Minnesota Plant Press The Minnesota Native Plant Society NewsletterVolume 21 Number 1 Fall 2001 Monthly meetings Global warming may be Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Center, 3815 East 80th St. Bloomington, MN 55425-1600 cause of early blooming 952-854-5900 Washington, D.C. cherry trees start blooming an average of seven days earlier now than they did in 1970; flowering plants are blooming 6:30 p.m. — Building east door opens 6:30 p.m. — Refreshments, 4.5 days earlier. Global warming is suspected as the probable cause. information, Room A 7 – 9 p.m. —Program, society business These figures were released by The Smithsonian’s National Museum 7:30 p.m. — Building door is locked of Natural History in a report on results of a 30-year study of flowering 9:30 p.m. — Building closes plant species in the Washington metro area. The study, which was conducted by the museum’s Department of Botany, showed that the Programs rise in the region’s average minimum temperatures is producing earlier The MNPS meets the first Thursday in flowering in 89 of the 100 common plant species investigated.October, November, December, February, Botanical data were collected from 1970 to 2000. SmithsonianMarch, April, May and June. Check the scientists Dr. Stanwyn Shetler, Mones Abu-Asab, Paul Peterson andweb page for additional program Sylvia Stone Orli examined the data. “This trend of earlier floweringinformation. is consistent with what we know about the effects of global warming,”Dec. 6 Shetler said. “When we compared the records from the SmithsonianThe Art of Botanical Illustration” by study with local, long-term temperature records, we discoveredVera Wong. statistically significant correlations. The minimum temperature has been going up over these years, and the early arrival of the cherryFeb. 7, Speaker to be announced blossoms appears to be one of the results.”March 7, Speaker to be announced The two predominant species of Japanese flowering cherries that were planted near the Tidal Basin are the Oriental cherry blossomSymposium on wetland (Prunus serrulata) and the Yoshino cherry blossom (Prunus yedoensis). They now reach peak bloom six and seven days earlierrestoration to be in March than in the 1970s, respectively. Wetland restoration will be the subject ofthe society’s annual symposium. It will be The Yoshino reached peak bloom March 20, 2000, the secondin March. Jason Husveth, Nancy Sather earliest date on record. The average date to bloom is April 4. Elevenand Esther Mclaughlin are organizing this of the 100 native and naturalized plant species studied showed a reverseeducational opportunity. Watch the MNPS trend and are blooming later. The Japanese honeysuckle is bloomingweb site for information on the date, an average of 10.4 days later; the Dutchman’s-breeches 3.2 days later.location and presenters. “Over a long period, the species composition of our local floraMNPS Web site could change,” Shetler said. “Species like the sugar maple thathttp://www.stolaf.edu/depts./biology/mnps continued on page 2
Global warming The Minnesota MNPS Board ofcontinued from page 1require a long cold period may die Native Plant Society Directorsout in our region. Invasive alien The Minnesota Native Plantspecies ... may become more and President: Joel Dunnette, 4526 Society is a tax-exempt 501 (c)(3)more of a problem. Weedy species Co. Rd. 3 S.W., Byron, MN 55920; organization as determined by thelike false- strawberry that can bloom 507-284-3914 (W); U.S. Internal Revenue Service.throughout relatively mild winters 507-365-8091 (H);could spread. ... Persons with allergy Dues for regular members are $12 email@example.com will experience them per year; students and seniors, $8; Vice-President: Harriet Mason,earlier.” families, $15; institutions, $20; 905 5th St., St. Peter, MN 56082- donors, $25. All dues include a 1417; 507-931-3253; The study is continuing. Data are newsletter subscription. Four issues firstname.lastname@example.org at www.nmnh.si.edu/ are published each year. Makebotany/projects/dcflora. Secretary: Deborah Strohmeyer, checks out to: Minnesota Native (This information is from an article Plant Society. Mail them to: 7900 Wyoming Ave. S.,in the Fall/Winter issue of Minnesota Native Plant Society, 220 Bloomington, MN 55438;“Marilandica,” the newsletter of the Biological Sciences Center, 1445 952-943-9743;Maryland Native Plant Society.) Gortner Ave., St. Paul, MN 55108. email@example.comField trip is Nov. 10 Meredith Cornett, 1520 N. 9th Minnesota Plant Press Ave. E., Duluth, MN 55805; 218- Jason Husveth will conduct a The Minnesota Plant Press is the 728-6258;winter botany identification field quarterly newsletter of the Minnesota firstname.lastname@example.org/walk at the Minnesota Valley Native Plant Society. Articles areNational Wildlife Refuge Saturday, Linda Huhn, 2553 Dupont Ave. welcomed. Write the editor, GerryNov. 