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9-Month Program, Intake40, CEI Track
GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS I - FUNDAMENTALS
Application of GIS in
Flood Hazard Mapping
Ahmed Gamal Abdel Gawad
 TEACHING ASSISTANT AT MENOUFIYA UNIVERSITY.
 GRADE: EXCELLENT WITH HONORS.
 BEST MEMBER AT ‘UTW-7 PROGRAM’, ECG.
 ITI 9-MONTH PROGRAM, INT40, CEI TRACK STUDENT.
 AUTODESK REVIT CERTIFIED PROFESSIONAL.
 BACHELOR OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, 2016.
 LECTURER OF ‘DESIGN OF R.C.’ COURSE, YOUTUBE.
ABOUT ME
CONTENTS
Overview
GIS Basics
Water Resources Engineering
GIS and Water Resources
Flood Hazard Mapping
Research Paper
Flood mapping in ArcGIS
Overview
Overview
 A geographic information system (GIS) is a framework for
gathering, managing, and analyzing data.
 Rooted in the science of geography, GIS integrates many
types of data. It analyzes spatial location and organizes
layers of information into visualizations using maps and 3D
scenes.
 With this unique capability, GIS reveals deeper insights
into data, such as patterns, relationships, and situations—
helping users make smarter decisions.
6
Overview
 Geographic information systems (GIS) have become an
increasingly important means for understanding and dealing
with the pressing problems of water and related resources
management in our world.
 GIS concepts and technologies help us collect and organize the
data about such problems and understand their spatial
relationships.
 GIS analysis capabilities provide ways for modeling and
synthesizing information that contribute to supporting decisions
for resource management across a wide range of scales, from
local to global.
7
Overview
 A GIS also provides a means for visualizing resource
characteristics, thereby enhancing understanding in support of
decision making.
 Several definitions of GIS are offered to introduce the concepts
and technologies that comprise GIS. A general overview of GIS
involves the technologies for data capture and conversion, data
management, and analysis.
 Also, there is a need to be aware of the management
dimensions of GIS, as implementation of GIS can require basic
changes in the way engineering planning and design are
accomplished.
8
Applications for GIS
 Business
 Military & Defense
 Scientific Research
 Real Estate & Marketing
 Transportation
 Urban Planning & Management
 Civil Engineering/Utility
 Environmental Sciences
 Health Care
 Political Science
9
GIS Basics
Geographical Information System
 A Geographic Information System (GIS) can be defined as a
system of hardware, software, data and organizational
structure for collecting, storing, manipulating and
analyzing spatially related or 'geo-referenced' data and
presenting information resulting from the analysis.
12
Geographical Information System
A more detailed definition introduces GIS as: "any
Information system which can:
 Collect, store and retrieve information based on its spatial
locations;
 Identify locations within a targeted environment which
meet specific criteria;
 Explore relationships among data sets within that
Environment;
13
Geographical Information System
A more detailed definition introduces GIS as: "any
Information system which can:
 Analyze the related data spatially as an aid to making
decisions;
 Facilitate selecting and passing data to applications-
specific analytical models capable of assessing the impact
of alternatives, and
 Display the selected environment both graphically and
numerically either before or after analysis“.
14
Information Systems
Information systems are:
 Dominant tool.
 Set of computer programs that are
used to input (encode) information
and store it in a structured manner.
 Information can be retrieved,
analyzed and, finally, reported as a
table, graph, map or picture.
15
Importance of Information
Knowledge is power:
 Information enables controlling a
problem parameters.
 With perfect information, optimal
decisions can be made.
 If it is Impossible to be perfectly
informed, so decisions are expected
to be imperfect.
16
Spatial Information
 Spatially related information refers
to location on the earth that can be
represented by latitude, longitude
and altitude.
 Between 70 and 80% of the digital
information is spatially related.
 Spatial information allow
representation on placed on a map.
 There are different tools that allow
dealing with spatial information.
17
GIS as Information System
 GIS is an information system
specializing in the input, storage,
manipulation, analysis and
reporting of spatially related
information.
18
GIS Process
19
GIS System Structure
20
Knowledge Base for GIS
21
Main Functions of a GIS
GIS as database applications where:
 All information in a GIS is linked to a spatial reference.
 Other databases may contain location information (street
addresses, zip codes, etc.).
 GIS database uses geo-references as the primary means
of storing and accessing information.
22
Main Functions of a GIS
GIS as an important tool that:
 Must serve a purpose.
 Not an end in itself but a mean (process) to achieve this end.
 Should be viewed as a process rather than as software or
hardware.
 For decision-thinking (scenarios) and decision-making
(strategies).
 75% of the time used to be spent at building the spatial
database:
Acquiring data for a new GIS has become much simpler.
