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How to control plaque with chemicals


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How to control plaque with chemicals

  2. 2. PLAQUE: <br /> Plaque is a soft deposit that form the<br />biofilm adhering to the tooth surface.<br /><ul><li>It cannot be rinsed but removed by brushing.
  3. 3. Plaque is a firmly adherent mass of bacteria in a mucopolysaccharide matrix.</li></li></ul><li>What Do We Mean By PLAQUE CONTROL<br /><ul><li>Plaque Control is the removal of dental/ microbial plaque and the</li></ul> prevention of its accumulation on the teeth and adjacent gingival tissues.<br /><ul><li> It also deals with the prevention of calculus formation.
  4. 4. Plaque is the major etiology of PERIDONTAL Disease & is related to Dental CARIES; therefore, gaining patient cooperation in daily plaque REMOVAL is success of ALL periodontal and dental treatment.</li></li></ul><li>Remember……..!!!<br />Plaque:<br /><ul><li> Plaque is a white, sticky substance that builds up every day around your teeth and gums, and on dental appliances.
  5. 5. Plaque can be removed with daily brushing, flossing, and rinsing with an antiseptic mouthwash.
  6. 6. If plaque is not removed it hardens into calculus.</li></ul>Calculus:<br /><ul><li> Once plaque has been allowed to remain it calcifies. Onlya dental professional can then remove calculus.</li></ul>Plaque<br />Calculus<br />
  7. 7. Brush<br />Plaque builds within hours. Brushing your teeth helps oral health because it removes plaque from the surfaces of your teeth and gums.<br /> Floss<br />Because periodontal disease often begins in areas your toothbrush cannot reach, it’s important to remove plaque from between teeth and just below your gumline by flossing.<br /> Rinse<br />Daily rinsing with an antiseptic mouthwash may add to the benefits of brushing and flossing by reducing plaque between crowded teeth and around hard-to-reach molars.<br />
  8. 8. Methods of Plaque Control:<br />Mechanical Plaque Control Methods.<br />2. Chemical Plaque Control Methods.<br />
  9. 9. Mechanical Plaque Control Aids:<br />2) Interdental Aids:<br />Dental Floss<br />Triangular Tooth Picks<br />Interdental Brushes<br />Superfloss<br />Perio-Aid<br />1) ToothBrushes:<br />Manual Toothbrush<br />Electrical Toothbrush<br />4) Others:<br />Gauze Strips<br />Pipe Cleansers<br />water Irrigation Device<br />3) Aids for Gingival Stimulation:<br />Rubber Tip Stimulator<br />5) Aids for Completely or Partially Edentulous Patients:<br />Denture & Partial Clasp Brushes<br />Cleansing Solutions<br />
  10. 10. Chemical Plaque Control Agents<br />The Chemical agents which act on the Plaque <br />ultrastructurally and prevent the formation of<br /> Plaque are usefull in Prevention than in a cure.<br />
  11. 11. Chemical Plaque Control Agents are:<br />Dentifrices/ Toothpastes<br />2. Mouth Rinses<br />i. Chlorhexidine Rinse<br /> ii. Essential Oil Rinse<br />
  12. 12. Chemical inhibitors of plaque & calculus that are incorporated in mouthwashes or dentifrices play important roles in plaque control.<br />DO YOU KNW……..??<br />
  13. 13. TOOTHPASTE / DENTIFRICES<br />Toothpaste called as dentifrice, is an inclusive term used to describe a <br />powder, paste or gel, used with a toothbrush to aid in the removal of <br />plaque, biofilm, materia alba, and stain from teeth and soft tissue.<br />PURPOSE<br /><ul><li>Cleaning
  14. 14. Polishing
  15. 15. Removal of stains
  16. 16. Reduce incidence of tooth decay</li></li></ul><li>Toothpaste Contents<br /><ul><li>Abrasives (20%-40%)
  17. 17. Flavor- (2%) pleasant and must be associated with a “clean” feeling. E.g. Mint flavor
  18. 18. Colouring agent (2%)
  19. 19. Binders (2%)
  20. 20. Humectants (20%-40%)
  21. 21. Detergents (1%-2%)
  22. 22. Flavoring agent (2%)
  23. 23. Preservatives (<1%)
  24. 24. Sweetening agents (2%)
  25. 25. Water (20%-40%)</li></li></ul><li>Abrasive<br /><ul><li>Also called as polishing agent
  26. 26. Solid, insoluble particles
  27. 27. Potential for fluoride interaction
  28. 28. Causing abrasion
  29. 29. Remove debris and residual strain from teeth</li></ul>Examples of Abrasives:<br /><ul><li>Aluminium oxide
  30. 30. Calcium pyrophosphate
  31. 31. Carbonates like sodium bicarbonate, calcium carbonate
  32. 32. silicas</li></li></ul><li>Binders <br /><ul><li>To provide consistency and shape.
  33. 33. Keep the solid phase properly suspended in the liquid phase .
  34. 34. Prevent the toothpaste from drying out.
