Introduction(history & invention)
Rational of the study
In the history of culture, the discovery of zero will always stand out as one of the greatest single
achievements of the human race.”
History & Invention
Zero was not considered a number.There was the idea of empty space,which may be
thought conceptually similar to zero.
The Maya civilization (2000 B.C-900 A.D) in the what is now Mexico used the concept of
zero as a PLACEHOLDER.The Babylonians used it similarly in the 7th century B.C.
The 7th century Indian mathematician Brahma Gupta treated zero as a “number” and
not just as a place-holder.He elaborated the rules.
The Hindu-Arabic numbering system that included zero in the way that was used in the
west by Leonardo of Pisa- Fibonacci- in his book of counting,published in 1202.
Zero gained a central place in the number system & divided the number line into
positive & negative.
In the decimal system,zero serves as a place holder & enables us to use both huge
numbers and microscopic figures.
Zero is one of the most used term in mathematics.
So,we have to know about it’s history & details,so
that we can know about how does it come in the
The main objective is to gather knowledge about the
invention and theory of the mystery of ZERO (0).
Zero remains as a mystery to us.It is a common
matter of curiosity & thinking about it’s origin.As we
can see that it becomes popular since the pre-historic
times.Through the research,we can understand its
method, its usage, calculation procedures, result and
conclusion. We will also gain knowledge about its
importance and essence.It will help us to make the
proper use in our practical life.
1) primary Data Collection:- As it is a historical
research based on a numeric number we could not
conduct the primary data collection process.
2)Secondary Data Collection-this data collects from
The following are some basic (elementary) rules for dealing
with the number 0. These rules apply for any real or
complex number x, unless otherwise stated.
Addition: x + 0 = 0 + x = x. That is, 0 is an identity element
(or neutral element) with respect to addition.
Subtraction: x − 0 = x and 0 − x = −x.
Multiplication: x · 0 = 0 · x = 0.
Division: 0⁄x = 0, for nonzero x. But x⁄0 is undefined,
because 0 has no multiplicative inverse (no real number
multiplied by 0 produces 1), a consequence of the previous
Exponentiation: x0 = x/x = 1, except that the case x = 0 may
be left undefined in some contexts. For all positive real x, 0x
Zero in Mayans:
Six hundred years later and 12,000 miles from Babylon, the
Mayans developed zero as a placeholder around A.D. 350
and used it to denote a placeholder in their elaborate
calendar systems. Despite being highly skilled
mathematicians, the Mayans never used zero in equations.
The symbol for 0 in the Mayans looks like a bowl or an eye.
Their numeral system was 20.They used 0 to represent 20.
Zero in Babylon:
The Babylonians got their number system from the Sumerians.
They are the first people in the world to develop a counting
system. They created 0 in the third century B.C. The
Babylonians were the first culture to invent the place value
system. The Babylonian placeholder was not a true zero
because it was not used alone. Even it wasn’t used at the end of
a number. They had a sexigesimal number system, in which,
they counted in 60s, as we count in tens. They never developed
the idea of zero as a number. This is their numeral system.
Zero in India:
The number 0 appear in the late 10th century in India.
The concept of zero as a number and not merely a
symbol for separation is attributed to India, where, by
the 9th century CE, practical calculations were carried
out using zero, which was treated like any other
number, even in case of division .The word for zero in
Hindu-India is “shiny” meaning void or empty. India is
recognized with great respect for their inventions of
Zero by importance with Technological world .These
are the numbers that the Hindus and the Arab use.
This is a depiction of zero expressed in Chinese counting
rods, based on the example provided by A History of
Mathematics. An empty space is used to represent zero.
The Sunni Sunning, of unknown date but estimated to be
dated from the 1st to 5th centuries, and Japanese records
dated from the eighteenth century, describe how counting
rods were used for calculations. According to A History
of Mathematics, the rods "gave the decimal representation
of a number, with an empty space denoting zero." The
counting rod system is considered a notation system.
Zero in china
After the research we attain the knowledge of discovery,
development and use of this enigmatic number ZERO. Zero was
reformed many time in many decades and generations. Several
regions worked to make zero an appropriate valued number.
The concept of zero as a digit in the decimal place value notation
was developed in India, presumably as early as during the Gupta
period with the oldest unambiguous evidence dating to the 7th
. The individual elements of the two systems, the letters and the
numerals, are atomic. That is, they are identical and repeatable.
Other regions like ANCIENT NEAR EAST,CLASSICAL
ANTIQUITY,INDIA AND SOUTHEST
,Americans ,MAYANS and Babylonians also worked on the theory
of zero and invented new aspects of zero.
The development of the place number system depended on
the invention of the concept of zero, an idea that seems extremely
simple and yet is quite sophisticated.
ii. Importance of zero
It plays a central role in math. Its special uses are in algebraic
structures, place value system and measuring physical quantities.
many regions invented zero from their intuition and
calculation. Specially Babylonians, Indians, Romanians and
Zero was, is and always will be a mystery though it has been proved
in many way that zero can be used in numeric calculation, algebraic
methods and in all kind of mathematical process. But the enigma that
zero carries is still not lucid .
History and invention of zero has a vast background . There are many
regions who invented , developed and concreted zero in Numeric
The greatest mystery of zero is that it skipped the Greeks eye.
Because there is no contribution of Greeks in term of inventing zero
or developing it.
At last we can say that zero is enormously important for our daily
calculation and algebraic use. Though it has no value but it creates
the best value in numeric and mathematic sector.