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SOA Executive Forum

  1. 1. SOA Executive Forum S p e c i a l R e p o r t Quick-to-deploy data mashups and SaaS are fast ways to add functionality to SOAs. But with more and more companies’ SOA efforts reaching maturity, are mashups and SaaS a shortcut or detour to effective SOAs? And how will SOA governance change in an increasingly Web 2.0-based world? E xecutiv 1 6ng SOA Bottle e F – ak i ne ck o 5 re s B 1 r ay u m M InfoWorld’s special supplement focuses on the signature leading-edge presentations from the top experts at InfoWorld’s SOA Executive Forum held May 15-16, 2007. SOA experts Joe McKendrick and Beth Gold-Bernstein have produced this special collection of articles and podcasts by the Forum’s speakers. Find out how to right-size and govern your SOA services and how mashups and SaaS can speed progress rather than cause problems for SOA efforts. You'll also hear experts from BEA, Oracle, Software AG and webMethods detail their practical strategies for over- coming SOA obstacles.
  2. 2. BEA: The Benefits of Deconstruction, Governance and Mashups Is it Ever too Soon As companies move further along the spectrum of SOA deployment, BEA Engineering Vice President Charles Stack says to Start Thinking companies are discovering to their delight and surprise that the changes SOA brings are About SOA Governance? more fundamental than originally expected. By Joe McKendrick Deep organizational changes are required as a part of the implementation, but these By its very nature, service-oriented architecture is an open changes present companies with new busi- invitation to dissension and tension within the enterprise. While ness opportunities — in part, as a result of IT often takes a leading role in SOA efforts these days, the archi- the deconstruction of their former business tecture, like the Internet, is supposed to be highly distributed capabilities. across multiple owners without a single master. However, SOA “Businesses are finding that what they proponents must still decide who should lead the SOA charge, intended the services to be used for only and how they should go about it. Questions often linger, such as: scratches the surface of what they actually Who should be enforcing the policy questions that arise within could be used for,” Stack says. an SOA? What constitutes a “service”? Who has access rights to Governance continues to be a big issue in the service? Who manages the services? Who pays for the making the most of that. Companies need to services? How do you change these services? How do you define take standards and practices that they want policy? to enforce and make them visible to the Many companies are just starting to build out their SOAs, and people who care and ensure compliance. are also starting to learn that the services they develop and “And as reuse factors into the equation, deploy need to be vetted and processes put in place to ensure frankly most companies are doing SOA to they are developed in accordance with pre-determined policies. get cost savings — and reuse is at core at Numerous organizations are pinning their hopes for SOA success those cost savings,” Stack adds. “The more on service reuse, and as Charles Stack, vice president of engineer- you can guarantee or ensure that reuse ing with BEA Systems, puts it, it takes good governance to make occurs, the greater your return on invest- this a reality. “At this point, most companies are doing SOA to ment is going to be.” Beside reuse, which also eliminates “...there's still a tendency by developers to redundancy, governance increases the abili- ty to prescribe services to projects, creating throw services over the wall, without keeping situations where you can ensure and enforce track of whether the services get used or not.” consuming of services at the architecture and review level. Even smaller organizations get cost savings, and reuse is the way to achieve that,” he points can benefit from governance in order to out. “The more you can insure that reuse occurs, the greater your establish a precedent and set the stage for return on investment is going to be.” efficient SOA initiatives from the ground up. Governance is necessary because SOA is still unfamiliar territo- And emerging Web 2.0 technologies go ry for most companies. For one, developers building services hand in hand with SOA. Stack points out aren’t thinking about how the service can or will be reused by that Web 2.0 and SOA alike are largely other business units. In addition, there’s still a tendency by devel- about deconstruction, taking monolithic opers to throw services over the wall, without keeping track of functionality and deconstructing that into whether the services get used or not. However, Stack observes, constituent parts, then reassembling those “when you add governance into the equation, you now have a parts into new functionality in individual services that might be delivered as entirely situation where you can prescribe specific services that ought to new businesses. be used by project teams, and that insure or enforce those servic- “That's really the end game for an effec- es are actually consumed. Therefore, your return on investment tive SOA, a service-oriented architecture goes up significantly with governance because you’re able to pre- that delivers the ability to decompose ini- scribe them.” tially and then recompose business capabili- The need for governance grows as the SOA grows in size and ties in new and more productive ways,” he scope, providing direction in “how you scale and retain speed, says.■ and what structures you need in order to establish SOA,” says Miko Matsumura, vice president of product marketing SOA for webMethods. “Right out of the box, people need to start archi- To hear this entire 12:00 podcast, go to tecting and engineering for this future state. People who favor 2
