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War and Pacifism (OCR exam board)


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War and Pacifism (OCR exam board)

  1. 1. Just War Theory Ethics of War and Peace
  2. 2. Nuclear Weapons – Nuclear Warfare (weapons that immediately kill but also have long term affects e.g. radiation.) CND (Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament) • Wants destruction of all nuclear weapons • Nuclear weapons are unproductive use of world’s resources • Increase risk of innocent lives lost • Book of Proverbs: God hates shedding of innocent blood • More nuclear weapons in world greater risk of wiping out mankind NATO (The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation) • Nuclear weapons should be kept • They keep peace (every nation knows cant win nuclear war = peaceful solution needed) • Needs for defence • If one country launched nuclear attack, only right that other country has means to retaliate “eye for an eye.”
  3. 3. St Augustine • 4th Century Christian • Would be inconceivable to think God would allow people to come to power who would not lead people according to God’s will • If authorities believe war is needed to solve a political problem = becomes a “Holy war” therefore a “just war” • Augustine believed God called Israelites to go to war against enemies = justified if its intentions were to bring peace.
  4. 4. Aquinas • 13th Century Christian • Adapted Augustine's ideas • For war to be just, cause must be just • War is moral if intentions behind it are good. • Undertaken by those in proper authority • Good reasons to go to war • War must be fought to promote good and avoid evil.
  5. 5. ‘Jus (justice) ad Bellum (war)’ Meaning: When is it right to go to war? 1. Just cause (Augustine) The country must deserve it/ present a real and present danger/ committed evil • Invasion, attack on national honour • Assassination of prominent person • Attack on religion, economic attack • Attack on ally, pre-emptive strike • Assisting friendly nation, human rights violations • Do you agree these are just causes?
  6. 6. Jus ad Bellum 2. Legitimate Authority (Augustine) • Has to be lawfully declared by competent government
  7. 7. Jus ad Bellum 3. Right intention (Thomas Aquinas) • Keeping or restoring peace • Righting a wrong • Assisting the innocent • Cant fight war for immoral intentions e.g. money
  8. 8. Jus ad Bellum 4. Comparative Justice (Catholic Bishop added later) • Have to consider the claims/ arguments of both sides • Death and suffering on both sides considered
  9. 9. Jus ad Bellum 5. Last resort (Catholic Bishop added later) • All sensible, non-violent options must have been tried first • War cannot be a first choice
  10. 10. Jus ad Bellum 6. Reasonable chance of success (Catholic Bishop added later) • Hopeless causes may be noble, but are unethical • Immoral to enter into a hopeless war • Need it be able to win or it is just prolonging suffering • wrong to cause pain, suffering and death with no chance of success
  11. 11. Jus ad Bellum 7. Reasonable proportion between injustice suffered and suffering and death of war (Catholic Bishop added later) • Proportionality = state shouldn't engage in war which causes more suffering than the wrong done by the enemy (Pearl Harbour vs. Hiroshima?) • Goal of war should be in proportion to the offence • Should prevent more evil and human suffering than it causes
  12. 12. ‘Jus in Bello’ – Meaning: How should a war be fought? 1. Minimum force/ Proportionality • Means used to fight the war must be the force needed to win and no more • Are WMD’s like nuclear, chemical and biological weapons always disproportionate?
  13. 13. Jus in Bello 2. Discrimination • Avoid children, sick, elderly, farmer, ordinary workers. • Wrong to target civilians only soldiers • It is unjust to attack non-combatants
  14. 14. Jus Post Bellum • Ending of war
  15. 15. War and Peace Ethical positions Realism
  16. 16. Realism- what is it? • Belief that moral norms that apply to individual persons do not apply to the State • States are concerned with National Interest • What do you understand by ‘national interest’? • Idea is that governments can take whatever action is in the interests of the people of that nation • Thus laws that stop individuals harming/ killing each other do not apply to nations • War in the national interest is morally justified
  17. 17. Christian Realism • Reinhold Niebuhr argued for this in book ‘Moral Man and Immoral Society’ (1932) • Human nature is evil- human communities have to use force to maintain just and ordered society • Communities/ States have special rights/ political responsibility which goes beyond individual responsibility • Argues against pacifism as a heresy that assumed that love is a guaranteed victory over the world. • Can you think of 4 strengths and weaknesses.
  18. 18. Christian Ethics War and Peace Pacifism
  19. 19. Was Jesus a Pacifist? Yes • In the Sermon on the Mount (Matthew 5-7) he says “Blessed are the peacemakers” • Refused to take up military power when tempted in the wilderness (Luke 4:5-7) • He stopped weapons being used to prevent his arrest in the Garden of Gethsemane (Luke 22: 49-51) “those who take up the sword will die by the sword” No • Jesus’ words might refer to personal ethics rather than national ethics • He demonstrated righteous anger when driving out the money changers from the Temple, although no-one was hurt • He didn’t specifically criticise the job of a soldier
  20. 20. Ethical Pacifism • Many people are pacifist for non-religious reasons • This means that Pacifism can be an ethical stance not just a religious one. • Some may choose it as they see killing as intrinsically wrong • Many regard life as having absolute value over all other concerns • There are methods of NON-VIOLENT DIRECT ACTION including marches, rallies, strike action, refusal to obey… • Many people are conscientious objectors in times of war, but perform non-combat services (e.g. Red Cross)
  21. 21. Buddha • Earliest form of recorded pacifism. • Teachings of Siddhartha Gautama. • Spent his life searching for a release from the human condition - Buddhism Gandhi • Struggle for Indian independence . Martin Luther King Jr.  Civil Rights Movement in his struggle for Black rights =  It is better to be the recipient of violence than the inflictor of it. “I want you to go home and put down your weapons. We cannot solve this problem through retaliatory violence. We must meet violence with non violence.”
