<ul><li>“The brain of the computer” that takes care of all the computations and processes. </li></ul>CPU  (Central Process...
<ul><li>The component of CPU include, </li></ul><ul><li>CU:  Control Unit Directs and manages the activities of the proces...
Basic  Architecture Control Unit ALU Cache IO Unit Register FPU CPU Bus Internal Busses
Processing <ul><li>In this chapter, we will focus on the  central processing unit  (CPU) in more detail. </li></ul>Input P...
The CPU <ul><li>The  CPU  interacts(affects) closely with  memory  (primary storage). </li></ul>CPU Memory Memory, however...
Parts of the CPU <ul><li>The CPU consists of a variety of parts including:33 </li></ul><ul><li>Control unit </li></ul><ul>...
The Control Unit… <ul><li>directs  the other parts of the computer system to execute(perform) stored program instructions....
The Arithmetic/Logic Unit (ALU)… <ul><li>performs  mathematical  operations as well as  logical  operations. </li></ul>ALU
Mathematical Operations <ul><li>The ALU can perform four kinds of mathematical calculations: </li></ul><ul><li>addition </...
Logical Operations <ul><li>The ALU can perform logical operations. </li></ul><ul><li>Logical operations can test for these...
Registers… <ul><li>are temporary storage areas for data or instructions. </li></ul>Data held temporarily in registers can ...
Memory (Primary Storage) <ul><li>Memory is the part of the computer that stores data and program instructions for processi...
Memory… <ul><li>is also referred to as  RAM  (random-access memory). </li></ul>CPU Memory RAM is  temporary ,  finite , an...
Executing Program Instructions <ul><li>Before the CPU can execute a program, program instructions and data must be placed ...
Executing Program Instructions <ul><li>Once the necessary data and instructions are in memory, the CPU performs the follow...
Fetching Instructions <ul><li>The control unit  fetches  (gets) the instruction from memory. </li></ul>Memory Control Unit...
Decoding(solve) Instructions <ul><li>The control unit decodes the instruction and directs that the necessary data be moved...
Executing Arithmetic/Logic Operations <ul><li>The ALU performs the arithmetic or logical operation on the data. </li></ul>...
Storing Results <ul><li>The ALU stores the result of its operation on the data in memory or in a register. </li></ul>Memor...
Executing Program Instructions <ul><li>Eventually, the control unit sends the results in memory to an ou t put device or s...
Instruction Time <ul><li>The time it takes to fetch an instruction and decode it is called  instruction time. </li></ul>+ ...
Execution Time <ul><li>The time it takes to execute an ALU operation and then store the result is called  execution(perfor...
Memory Locations and Addresses <ul><li>The control unit can find data and instructions because each location in memory has...
Storage Locations <ul><li>Each location in memory is identified by an  address . </li></ul>Memory Each location has a uniq...
Data Representation <ul><li>The system in which all computer data is represented(colled) and manipulated(used) is called t...
Binary System The binary system has only  two digits  to represent all values. This corresponds to the  two states  of a c...
Off/On Switches <ul><li>The computer can represent data by constructing combinations of  off  or  on  switches. </li></ul>...
Zero or One? <ul><li>The binary system can also be represented by the digits  zero  and  one . </li></ul>0 1 or Zero (off)...
The Bit <ul><li>Each 0 or 1 in the binary system is called a  bit . </li></ul>one bit two bits three bits
The Byte <ul><li>A group of 8 bits   is called a  byte .  </li></ul>0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1
One Character of Data <ul><li>Each byte represents  one character of data  (a letter, digit, or special character). </li><...
Storing Bytes <ul><li>Storage and memory capacity is expressed in the  number of bytes  they can hold: </li></ul>1  kilo b...
Computer Word <ul><li>A computer word   is defined as the number of bits that constitute a common unit of data. </li></ul>
Computer Word Length <ul><li>Word length  varies by computer. For example: </li></ul><ul><li>8 bits = 1 byte = one word le...
Coding the Computer <ul><li>A code for determining which group of bits represent which characters on a keyboard is called ...
ASCII <ul><li>ASCII has been adopted, as the standard, by the U.S. government and is found in a variety of computers. </li...
Computer Speed and Power <ul><li>Speed and power are determined by: </li></ul><ul><li>Microprocessor speed </li></ul><ul><...