  3. 3. BEA_SOA_ad_InfoWorld_color.qxd 5/2/07 5:02 PM Page 1 While most IT departments are busy putting out fires, you can start being more liquid. A Service-Oriented Architecture is the best wayto stay fluid in the constantly evolving world of business. BEA’s particular approach to SOA allows you to unlock frozen assets and align business with IT. We call this Business LiquidITy.™ What makes our SOA solutions so liquid? Our software embraces heterogeneity, working equally well with diverse technologies and multiple vendors. We offer seamless innovation, so that you quickly realize tangible © 2007 BEA Systems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. benefits, not just suffer empty promises. And our pragmatic, step-by-step approach allows your company to experience a faster time to market while mitigating costs and reducing risk. To learn how you can achieve Business LiquidITy, visit
  4. 4. Oracle Middleware Director: Stick to the Is it Ever too Soon to Start Thinking About SOA Point Projects Governance? continued from page 2 Oracle's Fusion Middleware Director speed and scale before they start thinking of structure and gover- Ashish Mohindaroo believes most compa- nance could be at risk of having their projects falling apart.” nies are past the point of needing to be Governance firmly plants SOA control on the business side, convinced of the value of SOA. since the practice gives “business and IT management insight into Instead of needing more convincing, he all the rules and policies around artifacts,” according to Mighael says, companies are investing in specific Botha, technology evangelist at Software AG. “Governance makes point projects for SOA and replacing older sure that if business users request a service, there is a clear point-to-point integration techniques. But defined path of accountability for the lifecycle of that service, the projects are still in their early phases. from development through deployment.” Governance continues to be a big issue. Whereas in past enterprise projects a sin- Why You Should Govern Right Out of the Gate gle department had complete control over Industry experts agree that it’s never too soon to start looking at a project, SOA breaks down departmental governance strategies. The idea of SOA governance may be new barriers — and that raises new questions. to many IT managers and professionals, but the sooner gover- Who has access rights? Who manages serv- nance is put into place, the greater the chance of success for the ices? Who pays? Without answers, notes SOA. Those organizations that launch robust governance initia- Mohindaroo, tension could emerge tives alongside their SOAs are likely to see far greater results in between departments if companies are terms of measurable return on investment and cost savings. made to play it by ear. Many companies have gotten the governance message, and “The whole idea behind governance is most have undertaken rudimentary efforts to address the process. to define a path of how a company can A survey of 313 companies conducted by ebizQ found that about start from a point project and then scale 50% of the companies interviewed have 10 or fewer services it out,” he said. Another key factor is deployed, and only 20% had services exceeding the 50 mark. “putting in the organization structure However, at least 55% said that they had a “corporate mandate” along with the technology structure that is to put governance policies in place, and another 31% expected required to be successful in these proj- such a mandate soon. ects.” And governance is not just creating a “Basic interoperability requirements need to be repository of services within the enter- in place, even early on as you're only doing the prise, but more about having a standard of service that has to pass certain parame- first couple of services, because you want to ters and has to meet service-level agree- establish the precedent. ments, conforming to specifications — Charles Stack, vice president of engineering with BEA Systems defined by a governing body within the organization. “Governance enters the SOA picture when the first policy is Web 2.0 raises more possibilities for set,” said Brenda Michelson, co-author of the ebizQ study. SOA also, bringing increased user produc- “Typically, this is during the technology proof of concept, and the tivity and increased reuse of existing first policies are on the design side, service interface design, and assets. The emerging Software-as-a- what technology protocols you’re going to use — Web services, Service model works hand-in-hand with REST, XML or HTTP. Depending on the business problem you’re SOA to create services that can be exter- working on, an organization might need to introduce runtime nally delivered by business partners and governance in their first project. In general, the formalization of switched on or off according to require- SOA governance begins after the initial proof of concept, and ments. before SOA expands beyond the early adopter team.” As compared to a traditional monolithic BEA’s Stack agrees that “you need to put the gates in place architecture, said Mohindaroo, “with SOA right away.” The number of standards or practices that are as your basic infrastructure principle, it enforced may be modest, “but the gates to ensure that services becomes a lot easier for you to now plug comply with basic standards. Basic interoperability requirements and play different services to meet your need to be in place, even early on as you're only doing the first business requirements in a much more couple of services, because you want to establish the precedent. cost-effective manner.” ■ Then as your SOA initiative matures and builds and grows you can, as necessary, add to the requirements for moving from one To hear this entire 10:00 podcast, go to step in the development lifecycle to another.” 4
