AN ORIENTATION TO SERIOUS GAMES Fall 2011 by Anne Derryberry Analyst, Sage Road Solu@ons Producer/Designer, I’m Serious
Fall 2011 Anne Derryberry, Sage Road Solu@ons, LLC 2 Table of Contents Sec@on 1: What Is a Game? Sec@on 2: The Serious Side of Games Sec@on 3: Examples of Serious Games Sec@on 3: Essen@al Terminology
Fall 2011 Anne Derryberry, Sage Road Solu@ons, LLC 3 WHAT IS A GAME? Sec@on 1
Fall 2011 Anne Derryberry, Sage Road Solu@ons, LLC 4 Common Game ARributes • No single, uniﬁed deﬁni@on of “game” • Essen@al elements include: • Bounded game space, including ar@facts • End-‐state goal = winning • Conﬂict(s) or challenge(s) • Rules • Player(s) • No technology requirement. Most game-‐oriented learning ini@a@ves are technology-‐based.
Fall 2011 Anne Derryberry, Sage Road Solu@ons, LLC 5 A Game Is a Complex System • Rules • Variable and quan@ﬁable outcomes • Content, context, goals are factors each @me game is played • Outcomes “economy” • Both posi@ve (harder to reach) and nega@ve (easier to reach) • Reﬂected through levels, points, badges, grades • Player(s) and player work/eﬀort/investment • Players must do things (e.g. complete tasks), cannot be passive • Player aRached to/invested in outcome • What the player does inﬂuences outcome, not just chance • Nego@able consequences Adapted from Jesper Juul hRp://www.@sch.nyu.edu/object/juul_gamectr.html Danish School of Design and NYU
Fall 2011 Anne Derryberry, Sage Road Solu@ons, LLC 6 A Game Is a Closed System • A game is self-‐contained • It doesn’t require or rely on external input • It doesn’t provide output (e.g., a student record) to external systems
Fall 2011 Anne Derryberry, Sage Road Solu@ons, LLC 7 Games Are Classiﬁed by: Approach Purpose Genre Technology to Play • Entertainment • Role-‐playing • Solo • Plaiorm • Serious, i.e., all • Strategy • Parallel • Hardware non-‐ • Puzzle • Social • Sojware entertainment • Simula@on • Coopera@ve/ • Hybrid purposes, e.g., collabora@ve • First-‐person • Augmented • Learning shooter • Compe@@ve reality (educa@on, • Hidden objects • Alterna@ve training, reality lifelong) • Transmedia • Advocacy • Collabora@on and problem-‐ solving • Physical ﬁtness
Fall 2011 Anne Derryberry, Sage Road Solu@ons, LLC 8 Entertainment Games Are Changing Our Lives and Culture in the US 250" 145 47 215 29 21.6 26 200" 150" 100" 50" 0" %"who"spend"money"on"games" %"game"players"over"50"y.o." Ac(ve"gamers,"in"millions" Total"hours"played"per"day,"in"millions" %"Internet"(me"playing"online"games" Total"es(mated"spend"in"2011,"in"billions" Sources: US Na6onal Gamers Survey, conducted June 2011 by Newzoo (www.newzoo.com/ ENG/1589-‐Infograph_ US.html), and Humana Games (www.humana.com).
Fall 2011 Anne Derryberry, Sage Road Solu@ons, LLC 9 THE SERIOUS SIDE OF GAMES Sec@on 2
Fall 2011 Anne Derryberry, Sage Road Solu@ons, LLC 10 “Entertainment Games” Make Sense. What Are Serious Games? • “Serious games” ﬁrst introduced by Clark Abt in 1970 in book of same name. (hRp://www.abtassociates.com/page.cfm?PageID=452) • Brought to wider use by Woodrow Wilson Int’l Center for Scholars with 2002 launch of “Serious Game Ini@a@ve” to encourage development of games that address policy and management issues. Subsequently, included Games for Change and Games for Health. (www.seriousgames.org)
Fall 2011 Anne Derryberry, Sage Road Solu@ons, LLC 11 Serious Games Meet Computers • Updated deﬁni@on by Mike Zyda in 2005*: • a mental contest, played with a computer in accordance with speciﬁc rules, that uses entertainment to further government or corporate training, educa@on, health, public policy, and strategic communica@on objec@ves. • NOTE: Computers were “necessary” because this deﬁni@on was derived for use by the Ins@tute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. * Zyda, M. 2005, From visual simula@on to virtual reality to games. IEEE Computer, Sept 2005.
