Assignment 8-Narrative theory Part A: Todorv Part B: Levi-Strauss Part C: Barthes Part D: Propp Ingrid De Souza
Part A- TodorvTodorv suggested there’s 5 stages of narrative.1. Equilibrium – which is basically normality.2. Disequilibrium – conflict by an action or event.3. Recognition of disequilibrium – main struggle.4. Attempt to restoration the harm5. New equilibrium.
Equilibrium Disequilibrium Recognition of Attempt to New equilibrium disequilibrium restoration the harmIn this scene, Landon Landon gets in Landon unexpectedly Landon decides to After Jamie’s death,is enjoying his time trouble with the falls in love with propose to Jamie Landon’s life changewith his friends as he police due to his Jamie, and finds out since he knows she completely and heusually does. actions. she has cancer. wants to get married learnt new norms and before she dies. values towards life.
Part B: Levi-StraussLevi-Straus believed in binary opposites. Forexample: Good & Bad, Light & Dark, Day & Nightand etc.
Film Opposite 1 Opposite 2 Explanation Good – Rob Pattinson Evil – Christoph Waltz Both male, however one represents evil and the other represents good. Innocence – Jennifer Lawrence Violation – Max Thieriot Both characters are opposite sex, however, one is innocent and the other one is violent (evil). Hero – Andrew Garfield Villain – Rhys Ifans As a usual action movie, there’s good vs bad, and there’s also hero vs the villain.
Part C: BarthesFor Barthes there is 5 important codes, whichare:• Enigma code• Action code• Semantic code• Symbolic code• Cultural code
Enigma code By enigma code, Barthes means, that instead of giving the audience answers, the film just leaves them questioning making the audience paying more attention to the film.For example, in this image from ‘The LuckyOne’, it doesn’t show what the character islooking at on the laptop screen, making theaudience paying more attention to the film.
Action codeThe action code is when the character’s action or behaviourleads to a consequence to what the audience expects tohappen, or what normally happens in a film. In these screen grabs, Rose realises she was wrong and she wants to be with Jack and they kiss, just like the audience would expect them too.
Semantic codeThe semantic code is the meaning of the objects, characters,locations. Sometimes we learn this with experience from a youngage, for example we know the hero will be a handsome guy, andthe villain would be a unattractive guy. As you can see the hero’s from a young age, are charming and very handsome, where as the villains are scary and unattractive.
Symbolic codeA symbolic code means the real meaning behind what’shappening in the scene with the characters by the way theiractions are taken place. These screenshots are from the movie ‘Fish Tank’. In this scene Mia is dancing, however the real meaning behind her dance is freedom. Dancing is one of her way to feel free.
Cultural codeCultural code is used to enhance our reading and understandingof the text, and the places where the film is set enhances ourunderstanding even more stronger. Or even the costumes thecharacters use, can enhance the audience’s knowledge. The screenshots are from the film ‘Pride and Prejudice’, this film is based on 1813 novel. The setting and the costumes that the characters use, demonstrates the type of building and clothes that were seen during that time period.
Part D: ProppPropp after studying folklore, fairy tales and legends he noticedthat there are many similarities in them which is the similarcharacter types and same problems. Propp made two theories,the first one is called ‘7 Spheres of Action’. The 7 Spheres ofAction are:• Hero• Villain• Dispatcher• Donor• Helper• Heroine• False hero
HeroThe hero is always on the search or on the rescue. It wastradition for the hero to be a male, however now there’s alsofemale playing a hero. Angelina Jolie plays the hero in the film ‘Salt’.
VillainThe villain is always against the hero, and always takes awaysomething or someone away from the hero. The villain alsocauses disruption to the hero. As the picture shows, the villain isn’t as attractive as the hero.
DispatcherDispatcher is always the one helping the hero finding it’s way orgiving them advice in order to continue with their search. In the Snow White and the Huntsman, the 7 dwarfs are the dispatcher since they help Snow White and the Huntsman to continue with their journey.
HelperThe helper is always the one who sticks beside the hero,however, the helper can be found in the middle of the movie orthey were there since the beginning. In ‘I am Number 4’, number 6 is always helping number 6 escape from the Mogadorian from the beginning, but meets him towards the end.
DonorThe donor is always helping the hero by giving him/her a gift,advice or a skill towards their journey, to help them. A traditional donor would be the fairy godmother in Cinderella, that people would know from a very young age.
HeroineThe heroine is often referred to princess traditionally, howevernow-a-day male are also seen as a heroine. The heroine areusually more of a passive and vulnerable character, which is oftenin love or involved with the hero in a certain way. The heroine in ‘The amazing Spider Man’ is Gwen, who falls in love with Peter. However they don’t end up together.
False heroThe false hero is usually the one who tempts the hero fromstop searching or carrying on with their journey. Scar from Lion King, tricked his nephew Simba into thinking that he killed his own dad, so that he can become king.