Mineralized tissues

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Our Zoology200 midterm lesson by Mr. Claver Digamon

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Mineralized tissues

  1. 1. MINERALIZED TISSUES<br />
  2. 2.
  3. 3.
  4. 4. MESENCHYME<br />FIBROBLAST SCLEROBLAST MYOBLAST <br />FIBROCYTE MYOCYTES <br />ODONTOBLAST CHONDROBLAST OSTEOBLAST<br />DENTIN CHONDROCYTES OSTEOCYTES<br />TEETH CARTILAGES BONE<br />
  5. 5. <ul><li>Osteology – study of structure, function and </li></ul> composition of bones<br />Chondrology - study of structure, function and <br /> composition of cartilges<br />Function Of Bones<br /><ul><li>Support
  6. 6. Protection
  7. 7. Movement
  8. 8. Mineral storage
  9. 9. Hemopoeisis/hematopoiesis
  10. 10. Leverage for locomotion</li></li></ul><li>Gross Anatomy of Bones<br />I. Compact Bones<br />Long Bones<br />Diaphysis<br />-tubular part<br />Epiphyses<br />-bone ends<br />Epiphyseal Plate<br />
  11. 11. <ul><li>Blood Vessel</li></ul>-with nutrient arteries and veins<br /><ul><li>Medullary cavity</li></ul>-marrow cavity of bones<br />Membrane<br />Periosteum<br />-covers the entire outer surface of each bone except in epiphyses<br />Endosteum<br /> - innermost covering of bones<br />
  12. 12. Chemical Composition of Bones<br />1. Organic components<br /><ul><li>Collagen fibers
  13. 13. CHON
  14. 14. Polyssacharides</li></ul>2. Inorganic components<br /><ul><li>calcium phosphate
  15. 15. calcium carbonate
  16. 16. Hydroxypatite ions</li></li></ul><li>Microscopic anatomy of bones<br />
  17. 17. The haversian system<br />
  18. 18. Bone Development<br />OSSIFICATION – process of bone <br /> development<br />1. Intramembranous ossification<br /> - direct bone development of membrane <br /> bones<br />2.Endochondral ossification<br /> - development of bones preceeded by <br /> cartilages<br />
  19. 19. Classification of Bones<br />1. Long Bones<br /> Ex. femur, humerus<br />2. Short Bones<br />Ex. trapezoid<br />3. Flat Bones<br />Ex. Sternum, ribs<br />4. Irregular Bones<br /> Ex. Hip bones, vertebrae<br />
  20. 20. TYPES OF BONES : (OSTEOGENESIS)<br />Compact Bone (Lamellar Bone)<br /> - hard bone matrix – CaCO3,CaPO4,OH)<br /> - long bones<br />2. Spongy Bone (Cancelous Bone)<br /> - consist of bony trabecullae and bone marrow<br /> - trabeculae – beams,bars,rods<br /> - irregularly arranged lamellae without haversian canals<br />
  21. 21. BONE MARROW <br />Occupies cavities between trabellae<br />Yellow marrow – a reticulum of connective tissue fibers that support blood vessels, nerve fibers, adipose tissues<br />Red Marrow – (Hemopoietic Bone)<br /> - site of RBC and Some type of WBC <br /> production<br />- ex. Flat bones<br />
  22. 22. 3.ACELLAR BONES (ASPIDIN)<br /><ul><li>Bones formed in scales of modern fishes
  23. 23. No canaliculi
  24. 24. Ex. Scales of fishes,cementum of teeth</li></ul>4. MEMBRANE BONE<br />formed by blastema (mesenchymal cells w/c differentiates into tissues)<br />Develop through ossification<br />Bone deposited directly within the membranous blastema without being preceeded by cartilages (intramembranous)<br />May be compact or spongy,lamellar or non-lamellar, no haversian canals<br />Ex. Lower jaw, skull, pectoral girdles,dentin, dermal bones of teleost,apodans<br />
  25. 25. 5. Replacement Bones<br />Arise from pre-existing cartilages<br />Soft bones<br />Endochondral ossification<br />Ex. Fontannels, tetrapod bones with cartilaginous diaphysis and 2 epiphysis, epiphyseal plate<br />