Microprocessor Speeds <ul><li>Microprocessor speeds can be measured in a variety of ways: </li></ul><ul><li>Megahertz </li...
Megahertz <ul><li>One measure of microprocessor speed is  megahertz  (MHz) which is one million machine cycles per second....
MIPS <ul><li>Another measure of microprocessor speed is  MIPS  which is one million instructions per second. </li></ul>
Megaflops <ul><li>Megaflops,  or one million floating-point operations per second, is still another measure of microproces...
Bus Lines <ul><li>A bus line is a set of parallel electrical paths. A bus is like a mode of transportation for data. </li>...
Bus Width(wide) <ul><li>The amount of data that can be carried at one time is bus width (wider = more data). </li></ul>
<ul><li>Two types:   </li></ul><ul><li>Socket type </li></ul><ul><li>Slot type. </li></ul><ul><li>Pin arrangement in the S...
Types of Processors SECC PGA
<ul><li>8085-8bit </li></ul><ul><li>8086-16bit </li></ul><ul><li>80186-32bit </li></ul><ul><li>80286-32bit </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>2 ALU </li></ul><ul><li>Pentium –first super scalar processor </li></ul><ul><li>Pentium family uses super scalar t...
<ul><li>FPU-Floating Point Unit (carry out operations on  floating point  numbers. ) </li></ul><ul><li>BPU-Buffer Processi...
Processor Manufacturers <ul><li>Intel ( Inte grated  El ectronics) </li></ul><ul><li>AMD (Advanced Micro Devices) </li></u...
Brands of Intel <ul><li>Pentium I </li></ul><ul><li>Pentium Pro </li></ul><ul><li>Pentium MMX </li></ul><ul><li>Pentium II...
Brands of AMD <ul><li>Athlon  </li></ul><ul><li>Duron </li></ul><ul><li>Sempron </li></ul><ul><li>Turion </li></ul>
<ul><li>273/296 pins </li></ul><ul><li>PGA arrangement </li></ul><ul><li>Socket 4,5 or 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Speed:60 to 200...
<ul><li>242 contacts </li></ul><ul><li>SEC/SECC </li></ul><ul><li>Slot 1 </li></ul><ul><li>233-333 MHz </li></ul><ul><li>3...
<ul><li>242 contacts/370 pins </li></ul><ul><li>SEPP/SECC/PGA </li></ul><ul><li>PGA370/slot 1 </li></ul><ul><li>450 MHz to...
<ul><li>423/478 pins </li></ul><ul><li>SPGA(  staggered pin grid array)   </li></ul><ul><li>PGA 423/PGA 478(PGA2) </li></u...
<ul><li>A technology developed by Intel that enables multithreaded (current of data)  software applications to execute thr...
Why multicore? <ul><li>New modern processors are launched </li></ul><ul><li>How to make a use of new technologies? </li></...
Intel Core 2 models <ul><ul><li>Desktop CPU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced on July 27, 2006 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
What is L1 and L2? <ul><li>Level-1 and Level-2 caches </li></ul><ul><li>The cache memories in a computer </li></ul><ul><li...
Core  processor <ul><li>Dual core </li></ul><ul><li>Core 2 duo </li></ul><ul><li>Quad core </li></ul>
Dual core processor <ul><li>Desktop processor Released in 2006. for laptop 2007  </li></ul><ul><li>two cores (e.g. AMD Phe...
Core 2 duo <ul><li>The  Core 2  brand was introduced on July 27, 2006  </li></ul><ul><li>2 core </li></ul><ul><li>2-4 MB /...
Intel’s Core i3,i5,i7
i3 <ul><li>Core i3Sep 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>4 threads </li></ul><ul><li>3-4 MB cache </li></ul><ul><li>medium clock speed...
i5 <ul><li>Core i5 Aug 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>2-4 threads </li></ul><ul><li>3-8 MB cache </li></ul><ul><li>higher clock sp...
i7 <ul><li>Core i7 Nov 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>8 threads </li></ul><ul><li>4-8 MB cache </li></ul><ul><li>Hyper thread tech...