23
Main Functions of a GIS
GIS as an Integrating Technology:
 Evolved by linking a number of discrete technologies:
A whole that is greater than the sum of its parts.
 Integrate geographical data and methods:
Support traditional forms of geographical analysis.
Map overlay analysis.
Thematic mapping.
 Integrate geographical data and methods:
Support traditional forms of geographical analysis.
Map overlay analysis.
Thematic mapping.
 Integrates people, data, hardware and software.
24
Data Integration in GIS Environment
 Roads
 Land Parcels
 Population
 Utilities
 Land Mines
 Hospitals
 Refugee Camps
 Wells
 Sanitation
25
The Overlay Concept
26
The Overlay Concept
 GIS is concerned in answering the questions
Where is the location
What is the attribute
Why is analytical
 GIS depends largely on the concept of overlay in
representing data of different types. Each data type can
be represented in a separate layer and overlaid in a
modern GIS.
27
The Overlay Concept
 With the overlay concept any type of information can be
depicted in a separate layer. Also, two layers or more
can be retrieved on one.
 This provides high degree of freedom to the analysis
processes which enables investigations of different items
separately and also, discover the relationships between
any two or more factors.
28
The Overlay Concept
 Each layer contains features
with similar attributes, like
streets and land parcels, that
are located in the same
geographic extent.
 This simple, but powerful and
versatile, concept has proven
invaluable for solving real-
world problems.
29
The Overlay Concept
Examples
30
The Overlay Concept
Examples
31
GIS Data Model Implementation
 Data is organized by layers, coverages or themes (synonymous
concepts), with each layer representing a common feature.
 Layers are integrated using explicit location on the earth’s
surface, thus geographic location is the organizing principal.
32
GIS Data Types
Graphic (Spatial) data:
 Graphic data is data that can be shown symbolically on
maps or pictorially of photographs. It represents natural
and cultural features whose sizes, shapes and locations
are known.
 These features are represented in a GIS environment in a
digitized form using combinations of fundamental
elements. The standard fundamental elements includes
points, lines and strings, areas and polygons, pixels and
grid cells.
33
GIS Data Types
Non-Graphic (Non-spatial) data:
 Used to describe the characteristics, qualities or relative
special relationships of features or geographic regions.
 Non-graphic data are usually derived from non graphic
sources such as files, tables and documents. They also
stored in separate computer files. There are two types of
non-graphic data used, the attributes and the relative
spatial relationships.
34
Water Resources Engineering
Water Resources Engineering
 Water resources engineering is concerned with the
analysis and design of systems to manage the quantity,
quality, timing, and distribution of water to meet the
needs of human societies and the natural environment.
 Water resources are of critical importance to society
because these systems sustain our livelihood and the
ecosystems on which we depend. However, there may be
too little or too much water; and what there is may not
be located where we need it, or it may be too polluted or
too expensive.
36
Water Resources Engineering
 All of these factors emphasize the need for wise
development and management of our water resources.
Facilities for water supply and wastewater disposal,
collection and control of flood runoff, and maintenance of
habitat are examples of the relevant applications of water
resources engineering.
 Water resources infrastructure development occurs as a
long process involving information gathering and
interpretation, plan development, decision making and
financing, construction, and operation.
37
Water Resources Engineering
 The below schematic diagram illustrates the process of setting
objectives, data collection and synthesis, planning and design,
gathering of information for decision making, and taking action.
It begins and ends with the real world, a world that is
inherently spatial.
38
GIS and Water Resources
Domains of GIS in Water Engineering
40
Domains of GIS in Water Engineering
A spectrum of domains for the application of GIS to water
resources engineering are includes:
 Surface water hydrology
 Groundwater hydrology
 Water supply for irrigation
 Wastewater and storm water
 Floodplains
 Water quality
 Monitoring and warning
 River basins
41
Applications of GIS in Water Engineering
 GIS provides an integrating data and modeling
environment for the conduct of these activities. A GIS
provides a means to collect and archive data on the
environment.
 Measurements of location, distance, and flow by various
devices are typically handled in digital formats and
quickly integrated into a spatial database.
 Data processing, synthesis, and modeling activities can
draw on these data using the GIS, and analysis results can
be archived as well.
42
Applications of GIS in Water Engineering
 The GIS spatial and attribute database can then be used
to generate reports and maps, often interactively, to
support decision making on which design alternatives are
best and the impacts of these.
 Further, maps are a powerful communication medium;
thus this information can be presented in public forums so
that citizens concerned with planning and design choices
can better understand and be more involved.
43
Flood Hazard Mapping
Flood Hazard Mapping
 Flood hazard mapping is an exercise to define those
coastal areas which are at risk of flooding under extreme
conditions. As such, its primary objective is to reduce the
impact of coastal flooding.
