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journalism
By: May Nectar Cyrill Loja-
Tabares, Ph.D.
What is Journalism?
It is the activity, or product, of journalists or
others engaged in the preparation of written,
visual, or audio material intended for
dissemination through public media with
reference to factual, ongoing events of public
concern. It is intended to inform society
about itself and to make events public that
would otherwise remain private.
 The word journal comes from the Latin
word diurnal which means “daily.” In
ancient Rome, short bulletins of battles,
fires and elections compiled by
government officials were posted up in
public places. These were called acta
diurna which meant “ daily events” (Noah
Webster).
 Webster defines journalism as “the
activity or job of collecting, writing and
editing news stories for broadcast
journalism.
 Fraser F. Bond, on the other hand, defines
it as “something that embraces all forms
in which or through which the news and
comments on the news reach the public.”
According to him, all that happens in the
world, if such happenings hold interest
for the public, and all the thoughts,
actions, and ideas which these
happenings stimulate, become basic
materials for the journalist.
Formal Introduction of Journalism
 Although the first school paper in the City
schools of Manila was published in School
Year 1911-1912, formal classroom
instruction in high school journalism
began in 1952.
 Mrs. Sarah England, an American teacher
of Mapa High School, experimented the
teaching of journalism.
 Since, it proved successful, the other four
existing high schools in the city followed
suit ( Araullo, Torres, Arellano, and Abad
Santos).
 They formally offered journalism as a
vocational subject holding classes on a
daily period throughout the school year.
 Since then, journalism has been under the
supervision of English supervisors, but the
grades are considered vocational subjects.
FORMS OF JOURNALISM
Forms of Journalism
1. Advocacy journalism is a genre of
journalism that intentionally and
transparently adopts a non-objective
viewpoint, usually for some social or
political purpose. Because it is
intended to be factual, it is
distinguished from propaganda. It is
also distinct from instances of
media bias and failures of objectivity
in media outlets, which attempt to
be—or which present themselves
as—objective or neutral.
2. Broadcast journalism is the field of
news and journals which are
"broadcast", that is, published by
electrical methods, instead of the
older methods, such as printed
newspapers and posters.
Broadcast methods include radio
(via air, cable, and Internet),
television (via air, cable, and
Internet), and, especially
recently, the Internet generally. Such
media disperse pictures (static
and moving), visual text and/or
sounds.
 3. Drone journalism is the use of drones, or
unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), for
journalistic purposes. According to the FAA,
“an unmanned aircraft is a device that is
used, or is intended to be used, for flight in
the air with no onboard pilot.”
 The use of drones for information collection
in the journalism industry is still new. Two
university journalism programs are testing
drones in this context, namely the Drone
Journalism Lab, founded in late November
2011 by Matt Waite, professor of journalism
and mass communication at the University of
Nebraska-Lincoln, and the Drone Journalism
Program at the University of Missouri.
3.Gonzo journalism is a style of
journalism that is written without claims
of objectivity, often including the
reporter as part of the story via a first-
person narrative. The word "gonzo" is
believed to be first used in 1970 to
describe an article by Hunter S.
Thompson, who later popularized the
style. The term has since been applied to
other subjective artistic endeavors.
4. Investigative journalism is a form of
journalism in which reporters deeply
investigate a single topic of interest, often
involving crime, political corruption, or
corporate wrongdoing. An investigative
journalist may spend months or years
researching and preparing a report.
Investigative journalism is a primary
source of information. Most investigative
journalism is conducted by newspapers,
wire services, and freelance journalists.
Practitioners sometimes use the terms
"watchdog journalism" or "accountability
reporting."
5. Photojournalism is a particular form
of journalism (the collecting, editing,
and presenting of news material for
publication or broadcast) that creates
images in order to tell a news story. It
is now usually understood to refer
only to still images, but in some cases
the term also refers to video used in
broadcast journalism.
6. Tabloid journalism tends to emphasize
topics such as sensational crime stories,
astrology, gossip columns about the personal
lives of celebrities and sports stars, and junk
food news. Such journalism is commonly
associated with tabloid sized newspapers like
the National Enquirer, Globe or the The Sun
and the former News of the World. Not all
newspapers associated with such journalism
are in tabloid size, for example, the format of
Apple Daily is broadsheet while the style is
tabloid. The terms "tabloids", "supermarket
tabloids", "gutter press", and "rag", refer to
the journalistic approach of such newspapers
rather than their size.
7. Yellow journalism, or the yellow
press, is a type of journalism that
presents little or no legitimate well-
researched news and instead uses eye-
catching headlines to sell more
newspapers. Techniques may include
exaggerations of news events, scandal-
mongering, or sensationalism. By
extension, the term yellow journalism is
used today as a pejorative to decry any
journalism that treats news in an
unprofessional or unethical fashion.