<ul><li>BGA-Ball Grid Array </li></ul><ul><li>PGA-Pin Grid Array </li></ul><ul><li>LGA-Land Grid Array </li></ul>
Land Grid Array PGA Ball Grid Array
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Processor2

  1. 1. <ul><li>“The brain of the computer” that takes care of all the computations and processes. </li></ul>CPU (Central Processing Unit)
  2. 2. <ul><li>The component of CPU include, </li></ul><ul><li>CU: Control Unit Directs and manages the activities of the processor. </li></ul><ul><li>ALU: Arithmetic and Logic Unit. Performs Arithmetic and Logical operations.(+, -, x, /, >,<, =) </li></ul><ul><li>FPU: Floating Point Unit. Performs division and large decimal operations. </li></ul><ul><li>Cache Memory : Predicts and anticipates the data that the processor needs. </li></ul><ul><li>I/O Unit: Input Output unit. The gateway for the processor. </li></ul><ul><li>Register : Which hold temporary data for a specific purpose of function. </li></ul>Architecture
  3. 3. Basic Architecture Control Unit ALU Cache IO Unit Register FPU CPU Bus Internal Busses
  4. 4. Processing <ul><li>In this chapter, we will focus on the central processing unit (CPU) in more detail. </li></ul>Input Processing Output Secondary Storage
  5. 5. The CPU <ul><li>The CPU interacts(affects) closely with memory (primary storage). </li></ul>CPU Memory Memory, however, is not part of the CPU.
  6. 6. Parts of the CPU <ul><li>The CPU consists of a variety of parts including:33 </li></ul><ul><li>Control unit </li></ul><ul><li>Arithmetic/logic unit (ALU) </li></ul><ul><li>Registers </li></ul>Control Unit ALU Registers
  7. 7. The Control Unit… <ul><li>directs the other parts of the computer system to execute(perform) stored program instructions. </li></ul>The control unit communicates with the ALU and memory. Control Unit
  8. 8. The Arithmetic/Logic Unit (ALU)… <ul><li>performs mathematical operations as well as logical operations. </li></ul>ALU
  9. 9. Mathematical Operations <ul><li>The ALU can perform four kinds of mathematical calculations: </li></ul><ul><li>addition </li></ul><ul><li>subtraction </li></ul><ul><li>multiplication </li></ul><ul><li>division </li></ul>
  10. 10. Logical Operations <ul><li>The ALU can perform logical operations. </li></ul><ul><li>Logical operations can test for these conditions(position): </li></ul><ul><li>Equal-to (=) </li></ul><ul><li>Less-than (<) </li></ul><ul><li>Greater-than (>) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Registers… <ul><li>are temporary storage areas for data or instructions. </li></ul>Data held temporarily in registers can be accessed at greater speeds than data stored in memory. Registers
  12. 12. Memory (Primary Storage) <ul><li>Memory is the part of the computer that stores data and program instructions for processing. </li></ul>CPU Memory
  13. 13. Memory… <ul><li>is also referred to as RAM (random-access memory). </li></ul>CPU Memory RAM is temporary , finite , and more expensive than secondary storage.
  14. 14. Executing Program Instructions <ul><li>Before the CPU can execute a program, program instructions and data must be placed into memory from an input device or storage device. </li></ul>Input Processing Secondary Storage
  15. 15. Executing Program Instructions <ul><li>Once the necessary data and instructions are in memory, the CPU performs the following steps for each instruction: </li></ul><ul><li>Fetching </li></ul><ul><li>Decoding </li></ul><ul><li>Executing </li></ul><ul><li>Storing </li></ul>CPU Memory
  16. 16. Fetching Instructions <ul><li>The control unit fetches (gets) the instruction from memory. </li></ul>Memory Control Unit ALU Registers
  17. 17. Decoding(solve) Instructions <ul><li>The control unit decodes the instruction and directs that the necessary data be moved from memory to the ALU. </li></ul>Memory Control Unit ALU Registers
  18. 18. Executing Arithmetic/Logic Operations <ul><li>The ALU performs the arithmetic or logical operation on the data. </li></ul>Memory Control Unit ALU Registers
  19. 19. Storing Results <ul><li>The ALU stores the result of its operation on the data in memory or in a register. </li></ul>Memory Control Unit ALU Registers
  20. 20. Executing Program Instructions <ul><li>Eventually, the control unit sends the results in memory to an ou t put device or secondary storage. </li></ul>Output Secondary Storage Control Unit ALU Registers Memory
  21. 21. Instruction Time <ul><li>The time it takes to fetch an instruction and decode it is called instruction time. </li></ul>+ Memory Control Unit Memory Control Unit ALU
  22. 22. Execution Time <ul><li>The time it takes to execute an ALU operation and then store the result is called execution(perform) time. </li></ul>+ ALU Memory ALU Registers
  23. 23. Memory Locations and Addresses <ul><li>The control unit can find data and instructions because each location in memory has an address . </li></ul>Control Unit Memory
  24. 24. Storage Locations <ul><li>Each location in memory is identified by an address . </li></ul>Memory Each location has a unique address.