  5. 5. “Excellent” For Service-Oriented Architecture “The most comprehensive and easy to use product on the market today.” – InfoWorld Review, January 22, 2007 Oracle Fusion Middleware Hot-Pluggable. Comprehensive. or call 1.800.633.0641 Copyright © 2007. Oracle ia a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners. MdW_SOA-leader_InfoWrld_1799
  6. 6. IONA CTO: Decompose and Improve Interfaces Is it Ever too Soon to Start Thinking About SOA Governance? continued from page 4 It’s an exciting time for SOA, says IONA CTO Eric Newcomer, and as companies Governance should not be limited to SOA, but to the types of begin to turn more and more toward the functionality the services are exposing, webMethod’s Matsumura technology, they face some interesting says. “I think that the thing to be the absolute most sensitive to is challenges and possibilities. whether there are functionalities that straddle ownerships coming “We see emerging technology such as in. You need to consider how those functionalities are governed.” SCA, as we use it in our registry/reposito- For example, Matsumura observes, developers themselves tend to ry, providing the capability to compose split functions such as QA testing, operations, and business func- multiple services together, and orchestra- tions into separate domains. “They behave as if they are a separate tion engines such as BPEL where you can ownership domain. Each of these domains behaves as if they are take the very large-grained interface that separate from the other domains.” meets the needs of the business and Botha said governance is also key for keeping rogue services at decompose it or assemble the smaller bay. “In a lot of cases, I've seen developers go off and they would grained services that the developers might create services. The guy working in cube 1A would create five be working on," Newcomer explains. services on Monday, and the guy sitting in cube 2A would create Also, thanks to Web 2.0, interactive another 15 services because they perceive that they've got the consumer sites like Google Maps are rais- stamp of approval from management for full-fledged SOA. At the ing challenges for enterprise applications. end of three or four months, the company ends up with 200 or “One of them is to get the level of 300 services. These things can get out of hand pretty quickly.” interactivity improved in the user inter- faces on your enterprise applications “The most successful governance efforts involve based on adoption of some newer tech- nologies such as AJAX and maybe Flash, the empowering or creation of a governance and some of these nice presentation tech- committee, comprised of representatives from nologies that are coming out," Newcomer across the business.” notes. Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) is poised to take an important role in SOA also, as Shared Ownership companies begin to create applications Governance takes on added importance in SOA efforts because, at with reusable services and think about least in theory, SOA is an enterprise-wide project that is not hosting those services outside the compa- owned by a particular department. “If you look at the way compa- ny. Newcomer expects commodity and nies have approached enterprise architecture projects in the past, general purpose functions like accounting they were very much siloed and departmental-centric,” says and billing to deliver the primary value. ■ Ashish Mohindaroo, senior director of Oracle Fusion Middleware. “SOA is about breaking down these silos and departmental barri- To hear this entire 7:00 podcast, go to ers, and having a uniform architectural approach across the enter- prise. That means giving up control.” Again, this is uncharted territory for many enterprises. “You're organizing capabilities that may be under the control of different ownership domains,” says Matsumura. “But, obviously that raises Officer at IONA Technologies, says the best examples questions about how to appropriately allocate resources, how to of governance structures he has seen typically have share resources, and how to get these interactions and interdepen- “a very complete set of governance policies and pro- dencies in some kind of meaningful state.” cedures inside the company, with an architectural Such decentralized control over SOA resources often results in oversight function that keeps those things in line, “a lot of tension that could emerge between different departments and keeps projects going in the right direction.” if it's not handled correctly upfront,” Mohindaroo says. “The However, he observes, “there's always kind of this whole idea behind governance is to really define a path of how a push-and-pull between the developers who want to company can start from a point project and then scale it out by do their own thing and the oversight committee that breaking down the departmental barriers across the enterprise, wants to make sure that they build reusable services putting in the organization structure along with the technology that fit the design goals of the SOA.” structure that is required to be successful in these projects.” The most successful governance efforts involve the empowering Lifecycles or creation of a governance committee, comprised of representa- Governance typically addresses three elements of tives from across the business. Eric Newcomer, Chief Technology SOA: policy management, service-level agreements 6
