Introduction to HTML


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Introduction to HTML

  1. 1. Web Programming and Design Introduction to HTML Dr. Abzetdin ADAMOV Chair of Computer Engineering Department
  2. 2. What you need to have• Running computer• Text editor  NotePad  EmEditor• Web Browser  Chrome  Internet Explorer  Firefox  Safari• Somewhere to save your work  Note: You don’t have to work online!
  3. 3. How to use the materials• Open text editor• Type/Edit your HTML• Hit ‘File → Save As’• Change ‘Save as Type’ option  Make it read ‘Save as Type: All files’• If that is not an option, put the name in quotes• Save our test page as “test.html”• Point web browser to the file location  Type something similar to D:/CODES/HTML/test.html in the browser bar
  4. 4. Tags• Tags tell a browser (Chrome, Internet Explorer, Firefox, ect) how to interpret them and arrange information• Tags start with ‘<‘ and end with ‘>’• Normally tags come in pairs, and the closing tag starts with ‘</’• Examples  <b>This is bold</b> and this is  <u>Underlined!</u>
  5. 5. Tags Basically, a computer sees an "A" as simply an "A" - whether it is bold, italic, big or small. To tell the browser that an "A" should be bold we need to put a markup in front of the A. Such a markup is called a Tag. All HTML tags are enclosed in < and >. Example: A piece of text as it appears on the screen: This is an example of bold text. HTML: the HTML for the above example: This is an example of <b>bold</b> text.
  6. 6. Basic Structure<html> <head> <title> Title of your page here! </title> Metatags… JavaScript… CSS… </head> <body> Content goes here! </body></html>
  7. 7. HEAD SECTION The head section of the webpage includes all the stuff that does not show directly on the resulting page. The <title> and </title> tags encapsulate the title of your page. The title is what shows in the top of your browser window when the page is loaded. Another thing you will often see in the head section is metatags. Metatags are used for, among other things, to improve the rankings in search engines. Quite often the head section contains javascript which is a programming language for more complex HTML pages. Finally, more and more pages contain codes for cascading style sheets (CSS). CSS is a rather new technique for optimizing the layout of major websites.
  8. 8. BODY SECTIONThe body of the document contains all that can be seen when the userloads the page. Text (Formatting, Resizing, Layout, Listing) Links (local pages, pages at other sites, bookmarks) Images (Inserting images, adding a link to an image) Backgrounds (colors, images, fixed image) Tables Frames Forms Hexadecimal Colors
  9. 9. First tags• <b> and </b> • bolds• <i> and </i> • italicizes• <u> and </u> • underlines• <center> and </center> • Puts in the center of the page, or ‘aligns center’
  10. 10. First tags• <strong> and </strong>• <big> and </big>• <em> and </em>• <small> and </small>• <del> and </del>• <strike> and </strike>• <pre> and </pre>• <code> and </code>• <blockquote> and </blockquote>
  11. 11. More basics <h1> and </h1>  Headers preset to help define sections  Six different choices down to <h6> and </h6> The <br /> and <nobr> tags  Causes a line break  Difference between <b>this is bold</b> and <b> This is bold <br /> and there is a line break</b>  Why is there not a </br>?  <nobr> tag is used to instruct the browser not to break into new line the specified text <p> and </p>  Paragraph tag
  12. 12. The 16 Basic Color Names
  13. 13. Extended Color Names
  14. 14. Color Names, RGB, Hexadecimal
  15. 15. Some useful Stuff• <pre> and </pre> - preformatted• <sub> and </sub> - sub script• <sup> and </sup> - superscript• How to put in symbols  &nbsp; and others  p
  16. 16. Comments• Start with <!-- and end with -->• Comments are special tags• You can type whatever you want in the middle• Example  <!-- This is where the music section of my page starts -->
  17. 17. The <hr /> tag Horizontal rule Use these sparingly!! Attributes  Width  Align  Size  Default of 2 (pixels tall)  Noshade  True or false  Color