  25. 25. Data Representation <ul><li>The system in which all computer data is represented(colled) and manipulated(used) is called the binary system. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Binary System The binary system has only two digits to represent all values. This corresponds to the two states of a computer’s electrical system —on and off.
  27. 27. Off/On Switches <ul><li>The computer can represent data by constructing combinations of off or on switches. </li></ul>off on or
  28. 28. Zero or One? <ul><li>The binary system can also be represented by the digits zero and one . </li></ul>0 1 or Zero (off) and one (on) make up the two digits in the binary system.
  29. 29. The Bit <ul><li>Each 0 or 1 in the binary system is called a bit . </li></ul>one bit two bits three bits
  30. 30. The Byte <ul><li>A group of 8 bits is called a byte . </li></ul>0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1
  31. 31. One Character of Data <ul><li>Each byte represents one character of data (a letter, digit, or special character). </li></ul>J = 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1
  32. 32. Storing Bytes <ul><li>Storage and memory capacity is expressed in the number of bytes they can hold: </li></ul>1 kilo byte = 2 10 or 1024 bytes 1 mega byte = 2 20 or 1,048,576 bytes 1 giga byte = 2 30 or 1,073,741,824 bytes
  33. 33. Computer Word <ul><li>A computer word is defined as the number of bits that constitute a common unit of data. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Computer Word Length <ul><li>Word length varies by computer. For example: </li></ul><ul><li>8 bits = 1 byte = one word length </li></ul><ul><li>64 bits = 8 bytes = one word length </li></ul>
  35. 35. Coding the Computer <ul><li>A code for determining which group of bits represent which characters on a keyboard is called ASCII . ( American Standard Code for Information Interchange ) </li></ul>
  36. 36. ASCII <ul><li>ASCII has been adopted, as the standard, by the U.S. government and is found in a variety of computers. </li></ul>J = ASCII-8 code Keyboard character 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1
  37. 37. Computer Speed and Power <ul><li>Speed and power are determined by: </li></ul><ul><li>Microprocessor speed </li></ul><ul><li>Bus lines </li></ul><ul><li>Cache </li></ul>
  38. 38. Microprocessor Speeds <ul><li>Microprocessor speeds can be measured in a variety of ways: </li></ul><ul><li>Megahertz </li></ul><ul><li>MIPS </li></ul><ul><li>Megaflops </li></ul>
  39. 39. Megahertz <ul><li>One measure of microprocessor speed is megahertz (MHz) which is one million machine cycles per second. gigahertz (billions of cycles per second). </li></ul>
  40. 40. MIPS <ul><li>Another measure of microprocessor speed is MIPS which is one million instructions per second. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Megaflops <ul><li>Megaflops, or one million floating-point operations per second, is still another measure of microprocessor speed. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Bus Lines <ul><li>A bus line is a set of parallel electrical paths. A bus is like a mode of transportation for data. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bus width (Wide) = the number of wires in the bus over which data can travel +-- </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Bus Width(wide) <ul><li>The amount of data that can be carried at one time is bus width (wider = more data). </li></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>Two types: </li></ul><ul><li>Socket type </li></ul><ul><li>Slot type. </li></ul><ul><li>Pin arrangement in the Socket type processor is known as Pin Grid Array (PGA). </li></ul><ul><li>Slot type processor is also known as Single Edged Contact Cartridge (SECC). </li></ul>Processor Types
