Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Jim Boyd

539 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Economy & Finance
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Jim Boyd

  1. 1. Ecosystem Services and EfD <ul><li>Eco Services as an EfD Theme </li></ul><ul><li>The Big Research Questions </li></ul><ul><li>“ Coordinated” EfD projects </li></ul>
  2. 2. “ Ecosystem Services” <ul><li>Terminological Clarification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualities </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. “ Ecosystem Services” <ul><li>Terminological Clarification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Services flood, pest damage prevention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualities </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. “ Ecosystem Services” <ul><li>Terminological Clarification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Services flood damage prevention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goods species, irrigation, openspace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualities </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. “ Ecosystem Services” <ul><li>Terminological Clarification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Services flood damage prevention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goods species, irrigation, openspace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualities air, soil, water quality </li></ul></ul>The building blocks of all wealth
  6. 6. A Broad Theme <ul><li>How should we manage ecological systems to enhance or preserve human welfare? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the value of ecological public goods? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we implement policy instruments designed to preserve or enhance natural wealth? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Two Economies The Market Economy The Natural Economy Things bought & sold Things not bought & sold
  8. 8. Who Cares? <ul><li>Environmental advocates, conservancies, NGOs </li></ul><ul><li>Government trustees of nature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Particularly those with regulatory mandates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Community planners </li></ul><ul><li>Environment-dependent business </li></ul>
  9. 9. Center Activities <ul><li>Forest projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All the ancillary effects of forest management (water, biodiversity) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sustainable land, parks, & biodiversity planning </li></ul><ul><li>Natural resource accounts </li></ul><ul><li>Wetlands, water, biodiversity </li></ul>
  10. 10. Policy Instruments <ul><li>What are you trading? …ES </li></ul><ul><li>What are you encouraging via subsidization or investments? …ES </li></ul><ul><li>What “bads” are you taxing, subjecting to liability, or regulating? …Lost ES </li></ul>
  11. 11. Methods <ul><li>Valuation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SP + RP applied to these public goods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accounts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Green GDP – what you’re counting is these non-market public goods and services </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. From Theme to Focus <ul><li>Projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>REDD, ecocompensation, PES, agricultural services, water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Natural science support group </li></ul><ul><li>Big risk, big reward </li></ul>Thinking big…
  13. 13. The Big Questions <ul><li>Missing prices? Valuation methods? </li></ul><ul><li>Instrument design? </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Big Questions <ul><li>Missing prices? Valuation methods? </li></ul><ul><li>Instrument design? </li></ul>NO
  15. 15. The Missing Link <ul><li>Biophysical production functions … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>… of a particular kind </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Production functions that translate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concrete actions into </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in ecological endpoints </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Production Functions <ul><li>Not theoretical, mathematical production functions </li></ul><ul><li>Rather, empirically demonstrable relationships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Dose response” </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Ecology Motivated By Economics <ul><li>How do practical social actions (things we can do ) affect biophysical outcomes we care about (endpoints) </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrate by analogy… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>… public health motivated by economics </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Socially meaningful Thus, amenable to valuation
  19. 20. Powerful <ul><li>Integrated economic and medical science </li></ul><ul><li>Practical action (PM10 regulation) </li></ul><ul><li>Socially meaningful outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Monetary values and policy justification </li></ul>
  20. 21. It Wasn’t Always So <ul><li>Medical science in the 1960s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lab science – Inhaled PM effects on oxygen transfer rates in the lung </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Much less powerful </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not connected to a policy action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not translated into meaningful endpoints </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Our Grand Challenge <ul><li>“ Ecodemiology” </li></ul><ul><li>What can we control, what actions can we take… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preservation, land management, restoration, pollutant and stressor reductions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>And how do those actions affect biophysical outcomes that are socially meaningful </li></ul>
  22. 23. Summary: Proposal <ul><li>EfD projects that… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Address the missing link: biophysical production functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depict changes in endpoints </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Necessary to employ our economic tools </li></ul>
  23. 24. Don’t Ecologists Do This Already? <ul><li>In general, no </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t have a managerial mindset </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t have economic wellbeing as their objective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic ecology is “in the weeds” </li></ul></ul>Also, it’s hard to do
  24. 25. Economists can do something with these Not these
  25. 26. Ecological Endpoints
  26. 27. Quantity Units – Market vs. Public Goods Obvious Not obvious
  27. 30. Endpoint Definition <ul><li>“ The Endpoint Problem,” Resources , Spring 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Elements of A Welfare Significant Ecosystem Quantity Index, Journal of the International Economic Association , forthcoming </li></ul><ul><li>“ What are Ecosystem Services? Ecological Economics , 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>The Nonmarket Benefits of Nature: What Should Be Counted in Green GDP? Ecological Economics , 2006 </li></ul>
  28. 31. Production Functions
  29. 32. How to Get There? <ul><li>Easier </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use ecological rules of thumb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But make sure they are state of the art rules of thumb </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Harder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled experimentation </li></ul></ul>Partnerships
  30. 33. Study Designs <ul><li>A practical intervention (what can we control?) </li></ul><ul><li>A desired outcome (what matters to us?) </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical controls to validate relationship between 1 and 2. </li></ul>
  31. 34. Study Designs <ul><li>A practical intervention (what can we control?) </li></ul><ul><li>A desired outcome (what matters to us?) </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical controls to validate relationship between 1 and 2. </li></ul>Medicine: Drug X Eco: Land cover pattern y Medicine: Disease remission Eco: Water quality change Medicine: Diet, smoking, income Eco: Many things...
  32. 35. Strong Suggestion <ul><li>Spatial analytical capability </li></ul>
  33. 36. Spatial Capability <ul><li>Environmental action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecological & economic processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Valuation of outcomes </li></ul></ul></ul>Spatial
  34. 37. Actions
  35. 38. Stresses & Threats
  36. 39. Spatial Capability <ul><li>Environmental action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecological & economic processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Valuation of outcomes </li></ul></ul></ul>Spatial
  37. 40. Production Functions
  38. 41. Spatial Capability <ul><li>Environmental action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecological & economic processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Valuation of outcomes </li></ul></ul></ul>Spatial
  39. 42. Location, location
  40. 43. New Mapping Technology <ul><li>Let’s not get left behind </li></ul>
  41. 44. Example: Viewshed Analysis
  42. 48. <ul><li>Biophysical production functions </li></ul><ul><li>Endpoints: valuation amenable ecological outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Mapping capability </li></ul>

×