45
Flood Hazard Mapping
 However, mapping of erosion
risk areas may serve to achieve
erosion risk reduction. It acts as
an information system to
enhance our understanding and
awareness of coastal risk.
46
Flood Hazard Mapping
 Flood hazard assessment and mapping is used to identify
areas at risk of flooding, and consequently to improve
flood risk management and disaster preparedness.
 Flood hazard assessments and maps typically look at the
expected extent and depth of flooding in a given location,
based on various scenarios (e.g. 100-year events, 50-year
events, etc.).
47
Flood Hazard Mapping
 Flood hazard maps can be used by developers to
determine if an area is at risk of flooding, and by insurers
to determine flood insurance premiums in areas where
flood insurance exists.
48
GIS Flood Analysis
 Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are successfully
used to visualize the extent of flooding and also to
analyze the flood maps to produce flood damage
estimation maps and flood risk map.
 The GIS must be used together with a hydraulic method to
estimate flood profile with a given return period.
50
Research Paper
About Paper
 © 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Faculty of
Engineering, Alexandria University.
52
Abstract
 The geomorphological characteristics of the basin are
more commonly used for flood hazard mapping of the
watersheds suffering from scarcity of data.
 In this study, Geographic Information System (GIS)
techniques have been used to carry out the morphometric
analysis of Wadi Qena watershed. The morphometric
parameters considered for analysis are Drainage intensity
(Di), Form factor ratio (FFR) and Circularity ratio (Rc).
53
 Each parameter has been categorized into five grades
ranking from 1 for the lowest hazard grade to 5 for the
highest hazard grade.
 The analysis shows that with respect to the values of Di,
FFR, and Rc, the highest three hazard degree areas
covered about 24.2%, 56.9%, and 46.82% of the total area
respectively. Consecutively, the number of sub-basins
which are classified at the highest three hazard degrees
equals 6, 32 and 38 sub-basins.
Abstract
54
 The overall assessment map indicates that the sub-basins
with hazard degree from moderate to high are equal 34
sub-basins with total area equals 9779.04 km2 (about
63.14% of the total area of Wadi Qena watershed).
 The final developed flood hazard map can initiate
appropriate measures to mitigate the flood hazards in the
area and helps for watershed management.
Abstract
55
 Floods often happen in arid areas as a result of heavy
rains, which sometimes cause significant loss of life and
infrastructure.
 Flood hazard mapping is needed to appropriate land use
and development in flooded areas where the created
maps mitigate their effect.
 Also, flood hazard mapping is very necessary for
managements of water resources and the sustainable
development of watershed in addition to the protection
from the flood hazard and drought.
1. Introduction
56
 The study area is located at the eastern side of Qena
meander in the Upper Egypt. Wadi Qena is located
between Red Sea in the east and River Nile in the
west (Fig. 1).
2. Study Area Description
57
2. Study Area Description
58
 The area of Wadi Qena watershed is approximately 15455
km2. Based on Koppen climate classification, the climate
of the study area is classified as hot summers and cold
winters as it is located in the dry desert.
 According to Egyptian meteorological Authority (EMA), the
rainfall in the study area is scarce with an average value
of 3.2 mm a year and in summers the highest recorded
temperature reached to 41o in July.
2. Study Area Description
59
 The climatic data for Wadi Qena drainage basin are
traditionally acquired from the closest weather station
which is located at 26o30’N and 33o06’E in the south of
the watershed.
2. Study Area Description
60
 The mountainous area which located in the eastern
boundary is varies in elevation by ranges from 77 m to
1866 m Above the Mean Sea Level (AMSL) (Fig. 2).
2. Study Area Description
61
2. Study Area Description
62
 The present study deals with the available data that are
useful in order to do the work about the area such as Digital
elevation model (DEM).
 DEM is a digital representation of the topographic surface. It
is used for analysis of topography, modelling of surface
processes, as well as providing flood risk zone.
3. Materials and Methodology
3.1 Digital elevation model (DEM)
63
 The DEM is essential for evaluation both hydrologic
parameters such as, flow direction, flow accumulation,
watershed delineation, drainage networks, and flow length as
well as topographic parameters for example slopes, slope
length and shape and aspects.
3. Materials and Methodology
3.1 Digital elevation model (DEM)
64
 The United States Geological Survey website
(www.usgs.gov) offers the Shuttle Radar Topography
Mission (SRTM) data which is required to extract and
generate The DEM of Wadi Qena drainage basin (Fig. 3).
3. Materials and Methodology
3.1 Digital elevation model (DEM)
65
3. Materials and Methodology
3.1 Digital elevation model (DEM)
66
 To carry out these analyses, the digital elevation model
(90 m resolution DEM) has been used to extract the
drainage network.