  45. 45. Types of Processors SECC PGA
  46. 46. <ul><li>8085-8bit </li></ul><ul><li>8086-16bit </li></ul><ul><li>80186-32bit </li></ul><ul><li>80286-32bit </li></ul><ul><li>80386(SX/DX)-32 bit </li></ul><ul><li>80486(SX/DX)-32bit </li></ul>Intel Scalar Processors
  47. 47. <ul><li>2 ALU </li></ul><ul><li>Pentium –first super scalar processor </li></ul><ul><li>Pentium family uses super scalar technology </li></ul><ul><li>P4 also uses Hyper Threading(HT) </li></ul>Super Scalar Processors
  48. 48. <ul><li>FPU-Floating Point Unit (carry out operations on floating point numbers. ) </li></ul><ul><li>BPU-Buffer Processing Unit ( A temporary storage area, usually in RAM ) </li></ul>
  49. 49. Processor Manufacturers <ul><li>Intel ( Inte grated El ectronics) </li></ul><ul><li>AMD (Advanced Micro Devices) </li></ul><ul><li>VIA technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Cyrix </li></ul>
  50. 50. Brands of Intel <ul><li>Pentium I </li></ul><ul><li>Pentium Pro </li></ul><ul><li>Pentium MMX </li></ul><ul><li>Pentium II </li></ul><ul><li>Pentium III </li></ul><ul><li>Pentium IV </li></ul><ul><li>Pentium D </li></ul><ul><li>Celeron </li></ul><ul><li>Centrino M </li></ul><ul><li>Core 2 Duo </li></ul><ul><li>Core 2 Extreme </li></ul><ul><li>Core 2 Quad </li></ul>
  51. 51. Brands of AMD <ul><li>Athlon </li></ul><ul><li>Duron </li></ul><ul><li>Sempron </li></ul><ul><li>Turion </li></ul>
  52. 52. <ul><li>273/296 pins </li></ul><ul><li>PGA arrangement </li></ul><ul><li>Socket 4,5 or 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Speed:60 to 200 MHz </li></ul><ul><li>L1 cache-16 KB </li></ul><ul><li>L2-256 to 512 KB </li></ul><ul><li>Power supply- 3.3 to 5 v </li></ul><ul><li>Transistors:3.1 to 3.3 million </li></ul><ul><li>Features:1 st super scalar processor,64 bit registers </li></ul>Pentium (1993)
  53. 53. <ul><li>242 contacts </li></ul><ul><li>SEC/SECC </li></ul><ul><li>Slot 1 </li></ul><ul><li>233-333 MHz </li></ul><ul><li>32 KB L1 </li></ul><ul><li>512KB L2 </li></ul><ul><li>3.3v power supply </li></ul><ul><li>7.5 million transistors </li></ul><ul><li>First SEC processor </li></ul>Pentium II (1997)
  54. 54. <ul><li>242 contacts/370 pins </li></ul><ul><li>SEPP/SECC/PGA </li></ul><ul><li>PGA370/slot 1 </li></ul><ul><li>450 MHz to 1.13 GHz </li></ul><ul><li>32 KB L1 </li></ul><ul><li>256 KB to 512 KB L2 </li></ul><ul><li>2v power supply </li></ul><ul><li>9.1 to 9.3 million transistors </li></ul><ul><li>Streaming SIMDA </li></ul><ul><li>(single instr. multiple data access) </li></ul>Pentium III (1999)
  55. 55. <ul><li>423/478 pins </li></ul><ul><li>SPGA( staggered pin grid array) </li></ul><ul><li>PGA 423/PGA 478(PGA2) </li></ul><ul><li>1.3 to 3.2 GHz </li></ul><ul><li>8 KB L1 </li></ul><ul><li>256 KB to 512 KB L2 </li></ul><ul><li>1.44 to 1.75v power supply </li></ul><ul><li>Billion transistors </li></ul><ul><li>Net burst architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Technology HT (Hyper Threading) (above 2.4 GHz) </li></ul>Pentium 4 (2000)
  56. 56. <ul><li>A technology developed by Intel that enables multithreaded (current of data) software applications to execute threads in parallel on a single processor instead of processing threads in a linear fashion. Older systems took advantage of dual-processing threading in software by splitting (dividing) instructions into multiple streams so that more than one processor could act upon (on) them at once. </li></ul>Hyper threading
  57. 57. Why multicore? <ul><li>New modern processors are launched </li></ul><ul><li>How to make a use of new technologies? </li></ul>Dual-core CPU Quad-core CPU
