SOCIAL SECURITYAND MGNREGA BY AAKASH GUPTA-10ME30001 MOHIT GAHLAWAT-10ME10028
WHAT IS SOCIAL SECURITY Social security is a concept enshrined in Article 22 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which states that Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality. In simple words it may be defined as a protection which society provides to its members by various public measures against social and economic distress.
To provide medical care, education and other basic needs. To provideTo provide confidence tomedical and Purposes the individuals income of Social that they are security to Security socially andmembers of economically society. secure. To provide income security by maintenance and promotion of job creation
SOCIAL SECURITY IN INDIAAccording to article 41 of IndianConstitution“The State shall, within the limits of itseconomic capacity and development,make effective provision for securing theright to work, to education and to publicassistance in cases of unemployment, oldage, sickness and disablement, and inother cases of undeserved want”.
SOCIAL SECURITY IN INDIA-SCHEMESNational Food For Work ProgrammeJawahar Rozgar YojanaSaakshar Bharat MissionAntyodaya Anna YojanaIntegrated Education for Disabled ChildrenIndira Awaas YojanaAnd the most recent – MGNREGA, enacted by legislation on August 25,2005.
NATIONAL FOOD FOR WORKPROGRAMME The objective of the programme was to provide to150 most backward districts of the country with the generation of supplementary wage employment and providing of food-security through creation of need based economic, social and community assets in these districts. The programme has since been subsumed in National Rural Employment Guarantee Act which has come in force in 200 identified districts of the country including 150 NFFWP districts.
JAWAHAR ROZGAR YOJANAIt was launched on April 1,1989 by merging the National Rural Employment Program and Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme.It was the largest employment programme at that time with a general objective of providing 90-100 days employment per person. Individuals below poverty line were main targets.
SAAKSHAR BHARAT MISSION It aims to further promote and strengthen Adult Education, specially of women, by extending educational options to those adults who having lost the opportunity of access to formal education and crossed the standard age for receiving such education, now feel a need for learning of any type, including, literacy, basic education (equivalency to formal education), vocational education (skill development), physical and emotional development, practical arts, applied science, sports, and recreation.
ANTYODAYA ANNA YOJANAIt was launched by government in December 2000 aiming at the poorest of the families.It aimed at providing the poorest of the poor 35 kg rice and wheat at Rs.2 per kg wheat and Rs.3 per kg rice
INTEGRATED EDUCATION FORDISABLED CHILDREN It was started with the objective of “ Education for All”, and with a purpose of integrating the physically and mentally challenged people in the society as equal members. Under this program children were to be provided with financial support for books, stationery, school uniforms, transportation, special equipment and aids. The state governments were provided with 50 % of the financial assistance to implement this program in regular schools.
INDIRA AWAAS YOJANAThis programme aims at providing housing for the rural poor in India.Under this programme ,Rural Development Ministry provides financial assistance to BPL families for construction of their houses.
MGNREGAMahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act was enacted on August 25,2005 by a legislation.This scheme provides individuals with legal Right to Employment for 100 days every financial year to adult members of any rural household willing to do public work related unskilled manual work at the statutory minimum wage of 120 .
BRIEF HISTORY OF MGNREGA The act was enacted on August 25,2005 as National Rural Employment Guarantee Act(NREGA). It was renamed as MGNREGA on 2nd October,2009. It was first launched on February 2,2006 from Anantpur district, Andhra Pradesh. The act has been extended in phases. In Phase-1 it covered 200 most backward districts of country. Currently 625 districts are covered under this scheme.
SOME PROVISIONS AND FEATURES OFTHE ACT Households with adults who are willing to do unskilled manual work have to first register with their local Gram Panchayat after which they are provided with a Job Card. Now any Job Card holder may apply for employment and the minimum days of employment must be 14 days. If employment is not provided within 15 days of application, then the applicant is entitled for unemployment allowance. Work is to be preferably provided within 5 km radius of the village and if it is beyond 5 km, extra wage of 10% of minimum wage are payable.
CONT.At least 1/3rd of the beneficiaries must be women.Wages are to be given on a weekly basis.Work side facilities such as crèche , drinking water , shade have to be provided.A 60:40 wage and material ratio has to be maintained.No contractors and machinery is allowed.
FUNDINGInitially 11,300 crores rupees were allotted for the programme in 2006-2007.The allocation of budget has increased considerably over the years.The allocation was Rs. 40,000 crore in 2011- 12.But the scheme witnessed its first cut in funding in 2012-13 as it was allotted only Rs. 33,000 crore.
CONT.All of the manual wage payment is provided by the central government.The unemployment allowance is to be bearded by the state government.Some percentage of administrative cost is shared by the central government.
CONT. Distribution of Material Cost 25 Central Government State Government 75
MAIN OBJECTIVES • Enhancing the livelihood securityUNEMPLOYMEN of rural households T • Arresting rural migration • Create rural assets andSUSTAINABLE infrastructureDEVELOPMEN • Create livelihood resource base T • Restore environment
WORKS AND ACTIVITIESAs the objective of MGNREGA works is both employmentgeneration and sustainable rural development, theactivities done under this plan are done to achieve theseobjectives. Some of the main activities are:- Rain Water conservation and Harvesting Afforestation Developing Rural Connectivity Flood Control Digging of new tanks and ponds
MGNREGA-PERFORMANCE TILL NOWPerson Days(in crores) 300 250 200 150 Women 100 STs 50 SCs 0
CONT. No. of households provided employment(in Crore)65432 No. of households1 provided employment(in0 Crore)
PROBLEMS Many times muster roles are not present at work sites Sometimes these roles contain fake names Facilities such as crèche are rarely provided. Due to this reason women with small children are either forced to leave their child at home or in some cases not to go for work. Payment of wages are often delayed. Many of the time ,additional wage of 10% of minimum wage for working more than 5 km away from village is not given. In many states the works undertake are rarely completed(for example in Arunachal Pradesh it is 0%)
CONT. Lack of initiative on the part of Sarpanch and the TDO Lack of awareness at the Taluka and Village level despite intensive IEC activities Lack of technical support
WORKS TAKEN UNDER MGNREGAWorks(in lakhs) 80 70 60 50 40 30 Works taken up 20 10 Works completed 0
MEASURES TO IMPROVEEFFICIENCY In some states where the programme has been a great failure till now , the center can take the responsibility of implementation There must be a nodal agency as a watchdog to overview performance of programme Emphasis should not be only on the employment generation, rather it must focus on permanent asset creation The projects must be decided on the basis of suggestions given by local people as far as possible Instead of 100 days of work per household, it should provide 100 days of work per adult individual.