  22. 22. Evaluation Strengths • Margaret Mead: “Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful committed citizens can change the world. Indeed, it is the only thing that ever has” • Great things have been achieved through non violent action i.e. black civil rights • Provides alternatives to violent action Weaknesses • Doing nothing is an odd way to respond to attack – e.g. turn the other cheek • War is regrettable but unavoidable. • The threat of violent retaliation is in fact the best way to maintain peace. • Pacifism is a good idea in theory but not in practice. It goes against human nature and is unrealistic on a national scale • Jeff McMahan = removes victims rights to judge whether a violent response is just. • What would be the consequence if Nazism had gone unchallenged?
  23. 23. Pacifism Amish and Quakers
  24. 24. Pacifist • The Amish people are pacifists – they are peaceful people who do not follow the laws of America. • They have their own laws and rules one of which includes: minimal contact with the outside world. • This is not because they believe Americans to be wrong or they way of life bad but because they believe in living simple lives away from the pressures of society. The Amish live their lives around the Biblical passage "be not conformed to this world" (Romans 12:2).
  25. 25. Quakers • Quakers are sometimes known as the Religious Society of Friends. • Many live in the United Kingdom • Quakers are active in politics and in working for justice in the world. • This comes partly from their belief that there is something of God in every human being • Should respect the worth and dignity of each person • Follow Christ's own example of social activism.
  26. 26. • Quakers believe that war and conflict are against God's wishes • Force nearly always creates more problems than it solves. • “We utterly deny all outward wars and strife and fighting with outward weapons.” Quaker statement to King Charles II, 1660 • “A good end cannot sanctify evil means.” William Penn, 1693 • Do you think this includes dictatorship? • What are the strengths and weaknesses of a pacifist view?
  27. 27. Arguments
  28. 28. Utilitarianism Bentham: maximise pleasure vs. minimise pain • Act Utilitarian: new assessment each time • Must apply HC to each situation • Just War criteria similar to hedonic calculus? E.G. Must consider ‘duration’ and ‘extent’ of death, pain from going to war vs. pleasure of what war will achieve. Mill: higher and lower pleasures • Rule: general rules to maximise happiness • Similar to a Realist perspective. • Altruism/ POU – maximise happiness. Does war prevent this? • Harm Principle • Teleological: consequences (Can these be predicated in war?) Singer: Preference Utilitarianism • Can you actually assess the preferences of everyone in war? • Focus on minimising pain • Conscientious objectors – value their preferences • Preferences will always clash
  29. 29. Kant • Duty: Is it our duty to protect our country/ freedom? • Good will: Is goodwill a clear objective in war? Is goodwill often ignored/ forgotten? Categorical Imperative: • First formulation: universalizability = Kant’s 4 examples 1. Lying promise: do countries make promises about success of war that they cannot keep? Do countries make lying promises behind the reasons behind war (i.e. to find WMD?) 2. Suicide bombers? 3. Neglecting talents: does war prevent the development of talents or promote talents through helping one another – e.g. more doctors/ nurses 4. Refraining from helping others: does this include people on the other side? Can you help others at the same time as killing someone else? • Second formulation (means to an end) – e.g. using soldiers as a means to protect country • Third formulation (kingdom of ends) – treat everyone equally
  30. 30. Kant’s book: ‘Of the Guarantee for Perpetual Peace' Note: Perpetual = everlasting • "Perpetual peace is no empty idea, but a practical thing which, through its gradual solution, is coming always nearer its final realization...“ • What does this mean? • Does Kant believe Peace is an illusion?
  31. 31. Natural Law • Primary Precepts e.g. Preservation of innocent lives, can war be seen as immoral because innocent lives cant always be preserved (Secondary precepts)? Can ordered society be maintain through war and with the after affects of war? Worship God – scripture often promotes war. • Animals often fight over territory – natural instinct? • Application of Doctrine of Double effect. • Technologies (i.e WMD) been produced by human reason – is this our natural progression? • Thomas Aquinas development of Just War theory
  32. 32. Christian Ethics • Realism • Pacifism – Amish, Society of Friends, Jesus • Just War Theory – established by Augustine/ developed by Aquinas • OT “eye for eye, tooth for tooth,” • OT a lot of bloodshed, wars e.g. God often ordered the Israelites to go to war with other nations (Samuel 15:3, Joshua 4:13) • NT – Sermon on the Mount, ‘Turn the other cheek’, Golden Rule, love thy neighbour • NT – Beatitudes: Blessed are the peacemakers • NT – personal ethics/ relative to situation e.g. over throwing tables at temple. • Situation ethics – promotion of agape
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