10, from 9:30 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. S., Minneapolis, MN 55405; Drewry, at 24090 Northfield Blvd.,During a walk through the river Hampton, MN 55031; phone her at 612-374-1435bottoms and bluffs, Jason will show 651-463-8006; or send an e-mail to: Jason Husveth, 1284 N. Avon St.,how to identify native flora of the email@example.com. St. Paul, MN 55117; 651-488-2692;Minnesota River Valley. firstname.lastname@example.orgMinnesota Native Plant Society’s purpose Janet Larson, 7811 W. 87th St., Bloomington, MN 55438; (Abbreviated from the bylaws) 952-941-6876; This organization is exclusively organized and operated for educational email@example.com and scientific purposes, including the following: Esther McLaughlin, Biology 1. Conservation of all native plants. Dept., Augsburg College, 2. Continuing education of all members in the plant sciences. Minneapolis, MN 55454; 3. Education of the public regarding environmental protection of plant 612-330-1074; life. firstname.lastname@example.org 4. Encouragement of research and publications on plants native to Minnesota. Ethan Perry, 1520 N. 9th Ave. E., 5. Study of legislation on Minnesota flora, vegetation and ecosystems. Duluth, MN 55805; 6. Preservation of special plants, plant communities and scientific and 218-728-6258; natural areas. email@example.com 7. Cooperation in programs concerned with the ecology of natural Treasurer: David Johnson, 6437 resources and scenic features. Baker Ave. N.E., Fridley, MN 55432; 8. Fellowship with all persons interested in native plants through meetings, 763-571-6278; lectures, workshops and field trips. firstname.lastname@example.org
Minnesota Native Plant Society Membership Directory October, 2001This directory is for members’ use only. The society will not sell the list or give it to libraries or other organizations.
The Big Blowdown in the context of thehistory and future of the BWCAW forest conifers such as fir that invade and has agreed to, prescribed firesby Lee E. Frelich replace pines in the absence of fire. should allow some of the groves of(Abstract of talk at May 3, 2001 A few very small areas virtually pines and ancient cedars that didMNPS meeting) never burned, and these little not blow down —principally The big blow-down of July 4, pockets along rocky lakeshores confined to lakeshore areas —to1999, was superimposed on a contained the ancient white cedars survive. This will save the seedforested landscape mosaic created that can live 1000 years or more. source and potential for futureby a combination of fire and recovery of the forest.logging. Between 1890 and 1970, about half of the BWCAW was logged. The overall pattern of succession In presettlement times (1600- Virtually all of the logged areas in the BWCAW over the last1900), the Boundary Waters Canoe have been reforested with aspen hundred years has beenArea Wilderness forest had two and paper birch. The portion of the replacement of pines by aspen aftermajor natural disturbance regimes. forest that was not logged was also logging and by spruce and fir dueFirst were stands of even-aged jack affected by humans through the fire to fire exclusion. In the blow-pine forest, sometimes mixed with exclusion, by fragmenting the flow down, these two conversions willblack spruce and aspen, that of fire across the landscape continue, because fires will convertoriginated after major severe crown surrounding the wilderness, and more pine forests to aspen, andfires. These fires were similar in direct fire suppression. This those parts of the blow-down thatintensity to the Yellowstone fires of allowed fir and spruce to begin do not burn will succeed rapidly to1988, with 50- to100-foot flame replacing the pines. spruce and fir.lengths and sizes from 100,000 to400,000 acres. Jack pine and black The big blow-down is aboutspruce are adapted for massive evenly split between second-reproduction after such fires, which growth aspen forest and primaryoccurred with an average interval forest still dominated by jack, redof 50 years at a given point on the and white pines. In both areas theground. Occasionally, two fires initial impact of the blow-down haswould burn an area within 10 been to accelerate succession, byyears, and the conifers would not removing the upper canopy of fire-be old enough to bear seeds. In dependent pines, or the post-this case, aspen, with its long- logging aspen, and releasing shade-distance seed dispersal, would tolerant conifer seedlings andinvade after the second fire. saplings of balsam fir, spruce, and cedar. Fires, either