rollover box or in a fixed display on the screen. 12
  13. 13. Contiguity Principle #2 Synchronize spoken words with corresponding graphics “A flat surface “You need to watch “Driving over rocks provides a nice, out for obstacles can make you lose smooth ride.” in your path.” control of your bike.” 1. 2. 3. a smooth ride obstacle in the way lose control Contiguity Principle #2 - Synchronize spoken words with corresponding graphics Coordinate spoken words and images so the learner can view the part of the graphic that is being described by the spoken words. The learner should be able to concurrently listen to narration while viewing the corresponding material in a graphic. This represents contiguity of words and graphics in time. Here are two examples of how to coordinate spoken words and graphics. •Spoken words (narration) should play at the same time as the graphic, animation or video that is depicting the event. •When corresponding graphics and spoken words are presented at the same time, they are contiguous (next to each other, in time). 13
  14. 14. Contiguity Principle #2 - Violations 1. Separating graphics and Listen View narration through icons. to audio the video The Roman leaders met to discuss the 2. Separating graphics proposed law. They debated for hours, with and narration in a most of the members continuous presentation. speaking against the Screen 1. Text and narration Screen 2. The video. Contiguity Principle #2 – Violations 1. Separating graphics and narration through icons, e.g., a link to audio is indicated by one icon and a link to the video by another icon. The learner must hold relevant words in working memory and then match up each segment with the corresponding animation, which is played after the narration. This results in extraneous processing – mental load that does not contribute to learning. In fact, it likely detracts from learning! 2. Separating graphics and narration in a continuous presentation, e.g., a narrated introduction is followed by the animation or video. The narration should be presented at the same time the static frames are presented. Otherwise, it causes cognitive overload because the learner must mentally hold the words in working memory until the graphic appears. Again, this results in extraneous cognitive processing. When narration and static frames are presented simultaneously, the learner can more easily make mental connections between corresponding words and graphics. 14
  15. 15. Humans try to see the meaningful relationships between words and pictures. narration text Owww! graphics text + graphics text + narration Ahhh! narration + graphics Summary - Psychological Reasons for the Contiguity Principle In summary, humans are not machines that merely record information. Humans make sense of input by trying to see the meaningful relationships between words and pictures. When text and graphics, or narration and graphics, are separated, the human mind must use its available cognitive resources to match them up. This separation results in extraneous processing, which takes some of the brain's processing power away from the most important task at hand, learning. Only when the human mind can fully attend to the message and the graphics in a holistic, integrated fashion, can the deepest, most effective learning take place. 15
  16. 16. Knowledge Check • Can you explain what is meant by Active Learning? • How does combining well designed visuals with text improve learning? • Explain Contiguity Principle #1 and provide some examples. • Explain Contiguity Principle #2 and provide some examples. 16

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