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  8. 8. Is it Ever too Soon to Start Thinking About SOA Governance? continued from page 6 and lifecycle management. In fact, governance typically is empha- “It turns out that the biggest differentiator sized — and often handled differently — during the two phases of between those that feel their governance solution is development time and runtime. At the core of any SOA gover- sufficient, and those who believe their governance nance initiative are policies, which establish guidelines around the solution is not sufficient, is the degree of runtime proper definition, development and deployment of services. Such automation,” says Beth Gold-Bernstein, director of policies extend through the lifetime of a service, from initial fund- the ebizQ Training Center, who co-authored the ing, standards, interfacing, testing protocols, and security. study with Michelson. “Those that have runtime For that reason, Newcomer believes, “I think it's important that automation have an automated solution that is governance always starts with design, and then it gets into tech- managing governance policies whenever these nology. Once SOA is defined as collection of reusable services, services are being accessed and run have far higher companies are going to need some help managing, maintaining, levels of confidence. They know their policies are updating, renewing and changing the policy settings and configu- being enforced in their environment.” ■ ration settings on their services. That's where governance tools can really help.” Increasingly, such tools offer automation capabilities — and experts advise automating as much of SOA governance as possible. As Anne Thomas Manes, an analyst with Burton Group, explained Software AG: Mashups in a recent ebizQ Webinar, SOA governance “should be as helpful Are the Real Face of SOA and as automatic as possible. If it is a hurdle, if people have to do stuff they’ve never had to do before, it typically produces a bunch In any SOA deployment, governance is a of resentment, and people figure out ways to avoid it.” way to make sure that high-quality SOA servic- es are being delivered, says Software AG tech- SOA governance “should be as helpful and as nology evangelist Mighael Botha. automatic as possible. If it is a hurdle, if people But even with governance, businesses strug- gle with right-sizing in SOA initiatives. have to do stuff they've never had to do Services may not fit enterprise needs the way before, it typically produces a bunch of resent- they are originally implemented. ment, and people figure out ways to avoid it.” Right-sizing goes through constant measure- ment and optimization after implementation, –Anne Thomas Manes, analyst, Burton Group says Botha. “After a third or fourth iteration of the release of a service or a software pack- While policies are typically manually administered, there’s been age, you typically get into a situation where growing impetus toward the automation of policy enforcement and everything has been optimized and that piece governance in general. The ebizQ survey found, for example, that of software is right-sized.” manual processes that companies rely on include design reviews, Web and Enterprise 2.0 technologies may which was the most common method of enforcement, manual simplify both governance and right-sizing, as audits, and after-the-fact reporting. The survey also found that well as boost overall SOA adoption, says only about six percent of companies have automated runtime Botha. monitoring of policies, and less than five percent automatically Although typical business users may not check services for policy enforcement before the services are relate to IT terms like “enterprise service checked into a repository. bus” and “governance tools,” even if users Overall, most companies that have functioning SOAs in place don't understand what a mashup is, they can are pretty sour on the state of their governance solutions. While be presented with a single view showing all about 17% say their governance is sufficient, another 40% say it is kinds of biographical data about customers or not sufficient. The rest aren't quite sure yet. products through a Web 2.0 or AJAX front end. However, in cases where automation is introduced to facilitate “The mashup is the real face of SOA, bring- governance, the picture changes. Those sites that have runtime and ing business closer to maybe a portal or event- design-time automation are far more likely to report high levels of driven architecture to show them that they comfort with their governance solution than those who rely on can really get useful information from the new manual enforcement. A third of the respondents with runtime technology that is being implemented,” Botha automation, 33%, say their governance is sufficient, compared to concludes. ■ 18% with no automation. Likewise, 26% of those with runtime automation expressed confidence in their governance approach, To hear this entire 7:00 podcast, go to versus seven percent with no automation. 8