prescribed or The second disturbance regime wild, are sure to occur in much ofconsisted of surface fire at 20- to the blow-down. Wild fires would50-year intervals in white and red be very intense and likely consumepine forests concentrated on the seeds of the pines and otherislands, peninsulas, and areas with conifers, which are now on thelarge lakes that broke the flow of ground, and regenerate the forest tomajor crown fires across the aspen and birch. Prescribed fireslandscape. The surface fires killed will be moderately intense, but willfew of the big pines and allowed still convert most of the burnedthem to reproduce by eliminating areas to aspen. With the mitigationcompetition from shade-tolerant procedures that the Forest Service
Prairie research MNPS receives grant to informgrants are offered anglers of earthworm damage Prairie Biotic Research, Inc. is a by Ethan Perrynew, nonprofit organization whose Current research at the Natural Resources Research Institute (NRRI) inpurpose is to foster basic biotic Duluth has revealed that European species of earthworms are invading someresearch in prairies. One way they Minnesota hardwood forests, decimating the diversity of wildflowers. Newdo this is through a small grants earthworm populations are established when people transport them, usuallyprogram. They are especially by dumping unused fish bait.interested in supporting independentresearchers — individuals lacking The Minnesota Native Plant Society has received a grant from the Minnesotainstitutional support — but anyone Department of Natural Resources’ Environmental Partnership Program tomay apply. Projects may be slow the spread of this threat to native plant communities. The project aimsunderway, being planned, or the to slow the invasion by informing people, particularly anglers, of the problemresults being prepared for and promoting efforts to prevent new infestations. We will be producingpublication. “Our expectation is printed materials (e.g., posters) forthat (recipients) will publish (their) Proposed Spirit educational events and to reach an audience that extends beyond ourfindings and/or present them to Mountain golf membership.people who share our interest at aprairie conference or similar course is a concern Anyone interested in helping withforum,” said Andrew Williams. The MNPS Conservation this project (including artists and“We’ll consider prairie projects Committee alerts members to a designers) is asked to contact Ethanfrom anywhere in the USA, dealing controversial Spirit Mountain golf Perry at email@example.com any taxa.” course proposal. We’re gearing up to begin the work Two $1,000 grants will be Spirit Mountain, a sacred Anishinabe this winter.awarded in 2002. The deadline for site, contains a trout stream and one For more information on thereceipt of applications is Jan. 15. To of the largest remaining tracts of old damage that non-native earthwormsrequest an application form, e-mail: growth northern hardwood forest in are causing, visit NRRI’s website:firstname.lastname@example.org, Duluth. http://www.nrri.umn.edu/wormsor write to Prairie Biotic Research, The Duluth City Council isInc., P.O. Box 5424, Madison, WI What field trips would considering a development plan that53705. would replace a large portion of the members prefer? Michael P. Anderson, Rebecca A. forest with a golf course. The Jason Husveth, chair of the fieldChristoffel, Andrew H. Williams Minnesota DNR has not reviewed the trip committee, will distribute aand Daniel K. Young are listed as proposal. questionnaire at the Decemberorganizers of Prairie Biotic meeting to determine what types of According to the Isaac WaltonResearch, Inc. field trips members would prefer. League, DNR field people have raised concerns about the future of the trout The questionnaire will listRuth Phipps is honored stream and forest if the golf course is potential trips throughout Minnesota. Ruth Phipps, a long-time member built. The league wants the DNR field Some would require an overnightof the MNPS, was honored at the analysis to be the basis for any stay. Suggested sites includeOctober meeting. Ruth joined at the environmental review instead of the Scientific and Natural Areas, statesecond meeting and served as developer ’s environmental parks, the University of Minnesotatreasurer for at least eight years. assessment worksheet. Herbarium and the ComoAfter that, she prepared name tags Conservatory. Members interested Links to additional information arefor meetings, and helped with available on the MNPS website, in leading field trips or with ideas forsymposiums and at meetings. trips should contact Jason. (See page www.stolaf.edu/depts./biology/mnps. 2 for phone number and addresses.)