 The watershed basin of the study area has been created
by utilizing terrain pre-processing. This pre-processing
used the digital elevation model (DEM) of Wadi Qena
watershed.
3. Materials and Methodology
3.2 Methodology
67
 The flow accumulation could be created to get the
watershed basin (Fig. 4).
3. Materials and Methodology
3.2 Methodology
68
 The post-processing involved using the DEM in a GIS
environment for estimation the morphometric parameters:
(stream order (u), area (A), stream number (Nu), stream length
(Lu), drainage density (D), stream frequency (F), Drainage
intensity (Di), Form factor ratio (FFR) and Circularity ratio (Rc)).
 Stream ordering is the major parameter of qualitative and
quantitative analyses of any drainage basin.
 Drainage density (D) is the ratio between the total distance
where the streams run in the sub-basin to total sub-basin
area.
3. Materials and Methodology
3.2 Methodology
69
 The stream frequency (F) of a drainage basin is the total
number of streams of all orders per square kilometer.
 The drainage intensity (Di) is defined as the proportion of
the stream frequency to the drainage density.
 The form factor ratio (FFR) is defined as the ratio of basin
area to square of the basin length.
3. Materials and Methodology
3.2 Methodology
70
 The circularity ratio represents the proportion between the
area of the basin and the area of a circle whose
circumference is equal to the basin perimeter.
 To evaluate the flash flood hazard of the study area, a hazard
scale that ranges from 1 (the lowest) to 5 (the highest) is set
for all parameters.
3. Materials and Methodology
3.2 Methodology
71
The hazard degrees for the sub-basins are distributed as
follows:
 Finding out of the minimum and maximum values of each
morphometric parameter for the sub-basins.
 Calculations of the actual hazard degree for all parameters that
are situated between the minimum and maximum values.
 Assuming a straight linear relation exists between samples points
and intermediate values of hazard degree can be calculated from
the geometric relationship.
3. Materials and Methodology
3.2 Methodology
72
 For the parameters, have directly proportional relationship:
 For the parameters, have inverse proportional relationship:
3. Materials and Methodology
3.2 Methodology
73
4. Results and Discussion
74
4. Results and Discussion
4.1 Drainage intensity (Di)
75
4. Results and Discussion
4.1 Drainage intensity (Di)
76
4. Results and Discussion
4.2 Form factor ratio (FFR)
77
4. Results and Discussion
4.2 Form factor ratio (FFR)
78
4. Results and Discussion
4.3 Circularity ratio (Rc)
79
4. Results and Discussion
4.3 Circularity ratio (Rc)
80
4. Results and Discussion
4.4 Overall assessment
 The final flood hazard map was produced by calculation
the summation of the hazard degrees for each sub-basin
(Fig. 13).
81
4. Results and Discussion
4.4 Overall assessment
82
4. Results and Discussion
4.4 Overall assessment
83
4. Results and Discussion
4.4 Overall assessment
84
5. Conclusions
 Flood hazard map was prepared to delineate flood-prone
areas. The results show that based on the values of Di,
FFR, and Rc the numbers of the highest three hazard
degree areas are 6, 32 and 38 sub-basins and covered
about 24.2%, 56.9%, and 46.82% respectively of the total
area of the watershed.
 The overall assessment map indicates that the sub-basins
with hazard degree from moderate to high are equal 34
sub-basins with total area equals 9779.04 km2 (about
63.14% of the total area of Wadi Qena watershed).
85
5. Conclusions
 Most of the hazard areas are located in the southern part
by 25 areas. Such map helps the decision makers to
evaluate the potential impacts of natural risks quickly and
assist further to initiate appropriate measures for impact
reduction.
 The results shown in this research can help the
developers, planners and engineers for effective planning
and developments and to minimize the harmful effects of
flash floods.
86
Flood mapping in ArcGIS
Flood mapping in ArcGIS
88
▸ Geographic Information Systems In Water Resources Engineering, Lynn E.
Johnson
▸ Introduction to Geographical Information System, Dr. Eng. Fahmy F. Asal
▸ GIS Data Model, Data Types and Data Sources, Dr. Eng. Fahmy F. Asal
▸ Flood hazard mapping, Climate Technology Centre & Network
https://www.ctc-n.org/technologies/flood-hazard-mapping
📖References
89
▸ Flood mapping in ArcGIS, GIS Application, Youtube video
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1o5wnZTCJl4
▸ GIS Flood Analysis - Esri Canada Higher Education & Research, Youtube video
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YqjfdobHBFA
▸ Flood Hazard Mapping by Using Geographic Information System and Hydraulic
Model: Mert River, Samsun, Turkey, Vahdettin Demir and Ozgur Kisi
https://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2016/4891015/
▸ Runoff hazard analysis of Wadi Qena Watershed, Egypt based on GIS and
remote sensing approach, Wael M. Elsadek, Mona G. Ibrahim, Wael Elham
Mahmod
📖References
90
Any Questions?