  58. 58. Intel Core 2 models <ul><ul><li>Desktop CPU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced on July 27, 2006 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of Transistors 291 Million on 4 MB Models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of Transistors 167 Million on 2 MB Models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Core 2 Duo E6700 - 2.67 GHz (4 MB L2, 1066 MHz FSB) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Core 2 Duo E6600 - 2.40 GHz (4 MB L2, 1066 MHz FSB) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Core 2 Duo E6400 - 2.13 GHz (2 MB L2, 1066 MHz FSB) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Core 2 Duo E6300 - 1.86 GHz (2 MB L2, 1066 MHz FSB) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Core 2 Duo E4200 - 1.60 GHz (2 MB L2, 800 MHz FSB) </li></ul></ul></ul>6 / 37
  59. 59. What is L1 and L2? <ul><li>Level-1 and Level-2 caches </li></ul><ul><li>The cache memories in a computer </li></ul><ul><li>Much faster than RAM </li></ul><ul><li>L1 is built on the microprocessor chip itself. </li></ul><ul><li>L2 is a seperate chip </li></ul><ul><li>L2 cache is much larger than L1 cache </li></ul>19 / 37
  60. 60. Core processor <ul><li>Dual core </li></ul><ul><li>Core 2 duo </li></ul><ul><li>Quad core </li></ul>
  61. 61. Dual core processor <ul><li>Desktop processor Released in 2006. for laptop 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>two cores (e.g. AMD Phenom II X2,) </li></ul><ul><li>Cache </li></ul><ul><li>No of pins 478/956/988 </li></ul><ul><li>No of transistor=233 million transistors </li></ul><ul><li>Voltage rate= </li></ul>
  62. 62. Core 2 duo <ul><li>The Core 2 brand was introduced on July 27, 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>2 core </li></ul><ul><li>2-4 MB /2 MB/ Core 2 Solo U2xxx 1 MB </li></ul><ul><li>it can better multi-task, play games and multimedia espn videos. </li></ul><ul><li>Use less power ( 0.85–1.5 V ) </li></ul><ul><li>Clock speed min=1.8 GHz max=3.2 GHz </li></ul>
  63. 63. Intel’s Core i3,i5,i7
  64. 64. i3 <ul><li>Core i3Sep 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>4 threads </li></ul><ul><li>3-4 MB cache </li></ul><ul><li>medium clock speed=3.06 GHz </li></ul><ul><li>transistor=177/382 million million </li></ul><ul><li>Voltage range=0.6500V-1.4000V </li></ul><ul><li>DDR3-1066/1333 </li></ul><ul><li>No of pins: LGA 1156/PGA 989 </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperthyroid technology( adv) </li></ul><ul><li>No turbo boost technology(Intel Turbo Boost Technology 2.0 has multiple algorithms operating in parallel to manage current, power, and temperature to maximize performance and energy efficiency ) disadvantage </li></ul>
  65. 65. i5 <ul><li>Core i5 Aug 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>2-4 threads </li></ul><ul><li>3-8 MB cache </li></ul><ul><li>higher clock speed than i3=3.6 GHz </li></ul><ul><li>Voltage range (0.6500V-1.4000V ) </li></ul><ul><li>Transistors 177 million/382 million </li></ul><ul><li>No of Pins: LGA 1156(desktop) /BGA 1288 / µPGA-989(for laptop) </li></ul><ul><li>DDR3-1066/1333 </li></ul><ul><li>Advantage=Hyper thread technology </li></ul><ul><li>disadvantage=thermal monitoring technology( Temperature monitoring) </li></ul>
  66. 66. i7 <ul><li>Core i7 Nov 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>8 threads </li></ul><ul><li>4-8 MB cache </li></ul><ul><li>Hyper thread technology </li></ul><ul><li>4 cores </li></ul><ul><li>No of Transistors :382 million </li></ul><ul><li>No of Pins:1366 pins ) </li></ul><ul><li>Produce less heat </li></ul><ul><li>DDR3-800 </li></ul><ul><li>Advantage: Hyper threading technology, thermal monitoring technologies, turbo boost technology </li></ul>
  67. 67. <ul><li>BGA-Ball Grid Array </li></ul><ul><li>PGA-Pin Grid Array </li></ul><ul><li>LGA-Land Grid Array </li></ul>
  68. 68. Land Grid Array PGA Ball Grid Array
  69. 69. Tank for your time and patience

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