  9. 9. webMethods: Web 2.0, SOA the Foundation for SaaS Mashups Bring New According to Miko Matsumura, vice pres- ident of product marketing, SOA for Energy to SOA webMethods, Web 2.0 and SOA together provide a foundation for Software-as-a- Service, and SaaS means that companies By Joe McKendrick are beginning to offer their business serv- ices on a network-deployed model. Mashup applications have taken the world by storm, and are “This takes it beyond Software-as-a- seeping into the enterprise. Industry experts agree that mashups service and starts to get into business can provide a new look to service-oriented architecture. But can, services on the Internet,” Matsumura says. and should, the mashups trend be tamed, without restricting the “What's the difference? Well, if you sell innovation that this new style of application brings to enterprises? software, then you can sell your software Mashups are a form of composite application that draws from as a service on the Internet.” other applications or data from across the network. Mashups And if you sell something like telecom- employ Web 2.0 approaches — typically employing the AJAX munications, SaaS means that when peo- standard as well as drawing upon resources in the cloud — to ple interact with your interfaces, it's not offer fast and easy ways to address simple front-end integration just bits but repair technicians and trucks problems. Classic examples of mashup applications are combined and all of your offerings being triggered data and mapping services on the Web., for example, through an Internet-accessible standard mashes current real estate data with Microsoft Virtual Earth to business platform. provide a visual locator service. Within enterprises, a transporta- “We're seeing an entire transition in the tion company can mash up delivery route data with maps to help industry towards business services residing logistics managers determine the fastest routes for current ship- on the Internet,” Matsumura says. ments. Or, customer addresses can be mashed up with an address- Matsumura also pointed out that gover- checking service. nance and planning was important right from the beginning when deploying SOA. “When you deliver a series of services, post “Out of the box, people need to start them in a repository and let people within your architecting and engineering for this enterprise see what's there, they’re going to future state,” Matsumura explains. “People who favor speed and scale before come up with new creative ways of delivering they start thinking of structure and gover- business value. Whether or not they’re called nance could be at risk of having their projects falling apart.” ‘mashups,’ that's really the end game for an effective SOA…” To hear this entire 7:00 podcast, go to — Charles Stack, vice president of engineering with BEA Systems Prominent companies are discovering the potential opportuni- ties mashups can provide. Sabre, for example, now enables its are something that I can take to a user, and say, partners to mash-up its travel services in new ways. As Charles ‘Okay, this is a mash-up that shows a single view Stack, vice president of engineering with BEA Systems explains, of a customer within your organization.’ The user “Sabre recognized that they can't know what the entire universe might not understand what a mashup is, but is going to do with its services. In fact, users have come up with when they see that they can get all kinds of data applications that Sabre could never have imagined.” about their customers or products from five or six A recent survey of 2,847 executives worldwide by McKinsey & or seven different systems in the back end.” Company finds that at least 21% of companies are investing in Web 2.0 resources and methodologies can even tools or technologies that will enable the development of mashup help accelerate SOA projects. “Web 2.0 is all applications. about increased user productivity, and SOA is Mashup applications can actually be considered a variation of increased reuse of existing assets,” says Ashish the composite applications that have been part of the SOA scene Mohindaroo, senior director of Oracle Fusion for years now. In many ways, Web 2.0 mashups and SOA are Middleware. “If I'm able to mix and mash differ- complementary. “I see mashups as being the face of SOA,” says ent Web site content, to deliver a new page or a Mighael Botha, technology evangelist at Software AG. “Mashups new service to my end user, that's a great thing,” 10
  10. 10. Expert Commentary Adopting SOA: The New Structure of Business “SOA will become the dominant framework for creating and delivering software, shifting value from packaged software to subscription services and from monolithic suites to composite applications” David Cearley, Jackie Fenn, Daryl Plummer in Gartner’s Positions on the Five Hottest IT Topics & Trends THE WORLD IS TURNING TO SOA enterprise-scale, both the risks and opportunities also expand. At enterprise scale, breaking down the barriers between traditional IT “silos,” In a survey of top Chief Information Officers SOA architects can create benefits for central IT, business units, and the (CIOs), global investment firm Goldman Sachs organization as a whole. determined that 87 percent of them had deployed web services and were getting involved in Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). This led WHY CONSIDER SOA? Goldman Sachs to conclude that momentum There are several key reasons organizations should turn to SOA. for this style of