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Cosmological (OCR exam board)


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Cosmological (OCR exam board)

  1. 1. Cosmological ArgumentCosmological Argument for the Existence of Godfor the Existence of God Aquinas
  2. 2. Cosmological Argument Cosmological argument: A study of the Cosmos or Universe ‘A posteriori’ – post –after senses. Argument based on using senses to gain knowledge.
  3. 3. Aquinas First Way – Unmoved Mover • In ‘Summa Theologica’ Aquinas has 5 ways. • Cosmological is the first three ways. First Way = • Everything in the world is in a process of motion. • Everything in motion is changing from potential to actual • This state of motion is started and caused by something else • The chain of movers cannot go on infinitely into the past • Conclusion: First Mover = God the unmoved mover • What does Aquinas mean by ‘unmoved mover?’ • What is it important that God is ‘unmoved?’
  4. 4. Aquinas Second Way – Uncaused Causer • Cause and effect exist in the world • “If you eliminate cause you also eliminate its effects, so that you cannot have a last cause nor an intermediate one, unless you have a first.” • How can you relate this example to a book? • But there is not endless cause and effects throughout eternity = first cause created by God.
  5. 5. Aquinas Third Way – Contingency and Necessity • Everything is contingent -relies upon something else for its existence • E.G we rely on our parents for existence • This pattern of contingency cannot go on infinitely • Infinite regression is impossible • There must be a necessary being that started it. (Being who has created itself ) • = God
  6. 6. Leibniz Sufficient Reason • The cosmological argument rests on certain principles of causation. • In particular that any existent thing must have a cause or reason for its existence. • This is what Leibniz points to in his Principle of Sufficient Reason = that there cannot be more in the effect than there is in the cause. • Hume challenges these assumptions in his Dialogues.
  7. 7. CosmologicalCosmological ArgumentArgument Hume’s Criticisms of Aquinas
  8. 8. Hume’s 1st Criticism • Just because things within the universe can be explained through causes (everything is causes by a proceeding cause) • Does not mean there is a cause for the universe as a whole. • This is known as Fallacy of Composition. = We have evidence of causes within our world that we can test/ study empirically - does not mean the universe as a whole has a cause. Hume gives the example of ‘twenty particles’ = if you find an explanation for each particle individually it would be wrong to then seek an explanation for the whole collection. What do you think Hume means? How does this apply to Aquinas Cosmological Argument?
  9. 9. Russell Supports Bertrand Russell supports this by saying that every man has a mother is not proof that the human race has a mother. Bertrand Russell supports this by saying that every man has a mother is not proof that the human race has a mother.
  10. 10. Hume’s Second Criticism • We assume there is a relationship between cause and effect. • We are in the habit of seeing effects and associating them with causes. • As a ‘matter of logic’ not all effects have causes. • This is sometimes called the ‘Fallacy of Affirmation of the Consequent’. • How can this be used against Aquinas’s Arguments? Overall: We have not experienced the creation of the universe. We cannot prove empirically that there is a ‘necessary’ being or that the being is God. J. L. Mackie: Why should people accept that God is the necessary being.? Equally argue that there is “ a permanent stock of matter whose essence did not involve existence from anything else.”
  11. 11. CosmologicalCosmological ArgumentArgument Copleston
  12. 12. Frederick Copleston’s Argument from Contingency • The world is a collection of objects – all objects in the world depend on something else for existence – they are contingent. • Therefore explanation for existence of everything in the universe must be external from the universe. • E.g. An infinite number of chocolates is still not a sheep. • What this means is that everything would be unintelligible without a creator God. • There must be a being that is self explanatory i.e. contains within itself the reason for its own existence “necessary being” that gives reason/ explanation for the ways things are. = God
  13. 13. BBC Broadcast ‘The Existence of God’ A debate 1948 Between Fredrick Copleston and Bertrand Russell. Focused on Aquinas’ Third way on Contingency.
  14. 14. Bertrand Russell • Only propositions (statements of reason) are ‘necessary.’ • You cannot have a necessary being –God. • Analytical statements are ‘necessary’ E.g. all bachelors are unmarried men – it is contradictory to deny • A ‘being’ or ‘God’ is to use a name • When using names or people this is synthetic – need to prove • E.G Herbert is a bachelor need to find Herbert • God Is necessary need to find God • Cannot prove God is a necessary being = meaningless
  15. 15. Over view of Russell’s Argument• Why cant the universe simply exist without need for an explanation? • Cause and effect will stretch into infinity in the future so why cant it stretch infinitely into the past? So no use for the first cause. • If God is the explanation of everything and everything requires an explanation, then what is the explanation of God? • Why should God be self explanatory in the way that the universe is not.
  16. 16. Support andSupport and CriticismsCriticisms
  17. 17. Big Bang • Big Bang could explain the start of the universe. • About 15 billion years ago there was a dense concentration of matter and energy. • This ‘mass’ of energy and matter exploded, blasting particles and energy outwards. • The matter then concentrated into hot lumps, which we call Stars. These stars are clustered into galaxies. • Debate rests on whether or not the cause of the BB was natural or divine. Steady State Theory • Bondi, Gold and Hoyle. • Energy cannot be created, energy within the universe will simply be redistributed to cause the start of this universe. • Undermines Cosmological arguments beginning to the universe. Aquinas said infinity was impossible so must be a God but... God is infinite!! Other explanations for start of universe.
  18. 18. Kalam Cosmological Argument • Muslim Scholars al Kindi and al Ghazali. • Everything has to have a beginning including the universe. • The universe cannot go on infinitely. • Then there must be a God who willed it to begin. William Lane Craig • No such thing as infinity • If universe is not infinite must be a beginning. • Beginning must be caused by something. • For Craig this is a “personal being” who freely chooses to create the world Supporters