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- 1. The Mystery Of
- 2. Zulfikar Pasha Dipto(024) Shuvro Banik(011) Shahiduzzaman Shanto(024) Iftekhar Ahmed Maruf(033) Alinoor Khan(030) Presented by…
- 3. Introduction(history & invention) Rational of the study Objective Methodology Numerical calculation Graphical representation Result Discussion Conclusion Contents
- 4. In the history of culture, the discovery of zero will always stand out as one of the greatest single achievements of the human race.” Tobias Danzig History & Invention Existence Zero was not considered a number.There was the idea of empty space,which may be thought conceptually similar to zero. Brief History The Maya civilization (2000 B.C-900 A.D) in the what is now Mexico used the concept of zero as a PLACEHOLDER.The Babylonians used it similarly in the 7th century B.C. The 7th century Indian mathematician Brahma Gupta treated zero as a “number” and not just as a place-holder.He elaborated the rules. The Hindu-Arabic numbering system that included zero in the way that was used in the west by Leonardo of Pisa- Fibonacci- in his book of counting,published in 1202. Zero gained a central place in the number system & divided the number line into positive & negative. In the decimal system,zero serves as a place holder & enables us to use both huge numbers and microscopic figures. Introduction
- 5. Zero is one of the most used term in mathematics. So,we have to know about it’s history & details,so that we can know about how does it come in the number system. Rationals…
- 6. The main objective is to gather knowledge about the invention and theory of the mystery of ZERO (0). Zero remains as a mystery to us.It is a common matter of curiosity & thinking about it’s origin.As we can see that it becomes popular since the pre-historic times.Through the research,we can understand its method, its usage, calculation procedures, result and conclusion. We will also gain knowledge about its importance and essence.It will help us to make the proper use in our practical life. Objectives
- 7. Methodology Methodology- 1) primary Data Collection:- As it is a historical research based on a numeric number we could not conduct the primary data collection process. 2)Secondary Data Collection-this data collects from -via Internet -via Journal -via Books
- 8. Numerical Calculation The following are some basic (elementary) rules for dealing with the number 0. These rules apply for any real or complex number x, unless otherwise stated. Addition: x + 0 = 0 + x = x. That is, 0 is an identity element (or neutral element) with respect to addition. Subtraction: x − 0 = x and 0 − x = −x. Multiplication: x · 0 = 0 · x = 0. Division: 0⁄x = 0, for nonzero x. But x⁄0 is undefined, because 0 has no multiplicative inverse (no real number multiplied by 0 produces 1), a consequence of the previous rule. Exponentiation: x0 = x/x = 1, except that the case x = 0 may be left undefined in some contexts. For all positive real x, 0x = 0.
- 9. Zero in Mayans: Six hundred years later and 12,000 miles from Babylon, the Mayans developed zero as a placeholder around A.D. 350 and used it to denote a placeholder in their elaborate calendar systems. Despite being highly skilled mathematicians, the Mayans never used zero in equations. The symbol for 0 in the Mayans looks like a bowl or an eye. Their numeral system was 20.They used 0 to represent 20. Graphical representation
- 10. Zero in Babylon: The Babylonians got their number system from the Sumerians. They are the first people in the world to develop a counting system. They created 0 in the third century B.C. The Babylonians were the first culture to invent the place value system. The Babylonian placeholder was not a true zero because it was not used alone. Even it wasn’t used at the end of a number. They had a sexigesimal number system, in which, they counted in 60s, as we count in tens. They never developed the idea of zero as a number. This is their numeral system.
- 11. Zero in India: The number 0 appear in the late 10th century in India. The concept of zero as a number and not merely a symbol for separation is attributed to India, where, by the 9th century CE, practical calculations were carried out using zero, which was treated like any other number, even in case of division .The word for zero in Hindu-India is “shiny” meaning void or empty. India is recognized with great respect for their inventions of Zero by importance with Technological world .These are the numbers that the Hindus and the Arab use.
- 12. This is a depiction of zero expressed in Chinese counting rods, based on the example provided by A History of Mathematics. An empty space is used to represent zero. The Sunni Sunning, of unknown date but estimated to be dated from the 1st to 5th centuries, and Japanese records dated from the eighteenth century, describe how counting rods were used for calculations. According to A History of Mathematics, the rods "gave the decimal representation of a number, with an empty space denoting zero." The counting rod system is considered a notation system. Zero in china
- 13. After the research we attain the knowledge of discovery, development and use of this enigmatic number ZERO. Zero was reformed many time in many decades and generations. Several regions worked to make zero an appropriate valued number. The concept of zero as a digit in the decimal place value notation was developed in India, presumably as early as during the Gupta period with the oldest unambiguous evidence dating to the 7th century. . The individual elements of the two systems, the letters and the numerals, are atomic. That is, they are identical and repeatable. Other regions like ANCIENT NEAR EAST,CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY,INDIA AND SOUTHEST ASIA,EPIGRAPHY,CHINA,MIDDLE AGES,PRE-COLUMBIAN ,Americans ,MAYANS and Babylonians also worked on the theory of zero and invented new aspects of zero. RESULT
- 14. i. development The development of the place number system depended on the invention of the concept of zero, an idea that seems extremely simple and yet is quite sophisticated. ii. Importance of zero It plays a central role in math. Its special uses are in algebraic structures, place value system and measuring physical quantities. iii.Slight History: many regions invented zero from their intuition and calculation. Specially Babylonians, Indians, Romanians and Mayans. DISCUSSION
- 15. Zero was, is and always will be a mystery though it has been proved in many way that zero can be used in numeric calculation, algebraic methods and in all kind of mathematical process. But the enigma that zero carries is still not lucid . History and invention of zero has a vast background . There are many regions who invented , developed and concreted zero in Numeric serial. The greatest mystery of zero is that it skipped the Greeks eye. Because there is no contribution of Greeks in term of inventing zero or developing it. At last we can say that zero is enormously important for our daily calculation and algebraic use. Though it has no value but it creates the best value in numeric and mathematic sector. CONCLUSION
- 16. THANK YOU
- 17. QUESTIONS

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