  18. 18. The <hr /> tag Horizontal rule Use these sparingly!! Attributes  Width  Align  Size  Default of 2 (pixels tall)  Noshade  True or false  Color
  19. 19. Lists <ul> and </ul> stand for un-ordered list  Aka this is a list with bullets <ol> and </ol> stand for ordered lists 1. First Item 2. Second 3. Ect <li> and </li> stand for list item  These are used inside the <ul></ul> and <ol></ol> tags
  20. 20. Unordered Lists <ul> and </ul> stand for ordered list  “type” property specifies the leading symbol in front of each list item, possible values: circle, disk, square Example: <ul type=“squeare”>  One  Two  Three
  21. 21. Ordered Lists <ol> and </ol> stand for ordered list  “type” property specifies the leading symbol in front of each list item, possible values: 1, i, I, a, A  “start” property specifies the starting value  “value” property lets to interrupt standard sequence Example: <ul type=“A”> A. One B. Two C. Three
  22. 22. Lists, Examples <ul>  <li>This is the first item</li>  <li>This is the second</li>  <li><ol>  <li>This item will be numbered</li>  <li>So will this one!</li>  </ol></li>  <li>the last un-ordered item</li> </ul> Note how the tags match up, a starting tag always has a closing tag
  23. 23. Adding images <img src=‘where is the image’ /> Why is there no </img> ? What else can I do?  Align the image (center it, ect)  Resize the image (height and width)  Use alt and title What is the difference? Alt is alternative text Title is the title of the image  Add a border  Define horizontal and vertical spaces  Use image as a link or background image
  24. 24. Image Properties src – source of image file (path/name) align – image position related to other objects (left, right, top, bottom, middle, …) alt – alternative text will be shown in the case if image can’t be displayed title – descriptive text for the image border – define thickness of frame along the perimeter of image vspace – define the vertical space between image and other objects hspace – define the horizontal space between image and other objects
  25. 25. Links! <a href=‘’> Go to Google! </a> Hypertext reference What else can you do?  Make an image a link  Link to different places in your own page  Uses ‘anchors’ Relative versus Absolute links  Absolute is normally the way to go when you are starting out!
  26. 26. Links Levels To different domain / machine <a href=“”>...</a> To same domain and different directory <a href=“docs/page2.html”>...</a> Link to file in same directory <a href=“about.html”>...</a> Internal Link or Anchor <a href=“#chapter1”>...</a> <a name=“chapter1”>...</a>
  27. 27. Link’s Properties target – specifies the target window where linked document will be opened. Possible values: _blank, _parent, _self, _top (default value is _self) title – specifies descriptive information about a link. This text appears when the mouse pointer hovers on the link. This property is in term of SEO Example: <a href=“” target=“_blank” title=“Qafqaz University Website”>
  28. 28. The email link Add Example  <a href=‘’>Email John! </a> Add a subject  Add ‘?subject=your subj here’ to the end  <a href=‘ is an email from your website,’> Email John! </a> You can add cc and bcc fields too  After the subject, use ‘&’ or add ‘&’ or both
  29. 29. The BODY tag Attributes  Bgcolor  Text  Link  Alink  Vlink  Background
  30. 30. The BODY properties bgcolor – defines the background color of webpage text – defines the default color of text link – specifies the default color of all links alink – specifies color of active link (a link become active once user clicks on it) vlink – specifies color of visited links
  31. 31. META tags META tags help search engines find your page Between <head> and </head> Examples  <meta name=‘keywords’ content=‘cool,page,first,HTML,attempt’>  <meta name=‘description’ content=‘my first try at making a web page with HTML, come check it out’>  <meta name="robots" content="index, follow"> What is purpose <META HTTP-EQUIV="refresh" content="2;URL= ge.htm">