computing is strong and that Miko Matsumura “service oriented architecture is the next big SOA is Inevitable - Every major software vendor has expressed VP of SOA Product their commitment to delivering SOA enabled software infrastructure thing to drive an upgrade to a new platform Marketing & Technology of infrastructure and applications, providing a components. So your software will be “service enabled” out of the box Standards, webMethods growth catalyst for the software industry.” moving forward. With 87 percent of CIOs surveyed by Goldman Sachs reporting the use of web services standards, these standards will form the SOA is nothing short of re-architecting the billion dollar information basis for integrating software not just within, but across organizations. systems that run the world economy. The process of adopting SOA is evolutionary, but requires the establishment of a set of SOA Governance SOA Accelerates IT - By creating “coarsely-grained” business services, policies, processes and practices that ensure the integrity of the SOA SOA creates an IT landscape of components that can be assembled and federation as a whole. recombined into business processes or new services. These components resemble LEGO™ toy blocks in that they can be combined to quickly build End-to-End Service Lifecycle Governance new shapes and capabilities. SOA Aligns IT with the Business - By creating a common language and Admin set of expectations around services, SOA can ensure that the IT function Manage interoperates smoothly with the business function. Older IT systems have a tendency to be obfuscated, mystified and otherwise too technical for Tim ign Op Developer er IT Operations business users to understand. By shifting the conversation to business Run e ew e Tim s De at i nV services, business people can easily understand what they can expect from io n D e si g a l V ie w SOA IT and how IT brings value to the business. Data A Se cu r i t y R u cce ss C o n t r o s SOA Saves Money - SOA does not ask organizations to “rip-and-replace” l le s se a n d P r o ce s their existing investment in technology. SOA uses a “leave-and-layer” Pla e Bus Us i n e ss V i e w n approach that leverages all of the existing systems, whether they are Change Architect Time Service Consumers mainframe, client-server or Internet-ready applications. In addition, by creating a common set of building blocks across an organization, the organization can consolidate redundant pieces of infrastructure and a set Business Users of commonly shared services enterprise-wide. WHAT IS SOA? SOA has been defined as a paradigm for organizing and utilizing Stop by the webMethods booth distributed capabilities that may be under the control of different ownership domains. It provides a uniform means to offer, discover, to get a full SOA assessment. interact with and use capabilities to produce desired effects consistent with measurable preconditions and expectations. Avoid common SOA challenges and compare your company to your peers. SOA has the potential to provide many benefits which are related to controlling cost and complexity as well as enabling an organization to evolve and compete with increased agility. As an SOA grows to For more information, please visit
  11. 11. Miko Matsumura, vice president of product market- Mashups Bring New Energy to SOA continued from page 6 ing SOA for webMethods, cautions against letting he explains. “I can assemble new services which in the mashups run too far amok without governance, as past would have taken me a longer time because every- “there is almost a tyranny to structurelessness,” he says. thing had to be built from scratch.” “That kind of model is inherently less agile, flexible, The same is true with SOA, Mohindaroo continues. and more expensive, than a model that actually consists “Because SOA is about reuse. You have existing assets of logical constraints.” you have already invested heavily into, such as legacy Matsumura adds that “a constraint should be thought systems, mainframes, and packaged applications. You of more as a ‘pivot’ than as a ‘straightjacket.’ If you don't want to rip everything out and throw it away. constrain something along one dimension, it doesn’t What you really want to do is bring those existing mean that it’s not free to move across the other dimen- assets into modern infrastructure, a modern architecture. sion. That’s the balance that SOA represents, which is Combining Web 2.0 mashups with SOA is the entire the IT-business alignment. One side wants to go wild, framework of building next-generation applications.” while the other side wants to buckle down everything.” Eric Newcomer, Chief Technology Officer at IONA “As people are mashing these things up, Technology, feels some mashup governance is inevitable. “Up until now, we've been thinking of serv- the SOA and enterprise architecture ices as a server-side phenomenon. But as these tech- people within these organizations are nologies mature, and as mashups get used more and coming behind them and trying to figure more for enterprise applications, the services and the components that they represent will need to be gov- out how to control it.” erned as well. Because they'll be reused although, in a — David Linthicum, InfoWorld's Real World SOA blogger somewhat different way than SOA-based services. For the moment, I don't see the current flock of governance The parallels between Web 2.0 and SOA “are very tools really providing much in that area.” striking,” Stack agrees. “Conceptually, both SOA and Many industry