Definitions and history


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  • Pay attention to the similarities in the definitions here. All are referring to a systematic, research-based process for the design of instruction
  • Definitions and history

    1. 1. Definitions and History IDT 617 Instructional Design & Technology
    2. 2. A Tricky Beginning… Defining the field can be tricky It might take an entire semester to decide on what you think is the best definition Let’s look at some of the definitions and see how they relate to what instructional designers do in research and practice
    3. 3. Many definitions…  Instructional design is the systemic and systematic application of strategies and techniques derived from behavioral, cognitive, and constructivist theories to the solution of instructional problems.  Instructional design is the systematic application of theory and other organized knowledge to the task of instructional design and development.  It is the entire process of analysis of learning needs and goals and the development of a delivery system to meet those needs.  Educational technology is the application of research, learning theory, emergent technologies, and child and adult psychology to solving instructional and performance problems.
    4. 4. The Final Word 1994: Instructional technology is the theory and practice of design, development, utilization, management, and evaluation of processes and resources for learning. 2006: Educational technology is the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using and managing appropriate technological processes and resources. Association for Educational Communications and Technology, 1994; 2006
    5. 5. Components of the Definition Study Research informing practice Ethical practice Impacts choices Facilitating & Learning Shift in ideas of learning Changing definitions Improving The benefits of a systematic approach Subjective measure Performance Usable knowledge Creating & Using Making stuff Where the solution meets the problem Managing Keeping track of everything Appropriate Technology, Processes & Resources The right process or tool for the job
    6. 6. At It’s Core…Instructional Design is:  Student Centered Meaningful learning environments  Goal Oriented Tangible goals that can be achieved through training  Focused on Performance Higher levels of learning than recall  Focused on Measurable Outcomes Assessments are key  Empirical, Iterative and Self-correcting Guided by theory, strong research focus  Primarily a Team Effort Complex processes require more than one person
    7. 7. Instructional Design & Technology Ed Psych Performance Support K-12 & Higher Ed Learning Technologies Educational Research Our Sandboxes…
    8. 8. Ed Psych Educational Psychology Cognitive psychology Cognitive Science Learning Sciences Individual differences Learning theories Learning environments
    9. 9. Performance Support Electronic Performance Support Systems (EPSS) Knowledge Management Change Management Needs andTask Analyses Performance Support
    10. 10. Education Technology and curriculum integration Media literacy Virtual High Schools Distance Learning Educational Gaming K-12 & Higher Ed
    11. 11. Computer Technologies Instructional Software Development and Evaluation Hypertext Web-based instruction Emerging technologies Instructional gaming and simulation Learning Technologies
    12. 12. Research Quantitative Qualitative Literature Reviews Meta-analyses Evaluation Action Research Educational Research
    13. 13. Now that you have so many definitions and applications… Think about the following questions and write your responses on the Discussion Board Which definition makes the most sense to you as you begin to study the field? Where do you think the main focal point should be? Research? Practice? Or a combination of both? Did anything in the readings or these slides surprise you?
    14. 14. Comprehensive information and a good template for yourTimeline found at: instructional-design-and-technology The History of IDT
    15. 15. Two tracks Instructional Media Instructional Approaches
    16. 16. Instructional Media Schools and museum materials Lantern projectors Adoption of educational films Telecommunications Satellites and educational television Personal Computers
    17. 17. First museums delivered materials by horse-drawn cart Excerpt from an early textbook: linking images and text Lantern projector and film catalog Telstar Communications Satellite (1962) Start of transatlantic TV transmission First Apple Computer (1976) eventually leading to the personal computer
    18. 18. Instructional Approaches Dewey Classroom as a laboratory The importance of WWII Skinner Behavioral Learning Theory and Programmed instruction Interest in the “Black Box” was minimal A systematic approach to instruction
    19. 19. Moving Towards the ID process Instructional Objectives Robert Mager: Preparing Objectives for Programmed Instruction, 1962 Behavioral and Cognitive Objectives Criterion referenced testing Gagne Conditions of learning Taxonomy of skills Events of instruction
    20. 20. ID Models/Growth of Constructivism 1970s Number of ID Models increased Shift from behaviorism to cognitive approach Focus on constructivism Gagne’s events of instruction map onto cognitive processes •Gain Attention •Inform Learner of Objective •Recall Prior Knowledge •Present Material •Provide Guided Learning •Elicit Performance •Provide Feedback •Assess Performance •Enhance Retention and Transfer
    21. 21. Progress and performance 1980s and 1990s Explosion of Media and Access Computers WWW (allowed for worldwide connections) Hypertext and Hypermedia Performance Technologies (i.e., assessing gaps in skills) Expanded scope of instructional designers Instructional strategies lean more towards student centered learning
    22. 22. Where are we now? Human Performance Technology Technology Integration in K12 Environments Cognitive Science & Learning Sciences Consulting with Engineering, Modeling & Simulation Researchers Training for military, business and K-20 students Digital literacies
    23. 23. For the remainder of the week… Respond to questions on Discussion Board Reply to classmate’s responses and continue the conversation I will moderate, answer questions and keep us on track
    24. 24. Next week I will review the discussion board interactions We will discuss ID process and the relationship of Learning Theory and Design Timeline is due before class on Sept. 16th Upload is available from Assignment Uploads link