91
THANK YOU 
linkedin.com/in/aGaabdelgawad/

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Application of GIS in Flood Hazard Mapping - GIS I Fundamentals - CEI40 - AGA

  • 1. 9-Month Program, Intake40, CEI Track GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS I - FUNDAMENTALS Application of GIS in Flood Hazard Mapping Ahmed Gamal Abdel Gawad
  • 2.  TEACHING ASSISTANT AT MENOUFIYA UNIVERSITY.  GRADE: EXCELLENT WITH HONORS.  BEST MEMBER AT ‘UTW-7 PROGRAM’, ECG.  ITI 9-MONTH PROGRAM, INT40, CEI TRACK STUDENT.  AUTODESK REVIT CERTIFIED PROFESSIONAL.  BACHELOR OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, 2016.  LECTURER OF ‘DESIGN OF R.C.’ COURSE, YOUTUBE. ABOUT ME
  • 3. CONTENTS Overview GIS Basics Water Resources Engineering GIS and Water Resources Flood Hazard Mapping Research Paper Flood mapping in ArcGIS
  • 5.
  • 6. Overview  A geographic information system (GIS) is a framework for gathering, managing, and analyzing data.  Rooted in the science of geography, GIS integrates many types of data. It analyzes spatial location and organizes layers of information into visualizations using maps and 3D scenes.  With this unique capability, GIS reveals deeper insights into data, such as patterns, relationships, and situations— helping users make smarter decisions. 6
  • 7. Overview  Geographic information systems (GIS) have become an increasingly important means for understanding and dealing with the pressing problems of water and related resources management in our world.  GIS concepts and technologies help us collect and organize the data about such problems and understand their spatial relationships.  GIS analysis capabilities provide ways for modeling and synthesizing information that contribute to supporting decisions for resource management across a wide range of scales, from local to global. 7
  • 8. Overview  A GIS also provides a means for visualizing resource characteristics, thereby enhancing understanding in support of decision making.  Several definitions of GIS are offered to introduce the concepts and technologies that comprise GIS. A general overview of GIS involves the technologies for data capture and conversion, data management, and analysis.  Also, there is a need to be aware of the management dimensions of GIS, as implementation of GIS can require basic changes in the way engineering planning and design are accomplished. 8
  • 9. Applications for GIS  Business  Military & Defense  Scientific Research  Real Estate & Marketing  Transportation  Urban Planning & Management  Civil Engineering/Utility  Environmental Sciences  Health Care  Political Science 9
  • 11.
  • 12. Geographical Information System  A Geographic Information System (GIS) can be defined as a system of hardware, software, data and organizational structure for collecting, storing, manipulating and analyzing spatially related or 'geo-referenced' data and presenting information resulting from the analysis. 12
  • 13. Geographical Information System A more detailed definition introduces GIS as: "any Information system which can:  Collect, store and retrieve information based on its spatial locations;  Identify locations within a targeted environment which meet specific criteria;  Explore relationships among data sets within that Environment; 13
  • 14. Geographical Information System A more detailed definition introduces GIS as: "any Information system which can:  Analyze the related data spatially as an aid to making decisions;  Facilitate selecting and passing data to applications- specific analytical models capable of assessing the impact of alternatives, and  Display the selected environment both graphically and numerically either before or after analysis“. 14
  • 15. Information Systems Information systems are:  Dominant tool.  Set of computer programs that are used to input (encode) information and store it in a structured manner.  Information can be retrieved, analyzed and, finally, reported as a table, graph, map or picture. 15
  • 16. Importance of Information Knowledge is power:  Information enables controlling a problem parameters.  With perfect information, optimal decisions can be made.  If it is Impossible to be perfectly informed, so decisions are expected to be imperfect. 16
  • 17. Spatial Information  Spatially related information refers to location on the earth that can be represented by latitude, longitude and altitude.  Between 70 and 80% of the digital information is spatially related.  Spatial information allow representation on placed on a map.  There are different tools that allow dealing with spatial information. 17
  • 18. GIS as Information System  GIS is an information system specializing in the input, storage, manipulation, analysis and reporting of spatially related information. 18
  • 22. Main Functions of a GIS GIS as database applications where:  All information in a GIS is linked to a spatial reference.  Other databases may contain location information (street addresses, zip codes, etc.).  GIS database uses geo-references as the primary means of storing and accessing information. 22
  • 23. Main Functions of a GIS GIS as an important tool that:  Must serve a purpose.  Not an end in itself but a mean (process) to achieve this end.  Should be viewed as a process rather than as software or hardware.  For decision-thinking (scenarios) and decision-making (strategies).  75% of the time used to be spent at building the spatial database: Acquiring data for a new GIS has become much simpler. 23
  • 24. Main Functions of a GIS GIS as an Integrating Technology:  Evolved by linking a number of discrete technologies: A whole that is greater than the sum of its parts.  Integrate geographical data and methods: Support traditional forms of geographical analysis. Map overlay analysis. Thematic mapping.  Integrate geographical data and methods: Support traditional forms of geographical analysis. Map overlay analysis. Thematic mapping.  Integrates people, data, hardware and software. 24