observers see mashups and SOA as Web 2.0 are largely about deconstruction, where you inextricably linked. They enhance the value of SOA to take monolithic functionality, deconstruct it into its the organization and are an easy way to build applica- constituent parts, then enable people to reassemble that tions that can quickly access enterprise data and appli- into new functionality.” He observes that within the cations. Ultimately, both mashed-up and traditional ideal SOA inside an enterprise, “when you deliver a composite application approaches can be brought to series of services, post them in a repository and let peo- bear on various business problems. “There's a lot of ple within your enterprise see what's there, they’re things going on in the business side that aren't getting going to come up with new creative ways of delivering the IT stamp of approval,” Stack relates. “Because busi- business value. Whether or not they’re called ‘mashups,’ ness is trying to get stuff done, and those IT organiza- that's really the end game for an effective SOA, a serv- tions that you think are more effective are enabling ice-oriented architecture that delivers the ability to decompose initially and then recompose business capa- “Ultimately, both mashed-up and traditional bilities in new and more productive ways.” However, many mashups are occurring under the composite application approaches can be radar of IT governance.“The mashup seems to be very brought to bear on various business problems.” much like a Wild West, almost like rapid application development was 15 years ago,” says David Linthicum, that at the same time they are trying to put a manage- an industry consultant and author of InfoWorld’s Real ment wrap up around it. The right approach from an IT World SOA blog. “As people are mashing these things standpoint strikes me as one where you enable the up, the SOA and enterprise architecture people within business to be as productive and flexible as possible these organizations are coming behind them and trying with all the technologies that come around.” to figure out how to control it.” Ultimately, the two approaches have much to offer Experts agree that instilling governance over mashup one another. “I see mashups and SOA really coming activities may be a daunting challenge. Governance together in a very tight manner, in which SOA divides involves a lifecycle approach to service development the framework and gives you the structure,” and deployment, as well as support of a registry/reposi- Mohindaroo said. “And mashups give you the flexibility tory to aid in discovery of available services. Bringing and productivity that you are looking for in terms of mashups into this fold, and assigning policies to these assembling some of these new applications in a much services, may put a damper on their development. faster way than you could do it in the past.” ■ 12
  12. 12. Right-Sizing Services by Beth Gold-Bernstein derivable and traceable. Frankly, the provable part remains to be proven. While most organizations are still in the early stages of SOA adoption, according to numerous audi- Business-Driven Design ence polls ebizQ has conducted, very few enterprises The design begins with a business-level BPMN process are sitting this trend out. It is becoming increasingly model which includes both human and system clear that SOA is slated to become the dominant IT processes. BPMN diagrams include events, interac- architecture of the future. tions, and flows. This relates directly to the different The potential business benefits of increasing busi- styles of SOA: ness and IT agility, enabling reuse of IT assets, 1. A process-driven SOA solution design starts with decreasing implementation times and lowering costs the business process itself represented by the are clearly compelling. Additionally, the nearly univer- BPMN diagram. sal acceptance of Web services by all vendors has low- 2. An event-driven SOA solution starts with dis- ered the risk of adopting a SOA approach to delivering crete business events which then may kick off business solutions. processes or human interactions. However, while the evolving standards define how 3. Interactive SOA solutions are generally compos- to implement services for interoperability, they do not ite solutions with rich user interfaces, and the help developers design services with the right level of design begins by identifying and modeling those granularity in order to optimize reuse, agility and interactions. manageability. While right-sizing services is essential Each style of SOA has a different modeling entry for achieving the promised land of SOA benefits, point but it all ends up in one model. As long as you unfortunately, there is nothing akin to the rules of can identify what style of SOA you are doing, then data normalization for determining the correctness of you can use the appropriate approach to guide model- a SOA design. ing effort to make it easier. To deliver business value and mitigate risk, design- ers and developers need methods that provide more Derivable Service Design consistent and reliable results. A good design method The activities defined in the BPMN model are then should be: used to derive business services. An activity may rep- 1. business-driven, meaning that business processes resent one or more services. The business activities and requirements drive all parts of the process generally align with the different types of services 2. derivable, meaning that the design can be (service patterns). There are process-oriented