Fall 2011 Anne Derryberry, Sage Road Solu@ons, LLC 12 Gartner Hype Cycle for Emerging Technologies Includes Games hRp://www.gartner.com/hc/images/215650_0001.gif
Fall 2011 Anne Derryberry, Sage Road Solu@ons, LLC 13 Many Industries and Disciplines Use Serious Games to Reach Audiences Marke@n g & Adver@si Govern The Apply Group ng ment predicts that between ate 100 and 135 of the C orpor g Train in Educa@on Global Fortune 500 s Poli@c Work will have adopted pla Perso ce/ games for learning by od Produ nal a l Go the end of 2012, with Health c@vit y Soci care the United States, United Kingdom and Journalism Germany leading the y Emergency Militar way. Services
Fall 2011 Anne Derryberry, Sage Road Solu@ons, LLC 14 Many Forms/Formats for Serious Games -‐ Known by Many Names • Learning Games • Newsgames • Educa@on games • Immersive Learning • Training games Simula@ons • Simula@on games • Social Impact games • Virtual Reality Games • Persuasive Games • Alternate-‐Reality Games • Games for Change • Edutainment • Games for Good • Digital Game-‐based Learning • Games for Health • Synthe@c Learning • Gamiﬁca@on Environments • Gamiﬁed [whatever] • Augmented Reality Games
Fall 2011 Anne Derryberry, Sage Road Solu@ons, LLC 15 Organiza@ons Use “Gamiﬁca@on” Techniques to Engage Audiences • Gamiﬁca@on = game dynamics and reward systems applied to an online experience in order to: • promote awareness, adop@on and aRachment • induce par@cipa@on • make tedious content/ac@vi@es seem less odious • Based on behavior management systems that give recogni@on for par@cipa@on, engagement via: • Contests • Badges • Leaderboards
Fall 2011 Anne Derryberry, Sage Road Solu@ons, LLC 16 EXAMPLES OF SERIOUS GAMES Sec@on 3
Fall 2011 Anne Derryberry, Sage Road Solu@ons, LLC 17 Military Corporate Training Defense Acquisi@on University uses games Innov8, the IBM Business Process and simula@ons in three diﬀerent Management (BPM) simula@on game, gives ini@a@ves: Games in Curriculum, Games in both IT and business players a beRer Con@nuous Learning Modules, and Mini-‐ understanding of how eﬀec@ve BPM Games—each of which was created with impacts an en@re business ecosystem. the end result of learning in mind. hRp://www-‐01.ibm.com/ hRps://clc.dau.mil/games sojware/solu@ons/soa/innov8/index.html Anne Derryberry, Sage Road Solu@ons, LLC
Fall 2011 Anne Derryberry, Sage Road Solu@ons, LLC 18 MarkeAng Workplace/Personal ProducAvity Dunkin’ Donuts uses its Facebook page to Based on social intelligence research put up games to promote their brand. conducted at McGill University, MindHabits Winners win coupons to purchase... Dunkin’ presents stress bus@ng, conﬁdence boos@ng Donuts food items. games designed to help players develop and hRp://www.facebook.com/ maintain a more posi@ve state of mind. DunkinDonuts?sk=app_116533491769429 hRp://www.mindhabits.com/index.php
Fall 2011 Anne Derryberry, Sage Road Solu@ons, LLC 19 Government Emergency Services As part of its outreach eﬀorts to kids, the CIA With the services of the University of has included a number of games on its Maryland CATT LAB, the I-‐95 Coali@on has website. Games “test” players’ intelligence-‐ designed and developed a virtual traﬃc-‐gathering abili@es. incident management training system for ﬁrst hRps://www.cia.gov/kids-‐page/ responders. games/index.html hRp://www.caRlab.umd.edu/ index.php?page=research&a=00028
Fall 2011 Anne Derryberry, Sage Road Solu@ons, LLC 20 PoliAcs Social Good Campaign Game is a poli@cally-‐themed turn-‐ EVOKE was developed by the World Bank based tac@cal combat game. You choose a Ins@tute as a “10-‐week crash course” in candidate, pick your staﬀ, and literally ﬁght it changing the world. It is free to play and is out with the opposi@on — slinging mud, open to everyone, everywhere. The goal of launching aRack ads, and holding rallies to the game is to help empower people all over capture states and earn funds. the world to come up with crea@ve solu@ons www.kongregate.com/games/ to our most urgent social problems. thup/campaign-‐game hRp://www.urgentevoke.com/