"Yellow journalism" cartoon about
Spanish-American war of 1898; the
newspaper publishers Joseph Pulitzer
and William Randolph Hearst are both
attired as the Yellow Kid comics
character of the time, and are
competitively claiming ownership of
the war... Independence Seaport
Museum
Male Spanish officials strip
search an American woman
tourist in Cuba looking for
messages from rebels; front
page "yellow journalism" from
Hearst (Artist: Frederic
Remington)
ELEMENTS OF JOURNALISM
Elements
TRUTHFULNESS
ACCURACY
OBJECTIVITY
IMPARTIALITY
FAIRNESS
PUBLIC
ACCOUNTABILITY
SCOPE AND CLASSIFICATION OF
JOURNALISM
Scope / classification of Journalism
Journalism may be divided
into three areas, namely:
written, oral, and visual.
Periodicals such as
newspapers and magazines
fall under written journalism.
Periodicals, brochures,
journals, books, and graphic
arts are classified under print
media.
 Radio falls under oral
journalism
Television, movies, and
documentaries are under
visual journalism.
Radio and television are
examples of broadcast
media, while movies and
documentaries are
examples of film media.
FUNCTIONS OF THE
CAMPUS PAPER
What is a campus paper?
A campus paper is a
publication, either
mimeographed or printed, put
out by staff members whose
names appear in the masthead
or editorial box.
Birth of High School Papers in the Country
 High school student publications are almost
as old as the Philippine public school system
itself.
 La Union Tab of La Union High School is the
first regularly issued printed high school
paper in 1923.
 Circular Letter No. 34,s.1929 was the first
regulation governing the putting out of high
school papers, which set down certain
requirements based on the Service manual.
 On October 22, 1945, Acting Executive
Officer John H. Mcbride Jr. of the
Department of Instruction and
Information sent a letter to all division
superintendents quoting provisions from
the Service Manual stating that the school
papers should consist chiefly of articles
treating of school activities, that they
should be free from advertisements, from
questionable jokes and cartoons, and
from worthless poetry and prose.
Birth of Manila City School Newspapers
 The Coconut ( Old Manila High School
now Araullo High school) is the first born
school paper in manila public schools and
incidentally in the country in the school
year 1911-1912.This is a mimeographed
paper edited by Carlos P. Romulo.
 Torres Torch of Torres High school was
next in line.
 Mapazette of mapa High school and the
Chronicler of Arellano High school
follwed both in 1940.
Functions of the Campus Paper
(Harold Spears and C.H. Lawshe Jr. in their book, An
Introduction to Journalism).
Traditional Modern
Aid to the students Information
Aide to the school
and the community
Opinion
Functions of the Campus Paper
(Harold Spears and C.H. Lawshe Jr. in their book, An
Introduction to Journalism).
Traditional Modern
Aid to the students Education
Aide to the school
and the community
Watchdog
Functions of the Campus Paper
(Harold Spears and C.H. Lawshe Jr. in their book, An
Introduction to Journalism).
Traditional Modern
Aid to the students Documentation
Aide to the school
and the community
Developmental
END...

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Annual campus journalism seminar workshop

  • 1. journalism By: May Nectar Cyrill Loja- Tabares, Ph.D.
  • 2. What is Journalism? It is the activity, or product, of journalists or others engaged in the preparation of written, visual, or audio material intended for dissemination through public media with reference to factual, ongoing events of public concern. It is intended to inform society about itself and to make events public that would otherwise remain private.
  • 3.  The word journal comes from the Latin word diurnal which means “daily.” In ancient Rome, short bulletins of battles, fires and elections compiled by government officials were posted up in public places. These were called acta diurna which meant “ daily events” (Noah Webster).  Webster defines journalism as “the activity or job of collecting, writing and editing news stories for broadcast journalism.
  • 4.  Fraser F. Bond, on the other hand, defines it as “something that embraces all forms in which or through which the news and comments on the news reach the public.” According to him, all that happens in the world, if such happenings hold interest for the public, and all the thoughts, actions, and ideas which these happenings stimulate, become basic materials for the journalist.
  • 5. Formal Introduction of Journalism  Although the first school paper in the City schools of Manila was published in School Year 1911-1912, formal classroom instruction in high school journalism began in 1952.  Mrs. Sarah England, an American teacher of Mapa High School, experimented the teaching of journalism.
  • 6.  Since, it proved successful, the other four existing high schools in the city followed suit ( Araullo, Torres, Arellano, and Abad Santos).  They formally offered journalism as a vocational subject holding classes on a daily period throughout the school year.  Since then, journalism has been under the supervision of English supervisors, but the grades are considered vocational subjects.
  • 8. Forms of Journalism 1. Advocacy journalism is a genre of journalism that intentionally and transparently adopts a non-objective viewpoint, usually for some social or political purpose. Because it is intended to be factual, it is distinguished from propaganda. It is also distinct from instances of media bias and failures of objectivity in media outlets, which attempt to be—or which present themselves as—objective or neutral.
  • 9. 2. Broadcast journalism is the field of news and journals which are "broadcast", that is, published by electrical methods, instead of the older methods, such as printed newspapers and posters. Broadcast methods include radio (via air, cable, and Internet), television (via air, cable, and Internet), and, especially recently, the Internet generally. Such media disperse pictures (static and moving), visual text and/or sounds.
