SOA security (1)


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SOA security (1)

  1. 1. SOA Security Dr. Yuhong Yan 1
  2. 2. Content • Security Issues overview • Security for SOA Referece: R. Kanneganti and P. Chodavarapu, “SOA Security”, Manning, 2008 2
  3. 3. Security Issues Overview • Authentication • Authorization • Data confidentiality • Data integrity an nonrepudiation • Protection against attacks • Privacy protection 3
  4. 4. New Security Approaches for SOA • Besides the following issues – Authentication – Authorization – Data confidentiality – Data integrity an nonrepudiation – Protection against attacks – Privacy protection • SOA has three new security approaches – Message-level security – Security as a service – Policy-driven security 4
  5. 5. Authentication Verifying the identity of users Evidence Type Description Example What you know The secrete you and Username- the system share password; Challenge questions What you have Something that the Hardware tokens; system knows that you The number on a have RSA What you are Biometric evidence Fingerprint; Retina scan 5
  6. 6. Traditional Authentication Strategy • The application is responsible for examining the evidence and validating it – A directory server that records all the user- password pairs – An algorithm that matches the number presented by the user and the number that is used on the RSA token 6
  7. 7. Authentication Strategy in SOA # Description Strategies 1 Service is invoked by a Authenticate against the client in the same company corporate directory 2 Service is invoked by Authentication is carried on another service in the same by the calling service; company Called service re- authenticates against the corporate directory 3 Service is invoked by a Rely on partner app’s partner’s app assertion of user identity 7
  8. 8. Authorization Determine whether the identified user is authorized to access the functionality • Another name: access control • Compare authentication and authorization – Authentication: your photo ID – Authorization: allow to buy a drink? 8
  9. 9. Traditional Authorization Strategy • The application is responsible for authorization, some information used is in a directory server or a configuration repository – Access control models • Role-based Access Control • Access Control List (rules) 9
  10. 10. Authorization Strategy in SOA • The composite app cannot hard code authorization function • The individual services in the composite app have to do this 10
  11. 11. Data Confidentiality Data exchanged over a network needs to be safeguarded • Traditional strategy to ensure data confidentiality – Encryption – Establish a secure channel • Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)/Transport Layer Security (TLS) 11
  12. 12. Data Confidentiality Protection Strategy in SOA • Encryption • Establish a secure channel – SSL/TLS • Different recipients process different part of the message To ACME My order My acct info To bank Acct info ACME 12 bank
  13. 13. Data Integrity and Nonrepudiation Verify that the message received is what the sender sent; the sender should not able to deny having sent a msg • SSL/TLS also helps in verifying the integrity and ensuring nonrepudiation • SSL/TLS can be used for SOAP transport – Blanket encryption • We can have selective encryption also 13
  14. 14. Protection Against Attacks • Vulnerabilities in application code – SQL code • Vulnerabilities introduced by poor administrative practices – The default password • Vulnerabilities inherent in computing/network infrastructuure – TCP/IP 14
  15. 15. Traditional Strategy for Protection Against Attacks • Using firewall • Run applications within sandboxes • Carefully audit application code • Use intrusion detection systems 15
  16. 16. Strategy for Protection against Attacks in SOA • Vulnerable to denial of service (DoS) attacks • No further discussion in this course 16
  17. 17. Privacy Protection Avoid leakage of users’ private information • Flaws in access control rules – Who can access sensitive data • Vulnerabilities exploited by attackers – Inject SQL that queries sensitive data 17
  18. 18. Strategy for Privacy Protection • Enhance security – Remove the vulnerabilities • Holding back real identifies • Protect the patterns that associate with sensitive data • No more discussion in this course 18
  19. 19. Extending SOAP with Headers for Security 19
  20. 20. Inside SOAP SOAP message Envelope (required) Header (optional) Header Entry1 … Header Entry n Body (required) Fault (optional) 20
  21. 21. Header • For authentication, transaction management, and authorization, routing • Standard extensions • Customerized extensions 21
  22. 22. Standard header entry attributes • Who should deal with the header entry? – actor attribute: e.g. a URI – The chained nodes: intermediaries • What do we do with the header entry? – mustUnderstand attribute: true /false – force the recipient to process the element, if not understandable, return a fault • What do we parse data in the header entry? – encodingStyle attribute: e.g. XML schema 22
  23. 23. An Example for Header <soapenv:Envelope xmlns:soapenv=…> <SOAP-ENV:Header> <ns1:PaymentAccount xmlns:ns1=“urn:ecerami” SOAP-ENV:actor=“”” SOAP-ENV:mustUnderstand=“true” SOAP-ENV:encodingStyle =“http//”> orsenigo473 </ns1:PaymentAccount> </SOAP-ENV:Header> 23
  24. 24. Fault • faultCode – SOAP-ENV:VersionMismatch – SOAP-ENV:MustUnderstand – SOAP-ENV:Client (non existing methods) – SOAP-ENV:Server (not able to access DB) • faultString • faultActor • Detail info about the fault 24
  25. 25. Fault <?xml version=„1.0‟ encoding=„UTF-8‟?> <SOAP-ENV:Envelope xmlns:SOAP-ENV=“” xmlns:xsi=“” xmlns:xsd=“”> <SOAP-ENV:Body> <SOAP-ENV:Fault> <faultcode xsi:type=“xsd:string”>SOAP-ENV:Client</faultcode> <faultstring xsi:type=“xsd:string”> Failed to locate method (ValidateCreditCard) in class (examplesCreditCard) at /usr/local/ActivePerl-5.6/lib/ site_perl/5.6.0/SOAP/ line 1555. </faultstring> </SOAP-ENV:Fault> </SOAP-ENV:Body> </SOAP-ENV:Envelope> 25 P55. xml part (for faults)
  26. 26. WS-Security: Standard Extension for Security 26
  27. 27. Security Header: security claims • “My name is X.” • “X is authorized to access this resource.” • “This message is signed by X.” • “This message is encrypted using X’s public key.” 27
  28. 28. An Example for Security Header <soapenv:Envelope xmlns:soapenv=…> <SOAP-ENV:Header> <wsse:Security … <wsse:UsernameToken wsuID=“1”> <wsse:Username> <xenc:EncryptedData> … </xenc:EncryptedData> </wsse:Username> <wsse:Password> <xenc:EncryptedData> … </xenc:EncryptedData> </wsse:Password> </wsse:UsernameToken> </SOAP-ENV:Header> </SOAP-ENV:Header> 28
  29. 29. Fault Code Code Description UnsupportSecurityToken An unsupported security token was provided. UnsupportedAlgorithm An unsupported signature or encryption algorithm was used. InvalidSecurity An error was discovered while processing the security header. InvalidSecurityToken An invalid security token was provided. FailedAuthentication The security token could not be authenticated or authorized FailedCheck The signature or decryption is invalid SecurityTokenUnavailabel Referenced security token could not be retrieved 29
  30. 30. Programming on security headers • The pattern of handler in JAX-RPC – Compose the elements in headers • The chained handlers – Axis Web service deployment description (.wsdd) 30
  31. 31. Intermediaries and WS-Addressing source interm1 interm1 dest <soapenv:Envelope xmlns:soapenv=…> <SOAP-ENV:Header> <was:To xmlns:was=“…/ws/2004/08/addressing”> http://localhost:8080/axis/services/example6 WS- </was:To> Addressing <was:Action xmlns:was=“…/ws/2004/08/addressing”> </wasAction> <wsse:Security soapenv:actor=“…”> … </wsse:Security> 31 </SOAP-ENV:Header>