  26. 26. II. Cartilage <br />- specialized connective tissue in which fibers are laid down along the lines of stress in long, parallel arrays firm and flexible <br />chondrocytes - cartilage cells that live within spaces (lacunae) within cartilage matrix<br />-CHONDRIFICATION – chondroblast- chondrocytes<br />17<br />
  27. 27. Cartilage<br />18<br />
  28. 28.
  29. 29. TYPES OF CARTILAGES<br />
  30. 30. 4. THE CALCIFIED CARTILAGE<br />The cartilages replaced by bones<br />Ex. Jaw, fins of sharks, fontannels of the fetal human skull<br />
  31. 31. III. DENTIN<br />Developed from the odontoblast<br />Odontoblast are not trapped in lacunae during osteogenesis – retreat as dentin deposits<br />Canaliculi – dentibal tubules<br />Ex. Enameloid of placoid scales, dentin of the teeth<br />
  32. 32. IV. ENAMEL<br />Developed from ameloblasts<br />Teeth – important for digestion<br />
  33. 33. V. BONE REMODELING<br /> PRESKELETAL MESENCHYMAL BLASTEMA<br />CARTILAGES<br />RESORPTION OF Ca Membrane Bone<br />Replacement Bones<br /> CONTINUAL RESORPTION AND REMODELING<br />
  34. 34. PARATHORMONE AND CALCITONIN<br />The hormones that influence or regulates the withdrawal of calcium to maintain calcification<br />OSTEOBLAST – developing bone cells<br />OSTEOCLAST – bone destructing cells<br />OSTEOCYTES – bone-building cells<br />
  35. 35. VI. CONNECTIVE TISSUES OF BONES<br />TENDON<br />LIGAMENTS<br />CARTILAGES<br />
  36. 36.
  37. 37. Phases of Healing of Fractures<br /><ul><li>Hematoma Formation
  38. 38. Fibrocartilaginous Callus Formation
  39. 39. Body Callus Formation
  40. 40. Bone Remodeling</li></li></ul><li>FRACTURE HEALING<br />HEMATOMA FORMATION<br />CARTILAGINOUS CALLUS<br />REMODELING<br />BONY CALLUS<br />& CARTILAGI-NOUS MEMBRANE<br />NORMAL <br />BONE<br />
  41. 41. The Articular System<br />Joints/articulation<br />-places where the rigid elements of the skeleton meet.<br />TYPES OF JOINTS ACCORDING TO FUNCTION:<br />1. Synarthroses<br />-fixed or immovable joints<br />2. Amphiarthroses<br />-slightly movable joints<br />3. Diarthroses<br />-freely movable joints<br />
  42. 42. TYPES OF JOINTS ACCORDING TO STRUCTURE:<br />1. FIBROUS JOINTS<br />a. structures<br />-minimal connected tissue<br />b. syndesmoses<br />-connected by ligaments<br />c. gamphoses<br />-peg-in-socket joint<br />
  43. 43. 2. CARTILAGINOUS JOINTS<br />a. synchondrosis<br />-hyaline cartilage<br />b.symphyses<br />-fibrocartilage<br />3. SYNOVIAL JOINTS<br />-most movable joints of the body<br />-diarthoroses<br />
  44. 44. Features of Synovial joints<br />1. Articular cartilage<br />2. Joint cavity/ synovial cavity<br />3. Articular Capsule<br />2 LAYERS:<br />a. fibrous capsule<br />-strengthens joint so that bones are not pulled apart<br />b. synovial membrane<br />-cover enternal joint surfaces<br />4. Synovial fluid<br />-a filtrate of blood which contains glycoproteins <br />5. Reinforgang ligaments<br />-thickened parts of fibrous capsule itself<br />a. Extracapsular ligament<br />b. Intracapsular ligament<br />6. Nerves and Blood vessels<br />
  45. 45. SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE<br />
  46. 46. Types of Synovial joints<br />1. Plane joints<br />-nonaxial joint<br />2. Hinge joints<br />-uniaxial joint(flexible)<br />3. Pivot joints<br />- rotatory, uniaxial joint<br />4. Condyloid joints<br />- biaxial joint<br />5. Ball and Socket joints<br />-multiaxial joint<br />
  47. 47.
  48. 48.
  49. 49.
  50. 50. HETEROTROPIC BONES<br />OS CORDIS<br />OS CLITORIDIS<br />OS BACULUM<br />ROSTRUM<br />

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