Why Design Research so important ineducation? To Change• The Netherlands: Developed high quality oflearning materials exported to USA called Mathin Context (1990-2000)South Korea: 2012 started Teaching school mathematics• South Korea: 2012 started Teaching school mathematicswith Story Telling• Indonesia: - PMRI Team: We developed PMRI since 2001- Government: To change the curriculumThe National School (mathematics andScience) Curriculum 2013 (Zulkardi, 2013)
380390400410MeanscoreIndonesia: Mean PISA scores for 2000 - 2009 formathematics, science and reading3503603703802000 2003 2006 2009MeanscoreMathematics Science Reading
How Design Research is used?• At the national level: The development ofPMRI since 2001-some best practices• At the Teacher Education:- PMRI meets Lesson Study- PMRI meets Lesson Study- Final Projects: S1, S2, S3
PMRI is Indonesianadaptation of “DutchRealistic MathematicsEducation” since 2001.CharacteristicsMath is students’ activity;Development ofDevelopment of PMRI in IndonesiaPMRI in IndonesiaMath is students’ activity;use of Indonesian context,models, intertwined amongstrands, interactivity andcontributions of studentsResults so farStudents interest towardmath and guided tounderstand math. concept.
Example of Best Practices of PMRI1) Designing pre-service (courses) and in-service training(workshops for teachers)Up to 2012, PMRI has been implemented at 23 (33)provinces (Sembiring, Dolk and Hoogland, 2010)2) PMRI and PISA• Research on Designing PMRI / PISA-type items• Research on Designing PMRI / PISA-type items• Design KLM (National Mathematics Literacy Contest) for JuniorHigh School and workshop PISA for math teachers since 20103) Sustainability of PMRI• Development and used ICT-based materials ( portalwww. p4mri.net)• Developing IMPOME-International Master Program onRealistic Mathematics Education in collaboration Indonesian-the Netherlands (Unsri, Unesa, Utrecht University) since 2009
PMRI meet Lesson Study• Lesson study in Indonesia since last decadefunded by JICA at 3 Teacher Education• SEAMEO mathematics in QitepMain content: SEA-RME (PMRI) & Lesson StudyMain content: SEA-RME (PMRI) & Lesson Study• National Projects (PM-PMP): Lesson Study forimproving the quality of National exam
PMRI and PISA• PISA results of Indonesia students• PISA effect to the curriculum and assessment• PMRI and PISA: KLM competition for Juniorhigh School students and workshop PISA forhigh School students and workshop PISA forteachers since 2010 (1 city), 2011 (7 Cities)and 2012 (12 cities), 2013 (18?)
What is DR• the systematic study of designing, developing andevaluating educational interventions (such asprograms, teaching-learning strategies andmaterials, products and systems) as solutions forcomplex problems in educational practice,materials, products and systems) as solutions forcomplex problems in educational practice,which also aims at advancing our knowledgeabout the characteristics of these interventionsand the processes of designing and developingthem.
Design Research/Development researchA final note on terminology,following Van den Akker et al.(2006:4) we use design researchas a common label for a ‘family’ ofrelated research approaches whomay vary somewhat ingoals and characteristics – examplesgoals and characteristics – examplesare design studies, designexperiments, design-basedresearch, developmental research,formative research, engineeringresearch.
Goal of Design experimentto improve the initial design by testing andrevising conjectures as informed byOngoing analysis of both the students’ reasoningand the learning environmentand the learning environment(Cobb et al, 2003.Educational researcher, vol 32 no.1, pp 9-13)
Phase of DRSteps:• Preparing for a design experiment• Conducting a design experiment• Conducting retrospective analysis• Conducting retrospective analysisCharateristics:• Extended (iterative)• Interventionist (innovative and design based)• Theory oriented enterprise whose theories do real work in practicaleducational context
What Design Research that is used atthe program s1,s2 and s3?• S1: Design or implementing valid materials orinterventioned by previous designer• S2: Designing and implementing anintervention is requirement at the school orintervention is requirement at the school orfield• S3: Designing, implementing and evaluatingan original intervention is a requirement(zulkardi’s personal opinion)
ExamplesS1/S2: Design research used in Master Program:Designing learning materialsDesigning assessment materialsDesigning multimedia materialsDesigning multimedia materialsDesigning training materials
ExamplesS3- Dissertation at the University of TwenteComputer ASsisted Curriculum AnalysisDesign and Evaluation (CASCADE)CASCADE (Nienke Nieveen-1996)CASCADE SEA (Susan McKenney-2000)CASCADE SEA (Susan McKenney-2000)CASCADE MUCH (Wang Qiyun-2001)CASCADE IMEI (Zulkardi-2002):Designing a Learning environment thatcombined F2F course and website for math studentteachers in Indonesia
Thanks for your attention• zulkardi @ yahoo.com• See p4mri.net – Portal of PMRI inIndonesiaIndonesia• See you in the Second SEA-DR nextyear