Whither goes the should be better for native plants.Plant Lore And that is our main goal.by Thor Kommedahl Minnesota Native So, what should we be doing? ThatWhat is wild licorice? Plant Society? depends on the interest and energy Wild licorice is a shrubby perennial by Joel Dunnette, MNPS president and abilities of our members. Wein the legume family and is called MNPS has many good purposes have no paid staff — only volunteers.Glycyrrhiza lepidota. for existing. In the next few months And we don’t have piles of money.How did it get its name? I would like to discus with you some So what we do and what we Glycyrrhiza means sweet root in of these purposes. Each of us can accomplish depends on me and you.Greek, and lepidota means scaly, do only so much, so we are each What do you want to see done? Andreferring to minute brown scales likely to have particular interest in a what are you willing to do? There is(glands) on young leaflets. It is called few of these topics. Even all a world of opportunities and growingwild licorice because its close together, we will likely need to focus public interest.relative G. glabra, which grows in more on some aspects than on others. For myself, I will be leadingEurope, is the commercial source of meetings of MNPS, advising local Public interest in native plants islicorice in the confectionary industry. groups and individuals on increasing. You can see it in variousWhere does wild licorice grow? organizations springing up around establishing and maintaining areas of Wild licorice is most abundant on the area. Some recent examples are native plants, giving a few programsprairies and meadows in most Great River Greening, Prairie on planting prairie, controllingcounties of the western half of Enthusiasts, and the Wild Ones. invasive species on local areas, andMinnesota, and in locations from Other organizations such as TNC and planting some more areas of myOntario to Texas. MN DNR and MN Audubon, with own. A total of a few dozens of hours interests in native plants, have per year.What is the plant like? existed for longer. Each group has My efforts are not much in the big It is a woody plant with compound its own particular focus and area of picture. But taken together withleaves of 15-19 leaflets each that are overlap with MNPS. And yours, I think we can really make adotted with glands. Its white flowers sometimes, differences with MNPS. difference for native plants, andlead to oblong fruits covered withcurved prickles. This shrub can be up My question today is “How should share our enjoyment in theto three feet tall. MNPS interact with these groups to accomplishments. further our interests as well asWhat was licorice used for? Sioux Indians were said to chew cooperate to further our shared Climate changes interests?” One approach could be threaten partridge peafresh roots to treat toothache. Lewis to essentially go our own way andand Clark reported they roasted roots (From the University of Minnesota try ourselves to cover all thein the embers, separated the ligament E-News, Oct. 11, 2001) purposes stated in the box on pagein the root center, and chewed the The partridge pea (Chamaecrista two of this newsletter. I suspect thisrest, commenting that it tasted like fasciculata) could face severe would be the easiest approach, butsweet potato. It is a laxative and is reduction in numbers if climate probably not the most effective inestrogenic. Its derivatives have been conditions in the Midwest change to conserving native plants.used to reduce or cure ulcers. the extremes predicted for the next The approach I advocate is to work 25 to 35 years, according to a studyDoes wild licorice have any with each group that shares interests published in the Oct. 5 issue of thecommercial use today? with us, to find where we can share journal Science. The study’s Not in official medicine. The our enthusiasm, knowledge and principal investigator, Julie R.mucilage content of wild licorice actions to greater effect than the sum Etterson, a former doctoral studentmakes it useful as a soothing cough of the individual groups. This will at the University of Minnesota whoremedy, but it is not used take effort. Cooperation takes conducted the study, is now acommercially. Wild licorice can raise energy and patience and often postdoctoral research associate inblood pressure if ingested. compromise. But the end effect biology at the University of Virginia.
Minnesota Native Plant SocietyUniversity of Minnesota NON-PROFIT ORG.220 Biological Sciences Center U.S. POSTAGESt. Paul, MN 55108 PAID Minneapolis, MN Permit No. 2233Fall 2001 Issue