services, derived directly from the requirements in a step- function-oriented services, and data-oriented services, wise manner and there is also an implication of granularity 3. auditable, to provide traceability in the design between the different services types. going from requirements to implementation Process-oriented services may call other processes 4. proveable, meaning that there is a way to prove and may also include function and or data-oriented the correctness of the design services. Function-oriented services may be com- Additionally, the method should provide a reliable prised of one or more functional services and may and repeatable process that delivers predictable results, also include data oriented services. Data-oriented templates to guide and speed the process, and best services may also be aggregate services, combining practices to help avoid costly mistakes and enhance multiple data services. The activity models help success factors. designers understand the different types of services These are the drivers and requirements behind a required. service design method I have been working on with While the service types imply different levels of Brenda Michelson of Elemental Links granularity, we further define granularity by classify- ( Brenda and I first ing services as business services, intermediary services, started discussing a service-based architecture in 1997, and provider services. Business services may be com- when I was consulting at L.L. Bean on a distributed prised of one or more services which may be com- enterprise architecture initiative that Brenda was lead- bined to perform a business function. It is at the busi- ing. Over the past decade we have had extensive ness-service level that business metrics, services-level experience with architecture, design, and SOA, and agreements, and other business policies are defined. believe we have come up with a method that is driven, Next are intermediary services. These services provide 13
  13. 13. Right-Sizing Services continued location, semantic and technology transparency. In long-lived, asynchronous, and usually interact through business terms, intermediary services provide agility in publish/subscribe. Agents can be a combination of the SOA. monitors and workers. Over time, we expect to devel- At the most granular level are provider services. op a rich set of service templates to enable developers These are the services which perform discrete units of to identify the type of service and general behavior, work. They may be application-level interfaces, or and then customize the template to deliver the granular Web services. Activities are decomposed into required business functionality. these different layers of services as required. Conclusion Templates to Guide Right-sizing SOA is being looked to as the promised land of Service-design templates help guide reduce complexity increasing business agility and decreasing IT costs. As as well as design and development time by providing the saying goes, if it sounds too good to be true, it a good portion of the service design. Service templates probably is. The truth about SOA is that it is an archi- can be defined by characterizing the behavior of dif- tectural best practice, not a piece of software. Reaping ferent types of services. For example, process-oriented the rewards of SOA requires getting the design right services are long-lived, stateful, asynchronous and so services can be reused and solutions can easily and interact with other services most often through quickly adapt to changing business requirements. orchestration. Function-oriented services can be fur- None of the Web services standards solve or address ther categorized as workers, monitors or agents. this problem, and that is not the role of standards. Worker functions are stateless, short-lived, synchro- Companies embarking on enterprise SOA initiatives nous or asynchronous, and may have any type of need to teach developers more than how to program interaction. Monitor functions are stateful or stateless, in WSDL if they want derive real benefits. ■ InfoWorld thanks the sponsors of the SOA Executive Forum in New York City. Please plan to attend our next SOA Executive Forum event which will be held November 7–8, 2007 in New York City at the Millennium Hotel. Cornerstone Diamond Gold Silver Associate Written by: ebizQ Custom Publishing, Writers: Joe McKendrick, Beth Gold-Bernstein Editor: Krissi Danielsson Lead Designer: Ricki Pappo Coordinating Producer: Gian Trotta For information about InfoWorld event sponsorships, please email Hal Mentlik,VP Integrated Media Sales at or call 631-696-4498.
  14. 14. Don’t Miss the Action June 20 - 21 A two-day virtual conference ebizQ is following up its groundbreaking SOA in Action and BPM in Action virtual conferences with a new Business Intelligence in Action virtual conference that will offer pragmatic, how-to webinars, podcasts, white papers and more on planning, building and managing business intelligence solutions. Don’t miss these exciting keynote speakers: Keynote Webinar: Keynote Webinar: Business Intelligence: The Current State of the Driving Business Performance Business Intelligence Market Featured Speaker: Featured Speaker: Bill Gassman, Research Director, Boris Evelson, Principal Analyst, Gartner Forrester For more information go to InfoWorld thanks the sponsors of the SOA Executive Forum in New York City. Please plan to attend our next SOA Executive Forum event which will be held November 7– 8, 2007 in New York City at the Millennium Hotel.