  32. 32. META tags examples <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" > <meta name="description" content="Free Web tutorials"> <meta name="keywords" content="HTML,DHTML,CSS,JavaScript,Web Design"> <meta name="author" content="Abzetdin Adamov"> <meta name="copyright" content="A.Adamov 2012"> <meta http-equiv="location" content=""> <meta http-equiv="refresh" content=“5"> <meta http-equiv="refresh" content="2; URL="> <meta name="robots" content="index, follow"> <meta name="robots" content=“noindex, nofollow"> <meta name=“googlebot" content=" noindex">
  33. 33. Tables• Tables are created out three main parts, or tags• The <table> and </table> tag tells the browser that you are creating a table• The table row tags (<tr> and </tr>) create a single row• The table division tags (<td> and </td>) create a single cell within a row
  34. 34. Table, basic example• <table>  <tr> <td>This is the top left cell</td> <td>This is the top row, right cell</td>  </tr>  <tr> <td>This is the bottom row, left cell</td> <td>this is the bottom row, right cell</td>  </tr> This is the top left This is the top row,• </table> cell right cell This is the bottom This is the bottom row, left cell row, right cell
  35. 35. So why the <table> ?• The <table> tag allows us to give attributes to the table as a whole• Border• Cell Spacing  The space in between one cell and another• Cell Padding  The space in between the edge of one cell and the actual content in that cell (normally text)• Bgcolor• Background
  36. 36. The TABLE’s properties• width – specifies width of table in pixels or %• height – specifies height …• align – alignment of table (left, right, center)• border – specifies the visibility of table’s borders• bgcolor – defines background color of table• background – defines background image of table• bordercolor – specifies the color of borders• cellspacing – sets the space between cells• cellpadding – sets the space between data and cell’s borders• bordercolorlight – creates a 3D lighting effect• bordercolordark – creates a 3D lighting effect
  37. 37. Review Tags are the main parts of html Tags can be changed with attribute values <font color=“red”>hello</font>  <font> is the opening tag  Color is an attribute of the font tag  </font> is the closing tag Most tags apply to a section of code, and need a closing/ending tag Some tags, like <br /> and <img /> do not  The correct way to ‘close’ these tags is the /> ending  Most of the time they will work without it  99% of the time, <br /> and <br> will do the same thing
  38. 38. Adding sounds Link to the file Use the <embed /> tag  Src  Width, height Good values are 144 width and 60 height  Autostart True or false  Loop True or false  Hidden True or false
  39. 39. Tags we know<html> <center> <big> <font> <title> <small> <strong> <basefont> <meta> <strike><head> <h1>,<h2>,<h3> <img> <hr>,<ul>, ….<h6> <ol>,<li><body> <br> <p> <pre>,<sub>, <table> <blockquote> <sup> <code> <q><b> <u> <a> <embed> <td>,<i> <s> <tr>,<td>
  40. 40. Lets build a simple site If you haven’t already, create a folder to store your HTML  I Recommend C:/HTML for now, its easy to remember Freely create three different pages Remember the basic HTML structure Don’t fret, I will walk you through all of this, so if you don’t know where to start its ok You will make mistakes, that’s ok too. Its part of learning
  41. 41. Final notes Good places to learn more   Don’t try to memorize every HTML tag you see  All you need to know is what is possible  You can look up the specific tag  Aka, I would search ‘how do you create a table in HTML’ to find the specific tags
  42. 42. Want to know more A common way to layout the content on your page is to make a large table  Check out filename=tryhtml_layout You might see the word ‘deprecated’ a lot when learning  This means there is a ‘newer’ way to do the same thing  This happens for a lot of reasons (simpler code, makes more sense, ect)  Normally the old way will still work, so don’t stress to much, its not the end of your site and you don’t have to ‘update’
  43. 43. So what’s next? Style Sheets  Why??? See ml4.asp “The original HTML was never intended to contain tags for formatting a document…In HTML 4.0 all formatting can be removed from the HTML document and stored in a separate style sheet.” Hence, next weeks lesson is on CSS, or Cascading Style Sheets
  44. 44. QUESTIONS