  • 10.  3. Drone journalism is the use of drones, or unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), for journalistic purposes. According to the FAA, “an unmanned aircraft is a device that is used, or is intended to be used, for flight in the air with no onboard pilot.”  The use of drones for information collection in the journalism industry is still new. Two university journalism programs are testing drones in this context, namely the Drone Journalism Lab, founded in late November 2011 by Matt Waite, professor of journalism and mass communication at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, and the Drone Journalism Program at the University of Missouri.
  • 11. 3.Gonzo journalism is a style of journalism that is written without claims of objectivity, often including the reporter as part of the story via a first- person narrative. The word "gonzo" is believed to be first used in 1970 to describe an article by Hunter S. Thompson, who later popularized the style. The term has since been applied to other subjective artistic endeavors.
  • 12. 4. Investigative journalism is a form of journalism in which reporters deeply investigate a single topic of interest, often involving crime, political corruption, or corporate wrongdoing. An investigative journalist may spend months or years researching and preparing a report. Investigative journalism is a primary source of information. Most investigative journalism is conducted by newspapers, wire services, and freelance journalists. Practitioners sometimes use the terms "watchdog journalism" or "accountability reporting."
  • 13. 5. Photojournalism is a particular form of journalism (the collecting, editing, and presenting of news material for publication or broadcast) that creates images in order to tell a news story. It is now usually understood to refer only to still images, but in some cases the term also refers to video used in broadcast journalism.
  • 14. 6. Tabloid journalism tends to emphasize topics such as sensational crime stories, astrology, gossip columns about the personal lives of celebrities and sports stars, and junk food news. Such journalism is commonly associated with tabloid sized newspapers like the National Enquirer, Globe or the The Sun and the former News of the World. Not all newspapers associated with such journalism are in tabloid size, for example, the format of Apple Daily is broadsheet while the style is tabloid. The terms "tabloids", "supermarket tabloids", "gutter press", and "rag", refer to the journalistic approach of such newspapers rather than their size.
  • 15. 7. Yellow journalism, or the yellow press, is a type of journalism that presents little or no legitimate well- researched news and instead uses eye- catching headlines to sell more newspapers. Techniques may include exaggerations of news events, scandal- mongering, or sensationalism. By extension, the term yellow journalism is used today as a pejorative to decry any journalism that treats news in an unprofessional or unethical fashion.
  • 16. "Yellow journalism" cartoon about Spanish-American war of 1898; the newspaper publishers Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst are both attired as the Yellow Kid comics character of the time, and are competitively claiming ownership of the war... Independence Seaport Museum
  • 17. Male Spanish officials strip search an American woman tourist in Cuba looking for messages from rebels; front page "yellow journalism" from Hearst (Artist: Frederic Remington)
  • 20. SCOPE AND CLASSIFICATION OF JOURNALISM
  • 21. Scope / classification of Journalism Journalism may be divided into three areas, namely: written, oral, and visual. Periodicals such as newspapers and magazines fall under written journalism.
  • 22. Periodicals, brochures, journals, books, and graphic arts are classified under print media.  Radio falls under oral journalism Television, movies, and documentaries are under visual journalism.
  • 23. Radio and television are examples of broadcast media, while movies and documentaries are examples of film media.
  • 25. What is a campus paper? A campus paper is a publication, either mimeographed or printed, put out by staff members whose names appear in the masthead or editorial box.
  • 26. Birth of High School Papers in the Country  High school student publications are almost as old as the Philippine public school system itself.  La Union Tab of La Union High School is the first regularly issued printed high school paper in 1923.  Circular Letter No. 34,s.1929 was the first regulation governing the putting out of high school papers, which set down certain requirements based on the Service manual.
  • 27.  On October 22, 1945, Acting Executive Officer John H. Mcbride Jr. of the Department of Instruction and Information sent a letter to all division superintendents quoting provisions from the Service Manual stating that the school papers should consist chiefly of articles treating of school activities, that they should be free from advertisements, from questionable jokes and cartoons, and from worthless poetry and prose.
  • 28. Birth of Manila City School Newspapers  The Coconut ( Old Manila High School now Araullo High school) is the first born school paper in manila public schools and incidentally in the country in the school year 1911-1912.This is a mimeographed paper edited by Carlos P. Romulo.  Torres Torch of Torres High school was next in line.  Mapazette of mapa High school and the Chronicler of Arellano High school follwed both in 1940.
  • 29. Functions of the Campus Paper (Harold Spears and C.H. Lawshe Jr. in their book, An Introduction to Journalism). Traditional Modern Aid to the students Information Aide to the school and the community Opinion
  • 30. Functions of the Campus Paper (Harold Spears and C.H. Lawshe Jr. in their book, An Introduction to Journalism). Traditional Modern Aid to the students Education Aide to the school and the community Watchdog
  • 31. Functions of the Campus Paper (Harold Spears and C.H. Lawshe Jr. in their book, An Introduction to Journalism). Traditional Modern Aid to the students Documentation Aide to the school and the community Developmental