  • 25. Data Integration in GIS Environment  Roads  Land Parcels  Population  Utilities  Land Mines  Hospitals  Refugee Camps  Wells  Sanitation 25
  • 27. The Overlay Concept  GIS is concerned in answering the questions Where is the location What is the attribute Why is analytical  GIS depends largely on the concept of overlay in representing data of different types. Each data type can be represented in a separate layer and overlaid in a modern GIS. 27
  • 28. The Overlay Concept  With the overlay concept any type of information can be depicted in a separate layer. Also, two layers or more can be retrieved on one.  This provides high degree of freedom to the analysis processes which enables investigations of different items separately and also, discover the relationships between any two or more factors. 28
  • 29. The Overlay Concept  Each layer contains features with similar attributes, like streets and land parcels, that are located in the same geographic extent.  This simple, but powerful and versatile, concept has proven invaluable for solving real- world problems. 29
  • 32. GIS Data Model Implementation  Data is organized by layers, coverages or themes (synonymous concepts), with each layer representing a common feature.  Layers are integrated using explicit location on the earth’s surface, thus geographic location is the organizing principal. 32
  • 33. GIS Data Types Graphic (Spatial) data:  Graphic data is data that can be shown symbolically on maps or pictorially of photographs. It represents natural and cultural features whose sizes, shapes and locations are known.  These features are represented in a GIS environment in a digitized form using combinations of fundamental elements. The standard fundamental elements includes points, lines and strings, areas and polygons, pixels and grid cells. 33
  • 34. GIS Data Types Non-Graphic (Non-spatial) data:  Used to describe the characteristics, qualities or relative special relationships of features or geographic regions.  Non-graphic data are usually derived from non graphic sources such as files, tables and documents. They also stored in separate computer files. There are two types of non-graphic data used, the attributes and the relative spatial relationships. 34
  • 36. Water Resources Engineering  Water resources engineering is concerned with the analysis and design of systems to manage the quantity, quality, timing, and distribution of water to meet the needs of human societies and the natural environment.  Water resources are of critical importance to society because these systems sustain our livelihood and the ecosystems on which we depend. However, there may be too little or too much water; and what there is may not be located where we need it, or it may be too polluted or too expensive. 36
  • 37. Water Resources Engineering  All of these factors emphasize the need for wise development and management of our water resources. Facilities for water supply and wastewater disposal, collection and control of flood runoff, and maintenance of habitat are examples of the relevant applications of water resources engineering.  Water resources infrastructure development occurs as a long process involving information gathering and interpretation, plan development, decision making and financing, construction, and operation. 37
  • 38. Water Resources Engineering  The below schematic diagram illustrates the process of setting objectives, data collection and synthesis, planning and design, gathering of information for decision making, and taking action. It begins and ends with the real world, a world that is inherently spatial. 38
  • 39. GIS and Water Resources
  • 40. Domains of GIS in Water Engineering 40
  • 41. Domains of GIS in Water Engineering A spectrum of domains for the application of GIS to water resources engineering are includes:  Surface water hydrology  Groundwater hydrology  Water supply for irrigation  Wastewater and storm water  Floodplains  Water quality  Monitoring and warning  River basins 41
  • 42. Applications of GIS in Water Engineering  GIS provides an integrating data and modeling environment for the conduct of these activities. A GIS provides a means to collect and archive data on the environment.  Measurements of location, distance, and flow by various devices are typically handled in digital formats and quickly integrated into a spatial database.  Data processing, synthesis, and modeling activities can draw on these data using the GIS, and analysis results can be archived as well. 42
  • 43. Applications of GIS in Water Engineering  The GIS spatial and attribute database can then be used to generate reports and maps, often interactively, to support decision making on which design alternatives are best and the impacts of these.  Further, maps are a powerful communication medium; thus this information can be presented in public forums so that citizens concerned with planning and design choices can better understand and be more involved. 43
  • 45. Flood Hazard Mapping  Flood hazard mapping is an exercise to define those coastal areas which are at risk of flooding under extreme conditions. As such, its primary objective is to reduce the impact of coastal flooding. 45
  • 46. Flood Hazard Mapping  However, mapping of erosion risk areas may serve to achieve erosion risk reduction. It acts as an information system to enhance our understanding and awareness of coastal risk. 46
  • 47. Flood Hazard Mapping  Flood hazard assessment and mapping is used to identify areas at risk of flooding, and consequently to improve flood risk management and disaster preparedness.  Flood hazard assessments and maps typically look at the expected extent and depth of flooding in a given location, based on various scenarios (e.g. 100-year events, 50-year events, etc.). 47
  • 48. Flood Hazard Mapping  Flood hazard maps can be used by developers to determine if an area is at risk of flooding, and by insurers to determine flood insurance premiums in areas where flood insurance exists. 48
  • 49.
