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Monarchy Government ruled by hereditary blood lines (Ex.  King , Shah) Many believed they had absolute power to rule from ...
Aristocracy <ul><li>Government rule by the  wealthy elite  (oligarchy) </li></ul><ul><li>Nobility </li></ul>
Democracy <ul><li>Government rule decided upon by the citizens who vote for their leaders </li></ul><ul><li>1.  Direct Dem...
<ul><li>Athenian “father of democracy” </li></ul><ul><li>Said that all citizens have the  duty to get involved  with impro...
Socrates <ul><li>First Athenian to  question the people about what they believed to be “true ”. </li></ul><ul><li>Believed...
Plato <ul><li>Student of Socrates </li></ul><ul><li>Founded the Academy </li></ul><ul><li>Sceptical of democracy- believed...
Aristotle <ul><li>Advocated reason to find out the solution to problems. The roots of the  scientific method (if you have ...
Athens <ul><li>Assembly- All citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Council of 500 (30 yrs. Old) Elected from each demes </li></ul><ul...
Individualism <ul><li>Individual achievement, dignity, and worth are of great importance to organized society! </li></ul>
Athens US <ul><li>Direct Democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Trials: one day, no lawyers, no appeals, juries varied- in the hundre...
Pax Romana <ul><li>Period of peace throughout the Roman Empire </li></ul>
Republic= <ul><li>Rome- Representative democracy. Citizens vote on an official to decide legislation (laws) </li></ul><ul>...
Patrician Plebian <ul><li>Upper nobility of Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Made up the Senate and consuls </li></ul><ul><li>Common...
Roman Law <ul><li>Brought system of laws to conquered lands </li></ul><ul><li>•  Laws published universally </li></ul><ul>...
Three Branches of Government <ul><li>1.Two Consuls </li></ul><ul><li>•  Usually Patricians and military generals </li></ul...
Fall of Roman Empire <ul><li>To big to manage- Individual regions wanted separation and independence. </li></ul><ul><li>In...
Judeo- Christian Influences <ul><li>Spread quickly with Latin and Pax Romana </li></ul><ul><li>Belief in equality for all ...
Magna Carta <ul><li>King John signs </li></ul><ul><li>Establishes a parliament of nobles who share power with the king. </...
Glorious Revolution- England <ul><li>King William  and Queen Mary agree to share power with parliament  </li></ul><ul><li>...
Rene Descartes <ul><li>Geometry  </li></ul><ul><li>Logic, mathematics and reason rule!!! </li></ul><ul><li>“ Doubt it if y...
Cesare Beccaria <ul><li>Laws exist to preserve social order- NOT to avenge crimes </li></ul><ul><li>Speedy trial </li></ul...
Wollstonecraft <ul><li>Vindication of the Rights of Women </li></ul><ul><li>Concerned about lack of  education and opportu...
Baron de Montesquieu <ul><li>Believed British held the best system of checks and balances (Constitutional Monarchy).  </li...
John Locke <ul><li>People can learn from experience and improve themselves </li></ul><ul><li>They have the ability to look...
Jean Jacques Rousseau <ul><li>“ Man is born free but everywhere in chains” </li></ul><ul><li>(He is born good but corrupte...
Rousseau’s Social Contract <ul><li>Free individuals must agree to create their own society and government- </li></ul><ul><...
Thomas Hobbes <ul><li>Witnessed the horrors of decades of civil war- believed man to be  naturally evil and self-intereste...
Thomas Hobbes’ Social Contract <ul><li>People should give up certain rights in exchange for law and order by a strong mona...
Enlightened Despots <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Frederick II- Prussia </li></ul><ul><li>Catherine the Great- Russi...
Declaration of Independence <ul><li>Thomas Jefferson  </li></ul><ul><li>Constitutions helped spread independence and free ...
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Review For Democracy Unit Test

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Review For Democracy Unit Test