Fall 2011 Anne Derryberry, Sage Road Solu@ons, LLC 21 Journalism Healthcare Budget Hero, produced by American Public Humana’s Famscape is an online experience that Media, provides an interac@ve experience rewards players for improving their real world involving policy op@ons that have been health and lifestyle. An online community of extensively researched and veRed with non-‐ family and friends mo@vates, encourages and par@san government and think tank experts to challenges each other to strive for and sustain enable players to objec@vely evaluate healthy living and a balanced life. candidates. hRp://www.myfamscape.com/ hRp://budgethero.publicradio.org/ widget/widget.php#
Fall 2011 Anne Derryberry, Sage Road Solu@ons, LLC 22 Problem-‐solving Charity Foldit, developed at the University of Wetopia is a social game on Facebook. Players Washington, aRempts to predict the structure build a town, and use the Joy points they earn to of a protein by taking advantage of humans’ donate to children’s chari@es around the world. puzzle-‐solving intui@ons and having people hRps://www.facebook.com/WeTopiaOﬃcial play compe@@vely to fold the best proteins. hRp://fold.it/portal/
Fall 2011 Anne Derryberry, Sage Road Solu@ons, LLC 23 ESSENTIAL TERMINOLOGY Sec@on 4
Fall 2011 Anne Derryberry, Sage Road Solu@ons, LLC 24 Essen@al Terminology Alternate-‐reality game – an interac@ve narra@ve that uses the real world and game elements as a plaiorm to tell a story that may be aﬀected by par@cipants ideas or ac@ons. Ojen involves mul@ple media, in which case can be referred to as “transmedia games” Augmented-‐reality game – games relying on a live direct or an indirect view of a physical, real-‐world environment whose elements are augmented by computer-‐generated sensory input such as sound, video, graphics or GPS data Casual game – a single-‐player game that can be completed in 10-‐20 minutes Console – a non-‐PC compu@ng device used to play a variety of games. Can be handheld using no Internet connec@vity (e.g., Nintendo DS), or connected to a TV or monitor to take advantage of larger screen (e.g., PS2) or to enable Internet access (e.g., Xbox Live). Edutainment – a game category that emphasizes fun, yet purports to oﬀer some educa@on value. This type of game has fallen out of favor since there is typically no educa@onal rigor involved in the game’s design. Flash game – any kind of game that is built in Flash and is accessed via web browser. Since Flash penetra@on is nearly 100% in web browsers, this is the common denominator in the developer community.
Fall 2011 Anne Derryberry, Sage Road Solu@ons, LLC 25 Terminology (p.2) Game theory – an economic theory to describe investor decision-‐making Game layer – alternate term for gamiﬁca@on Game mechanics/game dynamics – the interac@ons between players and the game Gamer – a frequent player of videogames. Carries some nega@ve stereotyping. GamiﬁcaAon – the prac@ce of applying behavior mo@va@ng techniques from tradi@onal games to non-‐game experiences Gaming – gambling (although increasingly used for nonbe~ng games) Immersive environments -‐ characterized by Persistent Mul@-‐par@cipant 3D Online/virtual n.b., Not all immersive environments are games, and not all games employ immersive environments. Mobile game – requires mobile device to play
Fall 2011 Anne Derryberry, Sage Road Solu@ons, LLC 26 Terminology (p.3) Mod – short for modiﬁca@on. Some commercial @tles have made a “kit” available to enable development of addi@onal content that is compa@ble with that game’s system. Mods can be extensions of the original game design or can take a game in an en@rely new direc@on, e.g., teaching/learning purpose. Online game – a game that requires an Internet connec@on to play Serious game – a non-‐entertainment game SimulaAon – a facsimile of RW event(s) without RW consequences. Most simula@ons include game dynamics, although this is not essen@al to the category. Social game – a casual game played by many people using a common plaiorm (e.g., Farmville on Facebook) Videogame – a non-‐browser based online game Virtual world – a persistent, 3D, digital environment (e.g., Second Life). Applica@ons include training/educa@on, small-‐ to large-‐group collabora@on, virtual social, pornography, sales and marke@ng… Games may or may not be included.