  • 50. GIS Flood Analysis  Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are successfully used to visualize the extent of flooding and also to analyze the flood maps to produce flood damage estimation maps and flood risk map.  The GIS must be used together with a hydraulic method to estimate flood profile with a given return period. 50
  • 52. About Paper  © 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University. 52
  • 53. Abstract  The geomorphological characteristics of the basin are more commonly used for flood hazard mapping of the watersheds suffering from scarcity of data.  In this study, Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques have been used to carry out the morphometric analysis of Wadi Qena watershed. The morphometric parameters considered for analysis are Drainage intensity (Di), Form factor ratio (FFR) and Circularity ratio (Rc). 53
  • 54.  Each parameter has been categorized into five grades ranking from 1 for the lowest hazard grade to 5 for the highest hazard grade.  The analysis shows that with respect to the values of Di, FFR, and Rc, the highest three hazard degree areas covered about 24.2%, 56.9%, and 46.82% of the total area respectively. Consecutively, the number of sub-basins which are classified at the highest three hazard degrees equals 6, 32 and 38 sub-basins. Abstract 54
  • 55.  The overall assessment map indicates that the sub-basins with hazard degree from moderate to high are equal 34 sub-basins with total area equals 9779.04 km2 (about 63.14% of the total area of Wadi Qena watershed).  The final developed flood hazard map can initiate appropriate measures to mitigate the flood hazards in the area and helps for watershed management. Abstract 55
  • 56.  Floods often happen in arid areas as a result of heavy rains, which sometimes cause significant loss of life and infrastructure.  Flood hazard mapping is needed to appropriate land use and development in flooded areas where the created maps mitigate their effect.  Also, flood hazard mapping is very necessary for managements of water resources and the sustainable development of watershed in addition to the protection from the flood hazard and drought. 1. Introduction 56
  • 57.  The study area is located at the eastern side of Qena meander in the Upper Egypt. Wadi Qena is located between Red Sea in the east and River Nile in the west (Fig. 1). 2. Study Area Description 57
  • 58. 2. Study Area Description 58
  • 59.  The area of Wadi Qena watershed is approximately 15455 km2. Based on Koppen climate classification, the climate of the study area is classified as hot summers and cold winters as it is located in the dry desert.  According to Egyptian meteorological Authority (EMA), the rainfall in the study area is scarce with an average value of 3.2 mm a year and in summers the highest recorded temperature reached to 41o in July. 2. Study Area Description 59
  • 60.  The climatic data for Wadi Qena drainage basin are traditionally acquired from the closest weather station which is located at 26o30’N and 33o06’E in the south of the watershed. 2. Study Area Description 60
  • 61.  The mountainous area which located in the eastern boundary is varies in elevation by ranges from 77 m to 1866 m Above the Mean Sea Level (AMSL) (Fig. 2). 2. Study Area Description 61
  • 62. 2. Study Area Description 62
  • 63.  The present study deals with the available data that are useful in order to do the work about the area such as Digital elevation model (DEM).  DEM is a digital representation of the topographic surface. It is used for analysis of topography, modelling of surface processes, as well as providing flood risk zone. 3. Materials and Methodology 3.1 Digital elevation model (DEM) 63
  • 64.  The DEM is essential for evaluation both hydrologic parameters such as, flow direction, flow accumulation, watershed delineation, drainage networks, and flow length as well as topographic parameters for example slopes, slope length and shape and aspects. 3. Materials and Methodology 3.1 Digital elevation model (DEM) 64
  • 65.  The United States Geological Survey website (www.usgs.gov) offers the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data which is required to extract and generate The DEM of Wadi Qena drainage basin (Fig. 3). 3. Materials and Methodology 3.1 Digital elevation model (DEM) 65
  • 66. 3. Materials and Methodology 3.1 Digital elevation model (DEM) 66
  • 67.  To carry out these analyses, the digital elevation model (90 m resolution DEM) has been used to extract the drainage network.  The watershed basin of the study area has been created by utilizing terrain pre-processing. This pre-processing used the digital elevation model (DEM) of Wadi Qena watershed. 3. Materials and Methodology 3.2 Methodology 67
  • 68.  The flow accumulation could be created to get the watershed basin (Fig. 4). 3. Materials and Methodology 3.2 Methodology 68