  35. 35. Contribute to the creamy consistency of the toothpaste and hence, control the viscosity.
  36. 36. Provide body to the dentrifice, especially after extrusion from the tube onto the toothbrush.</li></ul>Examples of Binders:<br /><ul><li>Polymers like Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC)
  37. 37. Alginate
  38. 38. Gums </li></li></ul><li>Humectants <br /><ul><li>Used in toothpaste to prevent loss of water and subsequent hardening of the product upon exposure to air.
  39. 39. Affect taste perception</li></ul>Examples:<br /><ul><li>Glycerine
  40. 40. Sorbitol
  41. 41. Polyethylene glycol
  42. 42. Mannitol
  43. 43. Propylene glycol</li></li></ul><li>Sweeteners and Flavors<br /><ul><li>Sweeteners: sodium saccharin, sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol
  44. 44. Flavors: improve taste of toothpaste</li></ul>E.g: peppermint, spearmint, wintergreen, menthol, cinnamon<br />Surfactants <br />Function: <br /><ul><li>Produce foam and aid in the removal of debris.
  45. 45. Emulsifies flavoring agents.
  46. 46. High level may cause mucosal irritation.
  47. 47. May react with other toothpaste components.</li></ul>Examples:<br /><ul><li>Sodium Lauryl Sulfate
  48. 48. Sodium N-LaurylSarcosinate
  49. 49. Polyethylene glycol (PEG)</li></li></ul><li>Fluoride Actives<br />Function: <br /><ul><li>Increases resistance to enamel solubility.
  50. 50. Restricted usage level (for adults it must be within 1000 to 1450 ppm and for children not more than 1000ppm)</li></ul>Examples:<br /><ul><li>Sodium fluoride
  51. 51. Sodium monofluorophosphate
  52. 52. Stannous fluoride</li></li></ul><li>Preservatives and Solvents<br />Function of Preservatives: <br /><ul><li>prevent the growth of micro organisms such as mold and bacteria in the toothpaste.
  53. 53. Non-irritating
  54. 54. Compatible with other ingredients
  55. 55. Examples: alcohols, sodium benzoate, dichlorinated phenols
  56. 56. Function of Solvents:
  57. 57. dissolves the ingredients and allows them to be mixed.
  58. 58. Water is the most common solvent used.</li></li></ul><li>Therapeutic Agents<br /><ul><li>Anti-caries agents: sodium fluoride and sodium monofluorophosphate
  59. 59. Anti-plaque: Sodium Lauryl Sulphate, Triclosane, Zinc and Stannous ions
  60. 60. Anti-calculus: Pyrophosphate
  61. 61. Anti-dentin hypersensitivity: Potassium salts
  62. 62. Whitening agents: Papain, Dimethicone</li></li></ul><li>Different types of toothpaste<br /><ul><li>Anti-Caries / Cavity Protection toothpastes contain fluoride to stop tooth enamel decalcification and protect teeth from tooth decay and cavities.
  63. 63. Plaque & Gingivitis Prevention toothpastes have additional antibacterial ingredients to fight the growth of bacteria and the formation of dental plaque.
  64. 64. Tooth Whitening toothpastes have either higher abrasion value than normal tootpastes to mechanically remove food, smoking and other stains from teeth, or/and special ingredients as Peroxide for teeth bleaching and whitening.
  65. 65. Sensitivity toothpastes contain desensitising agents to relief those with tooth sensitivity problems from the acute pain when teeth are exposed to hot or cold temperatures or sweet and sour foods.
  66. 66. Tartar Control toothpastes contain pyrophosphates that reduce new tartar build-up (but they can't remove the existing tartar).
  67. 67. Fresh Breath toothpastes contain enhanced flavoring agents along with antibacterials to fight halitosis and provide fresher breath. </li></li></ul><li>Some toxic components of a toothpaste<br />Fluorides: in higher levels cause fluorosis<br /><ul><li>Appear as tiny white streaks or specks
  68. 68. Severe form- mottling of enamel, pitting and cracking of teeth, black and brown stains.</li></ul>Titanium dioxide: if inhaled can cause lung damage<br />Sodium saccharin: FDA lists it as a possible carcinogen<br />21<br />
  69. 69.
  70. 70. MOUTH RINSES<br />Chlorhexidine Rinse:<br />This agent has the most positive antibacterial results to date.<br />Have pronounced antiseptic properties.<br />Inhibit the development of plaque, calculus and gingivitis.<br />Side Effects:<br />Brown staining of the teeth, tongue and silicate resin restorations<br />Transient impairment of taste perception.<br />Chlorhexidine Preparation contains:<br /><ul><li>12% alcohol</li></li></ul><li>Essential Oil Rinse:<br />Reduces plaque 2o-35% and gingivitis reduction of 25-35%<br />Essential Oil Preparation Contains:<br /><ul><li>Thymol
  71. 71. Eucalyptol
  72. 72. Menthol
  73. 73. Methyl Salicylate
  74. 74. Alcohol (up to 24% depending on the preparation)</li></li></ul><li>