  1. 1. Monarchy Government ruled by hereditary blood lines (Ex. King , Shah) Many believed they had absolute power to rule from God, called divine right
  2. 2. Aristocracy <ul><li>Government rule by the wealthy elite (oligarchy) </li></ul><ul><li>Nobility </li></ul>
  3. 3. Democracy <ul><li>Government rule decided upon by the citizens who vote for their leaders </li></ul><ul><li>1. Direct Dem (Athens) - Citizens debate and vote on laws </li></ul><ul><li>2. Representative Dem = Republic (Rome)- Citizens elect a leader who votes on laws </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Athenian “father of democracy” </li></ul><ul><li>Said that all citizens have the duty to get involved with improving their government. Politics IS everyone’s business. </li></ul>PERICLES
  5. 5. Socrates <ul><li>First Athenian to question the people about what they believed to be “true ”. </li></ul><ul><li>Believed in solving problems through critical thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>Accused of “corrupting the youth” and sentenced to death by the citizens of Athens </li></ul>
  6. 6. Plato <ul><li>Student of Socrates </li></ul><ul><li>Founded the Academy </li></ul><ul><li>Sceptical of democracy- believed that only the wise should rule (in the form of a philosopher- king </li></ul>
  7. 7. Aristotle <ul><li>Advocated reason to find out the solution to problems. The roots of the scientific method (if you have a theory, find proof in the form of natural laws). </li></ul><ul><li>Started the Lyceum school in Athens </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote Politics </li></ul>
  8. 8. Athens <ul><li>Assembly- All citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Council of 500 (30 yrs. Old) Elected from each demes </li></ul><ul><li>Board of Generals - executive branch in charge of administering decisions of Council </li></ul><ul><li>Pericles- It’s your DUTY to get involved! </li></ul>
  9. 9. Individualism <ul><li>Individual achievement, dignity, and worth are of great importance to organized society! </li></ul>
  10. 10. Athens US <ul><li>Direct Democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Trials: one day, no lawyers, no appeals, juries varied- in the hundreds and paid </li></ul><ul><li>Free elections for all citizens over 18 to vote </li></ul><ul><li>Representative Dem. </li></ul><ul><li>Trials: Lengthy as needed, lawyers, appeals, 12-man jury, paid </li></ul><ul><li>Free elections for all citizens over the age of 18 to vote. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Pax Romana <ul><li>Period of peace throughout the Roman Empire </li></ul>
  12. 12. Republic= <ul><li>Rome- Representative democracy. Citizens vote on an official to decide legislation (laws) </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect Democracy </li></ul>
  13. 13. Patrician Plebian <ul><li>Upper nobility of Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Made up the Senate and consuls </li></ul><ul><li>Commoners of Rome (farmers, merchants, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Part of the Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Engaged in a power struggle for voting rights in the Senate. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Roman Law <ul><li>Brought system of laws to conquered lands </li></ul><ul><li>• Laws published universally </li></ul><ul><li>• All citizens received equal treatment before the law </li></ul><ul><li>• A person was innocent until proven guilty </li></ul>
  15. 15. Three Branches of Government <ul><li>1.Two Consuls </li></ul><ul><li>• Usually Patricians and military generals </li></ul><ul><li>• Elected for one year terms, but they could be re-elected </li></ul><ul><li>• During a national crisis, the consuls could appoint a temporary dictator to make quick decisions </li></ul><ul><li>2. Senate </li></ul><ul><li>• Patricians selected by the two consuls, served life terms </li></ul><ul><li>Most Influential people! 3. Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>• Patricians and Plebeians elected into office </li></ul><ul><li>• The assembly held some power, but not enough to make any significant changes </li></ul>
  16. 16. Fall of Roman Empire <ul><li>To big to manage- Individual regions wanted separation and independence. </li></ul><ul><li>Invaders from the North (Barbarians and Vikings) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Judeo- Christian Influences <ul><li>Spread quickly with Latin and Pax Romana </li></ul><ul><li>Belief in equality for all under one god (included women, the poor) </li></ul><ul><li>Equal justice, morality, and individual relationship with God </li></ul><ul><li>Covenant with God meant individula duty to work agains oppression </li></ul><ul><li>Monotheistic (one god) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Magna Carta <ul><li>King John signs </li></ul><ul><li>Establishes a parliament of nobles who share power with the king. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Glorious Revolution- England <ul><li>King William and Queen Mary agree to share power with parliament </li></ul><ul><li>Constitutional Monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Head of Parliament= Prime minister </li></ul><ul><li>Petition of Right </li></ul><ul><li>Bill of Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament’s laws RULE! </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom of speech in parliament </li></ul><ul><li>No penalty to petition the king with grievances </li></ul><ul><li>DUE PROCESS- RIGHT to TRIAL! </li></ul>PEACEFUL !
  20. 20. Rene Descartes <ul><li>Geometry </li></ul><ul><li>Logic, mathematics and reason rule!!! </li></ul><ul><li>“ Doubt it if you can’t prove it.” </li></ul>
  21. 21. Cesare Beccaria <ul><li>Laws exist to preserve social order- NOT to avenge crimes </li></ul><ul><li>Speedy trial </li></ul><ul><li>No torture </li></ul><ul><li>End of capital punishment that is subject to whims of accuser </li></ul><ul><li>Greatest good for greatest number of people </li></ul><ul><li>REFORM CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM </li></ul>
  22. 22. Wollstonecraft <ul><li>Vindication of the Rights of Women </li></ul><ul><li>Concerned about lack of education and opportunities for women </li></ul><ul><li>Criticized the unequal relationship between men and women in marriage and in the home </li></ul><ul><li>Urged women to enter male-dominated fields of medicine and politics </li></ul>
  23. 23. Baron de Montesquieu <ul><li>Believed British held the best system of checks and balances (Constitutional Monarchy). </li></ul><ul><li>Division of power is key to sustainable government </li></ul><ul><li>“ Power should be a check to power” </li></ul><ul><li>Three branches of power: Executive, legislative, and judicial </li></ul>
  24. 24. John Locke <ul><li>People can learn from experience and improve themselves </li></ul><ul><li>They have the ability to look after the welfare of society </li></ul><ul><li>Man born with natural rights: life, liberty, and property </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose of government should only be to protect these rights. If it fails to do so, people have the right to overthrow unjust rulers </li></ul>
  25. 25. Jean Jacques Rousseau <ul><li>“ Man is born free but everywhere in chains” </li></ul><ul><li>(He is born good but corrupted by society) </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Democracy (broader than Locke!) </li></ul>
  26. 26. Rousseau’s Social Contract <ul><li>Free individuals must agree to create their own society and government- </li></ul><ul><li>Ruler does so only by the WILL OF THE PEOPLE! </li></ul>
  27. 27. Thomas Hobbes <ul><li>Witnessed the horrors of decades of civil war- believed man to be naturally evil and self-interested </li></ul><ul><li>If men were to rule themselves, life would be “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short” </li></ul>
  28. 28. Thomas Hobbes’ Social Contract <ul><li>People should give up certain rights in exchange for law and order by a strong monarch. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Enlightened Despots <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Frederick II- Prussia </li></ul><ul><li>Catherine the Great- Russia (expanded trade and empire) </li></ul><ul><li>Definition- Autocrats who give their people certain rights! </li></ul>
  30. 30. Declaration of Independence <ul><li>Thomas Jefferson </li></ul><ul><li>Constitutions helped spread independence and free will to other countries (Japan, South Korea, France) </li></ul>

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