  • 69.  The post-processing involved using the DEM in a GIS environment for estimation the morphometric parameters: (stream order (u), area (A), stream number (Nu), stream length (Lu), drainage density (D), stream frequency (F), Drainage intensity (Di), Form factor ratio (FFR) and Circularity ratio (Rc)).  Stream ordering is the major parameter of qualitative and quantitative analyses of any drainage basin.  Drainage density (D) is the ratio between the total distance where the streams run in the sub-basin to total sub-basin area. 3. Materials and Methodology 3.2 Methodology 69
  • 70.  The stream frequency (F) of a drainage basin is the total number of streams of all orders per square kilometer.  The drainage intensity (Di) is defined as the proportion of the stream frequency to the drainage density.  The form factor ratio (FFR) is defined as the ratio of basin area to square of the basin length. 3. Materials and Methodology 3.2 Methodology 70
  • 71.  The circularity ratio represents the proportion between the area of the basin and the area of a circle whose circumference is equal to the basin perimeter.  To evaluate the flash flood hazard of the study area, a hazard scale that ranges from 1 (the lowest) to 5 (the highest) is set for all parameters. 3. Materials and Methodology 3.2 Methodology 71
  • 72. The hazard degrees for the sub-basins are distributed as follows:  Finding out of the minimum and maximum values of each morphometric parameter for the sub-basins.  Calculations of the actual hazard degree for all parameters that are situated between the minimum and maximum values.  Assuming a straight linear relation exists between samples points and intermediate values of hazard degree can be calculated from the geometric relationship. 3. Materials and Methodology 3.2 Methodology 72
  • 73.  For the parameters, have directly proportional relationship:  For the parameters, have inverse proportional relationship: 3. Materials and Methodology 3.2 Methodology 73
  • 74. 4. Results and Discussion 74
  • 75. 4. Results and Discussion 4.1 Drainage intensity (Di) 75
  • 76. 4. Results and Discussion 4.1 Drainage intensity (Di) 76
  • 77. 4. Results and Discussion 4.2 Form factor ratio (FFR) 77
  • 78. 4. Results and Discussion 4.2 Form factor ratio (FFR) 78
  • 79. 4. Results and Discussion 4.3 Circularity ratio (Rc) 79
  • 80. 4. Results and Discussion 4.3 Circularity ratio (Rc) 80
  • 81. 4. Results and Discussion 4.4 Overall assessment  The final flood hazard map was produced by calculation the summation of the hazard degrees for each sub-basin (Fig. 13). 81
  • 82. 4. Results and Discussion 4.4 Overall assessment 82
  • 83. 4. Results and Discussion 4.4 Overall assessment 83
  • 84. 4. Results and Discussion 4.4 Overall assessment 84
  • 85. 5. Conclusions  Flood hazard map was prepared to delineate flood-prone areas. The results show that based on the values of Di, FFR, and Rc the numbers of the highest three hazard degree areas are 6, 32 and 38 sub-basins and covered about 24.2%, 56.9%, and 46.82% respectively of the total area of the watershed.  The overall assessment map indicates that the sub-basins with hazard degree from moderate to high are equal 34 sub-basins with total area equals 9779.04 km2 (about 63.14% of the total area of Wadi Qena watershed). 85
  • 86. 5. Conclusions  Most of the hazard areas are located in the southern part by 25 areas. Such map helps the decision makers to evaluate the potential impacts of natural risks quickly and assist further to initiate appropriate measures for impact reduction.  The results shown in this research can help the developers, planners and engineers for effective planning and developments and to minimize the harmful effects of flash floods. 86
  • 88. Flood mapping in ArcGIS 88
  • 89. ▸ Geographic Information Systems In Water Resources Engineering, Lynn E. Johnson ▸ Introduction to Geographical Information System, Dr. Eng. Fahmy F. Asal ▸ GIS Data Model, Data Types and Data Sources, Dr. Eng. Fahmy F. Asal ▸ Flood hazard mapping, Climate Technology Centre & Network https://www.ctc-n.org/technologies/flood-hazard-mapping 📖References 89
  • 90. ▸ Flood mapping in ArcGIS, GIS Application, Youtube video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1o5wnZTCJl4 ▸ GIS Flood Analysis - Esri Canada Higher Education & Research, Youtube video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YqjfdobHBFA ▸ Flood Hazard Mapping by Using Geographic Information System and Hydraulic Model: Mert River, Samsun, Turkey, Vahdettin Demir and Ozgur Kisi https://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2016/4891015/ ▸ Runoff hazard analysis of Wadi Qena Watershed, Egypt based on GIS and remote sensing approach, Wael M. Elsadek, Mona G. Ibrahim, Wael Elham Mahmod 📖References 90