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  1. 1. Service-Oriented Government Mark Johnson Director Consulting, CGI-AMS Timothy Davis Senior Solution Architect Manager, Oracle September 12, 2006
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Government Under Pressure </li></ul><ul><li>SOA Concepts & Maturity Model </li></ul><ul><li>Trends and Developments </li></ul><ul><li>SOA in Government </li></ul><ul><li>The Path to Successful SOA </li></ul>
  3. 3. Government Under Pressure Nothing stimulates the imagination like a budget cut. Sign on the desk of former PA Budget Director
  4. 4. Government’s Business Transformation Imperative <ul><li>Whether the organization requires dramatic changes or incremental improvements , managing government modernization in the face of growing constraints requires a new way of thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>Constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced budgets </li></ul><ul><li>Government personnel shortage </li></ul><ul><li>Aging infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>New Technology Enablers </li></ul><ul><li>Open standards </li></ul><ul><li>Inexpensive computing </li></ul><ul><li>Pervasive computing </li></ul><ul><li>Demands </li></ul><ul><li>Rising customer expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Political pressure/visibility </li></ul><ul><li>New and expanding scope and mandates </li></ul><ul><li>Government Imperative </li></ul><ul><li>Spend less, but spend smarter </li></ul><ul><li>Improve service to customers and internal users </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce total cost of ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Get the most out of investments already made </li></ul>
  5. 5. National Priorities <ul><li>Governors </li></ul><ul><li>Fix systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve efficiencies, become more adaptive, and measure success </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Get a handle on healthcare </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Especially Medicare </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transform, modernize and restructure government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CA Performance Review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WA Competitive Council </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MN Drive to Excellence </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Transforming Government I plan a total review of government - its performance, its practices, its cost . … Every governor proposes moving boxes around to reorganize government. I don't want to move boxes around; I want to blow them up. Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger, State of California The future is coming at us faster than it ever has. It's a tidal wave of change. If we don't get on top of it and ride it, it will drown us … We need to make government both leaner and more effective, and we can do both. Governor Tim Pawlenty, State of Minnesota
  7. 7. Summary An organizational problem looking for a business solution – not an integration problem looking for a technology solution
  8. 8. SOA Concepts & Maturity Model &quot;Things should be made as simple as possible, but no simpler.&quot; Albert Einstein
  9. 9. SOA – Historical Progression Inflexible to changes in business process or market conditions Very agile and flexible Silos and Stovepipes Enterprise View Application Focus Business Process Focused Tightly Coupled Loosely Coupled Separate Applications Distributed Applications Application Integration Web Services SOA Separate Applications Distributed Applications Application Integration Web Services SOA
  10. 10. A service … <ul><li>Is a unit of work done by a service provider to achieve results for the service consumer </li></ul><ul><li>Is a software component that is capable of providing access to functions and data </li></ul><ul><li>Is exposed to other components via a service description </li></ul><ul><li>Appears as a “black box” to the service consumer </li></ul><ul><li>Is interacted via message exchanges </li></ul><ul><li>Encompasses a business perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Decouples its interface from its implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Is built to last </li></ul>
  11. 11. Service-Orientation <ul><li>Service Orientation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of “open” interoperability protocols that facilitate application assembly based solely on service descriptions and organized in a way that supports the dynamic discovery of appropriate services at run time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A process of putting together components to achieve some overall goal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A blueprint that comprises the components organized by layers, their visible properties, their relationships and interactions, and constraints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A discipline that addresses cross-cutting concerns to manage complexity and encourage holistic thinking </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. SOA - Bringing Business and IT Together A solution and architectural design approach… + Business Focus … whereby business activity components are packaged as well-defined services , accessible electronically by partners, suppliers and others Technology Focus … which is implemented within an architectural technology framework optimized for this purpose
  13. 13. Business Value of SOA <ul><li>Agility & Accelerated Delivery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separation of business process logic and business rules from applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business processes can be changed easily </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shorter time-to-deployment for changed processes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reduced Cost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consolidation of infrastructure leads to fewer components and hence reduced initial cost and license </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simpler infrastructure management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Higher Quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminating redundancy reduces inconsistent data and inconsistent behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of open standards and well-defined architectural constructs leads to better understanding </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Challenges <ul><li>Organization & Governance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New processes in which many different IT and business players have a role </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Defining and validating services, Managing reuse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allocating costs - Who pays? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Core funding from a central authority vs. Usage based billing for common services </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Free market to allow best services to survive vs. Forced monopoly to minimize overall costs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires development discipline and methodologies that must be defined and enforced </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to invest in tools and technology to service-enable established IT assets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lack of SOA Expertise and Experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Few mature SOA methodologies </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Traditional Model A Vertically Integrated Approach Historically, each department/agency had a vertically integrated approach to application, data, processes, and technology Dept. Processes Dept. Application/Data Dept. Technology Functional redundancy Monolithic applications Data redundancy Technological stagnation Technology inefficiencies Gaps in enterprise-wide business processes Department A Department B Department C
  16. 16. SOA Example HHS Reference Architecture
  17. 17. SOA Example HHS Reference Architecture
  18. 18. Centralized vs. Federated <ul><li>A successful SOA requires both centralized and federated components </li></ul><ul><li>Singular vision & goals, governance, enterprise repository management, and many operational functions should be centralized </li></ul><ul><li>Service development should be federated to the producing units </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow for local units to override/extend business rules (rules are hierarchical in nature – federal, state, local) </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. SOA Maturity Model <ul><ul><li>Enterprise governance, continuous improvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ongoing business process evaluation and re-engineering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full business processes via SOA, enhance and extend business processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SOA architecture leadership, technology standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrate SOA in development processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply SOA to immediate organizational needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial SOA projects, create service definitions </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Trends and Developments “ A good leader is someone whose troops will follow him, if only out of curiosity.” Gen. Colin Powell
  21. 21. Gartner Hype Cycle
  22. 22. Gartner <ul><li>SOA is transformational, 5-10 years to mainstream adoption </li></ul><ul><li>SOA is inevitable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Core of successful transition to SOA in the public sector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Set realistic expectations of costs and benefits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Especially with the business and policymakers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Key is coordinating applications and divisions within IT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing metadata, resolving data vs. process tensions, adopting SOA-aware platform tools </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Gartner <ul><li>By 2008 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leading vendors will offer extensible platform technologies using pluggable SOA-style design in their internal architecture (0.7 probability) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By 2010 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 50 percent of large organizations will have established a composition portfolio for SOA in their journey toward a business process platform (0.7 probability). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In 2006 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of working governance mechanisms in midsize-to-large (greater than 50 services) post-pilot SOA projects will be the most common reason for project Failure (0.8 probability). </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. IDC and Aberdeen <ul><li>IDC report </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SOA spending will reach $8.6 billion in 2006—a 138 percent increase from 2005, when spending totaled $3.6 billion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 2010, IDC estimates companies will spend upwards of $33 billion on SOA services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aberdeen Group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From 2006 to 2010, SOAs could help Global 2,000 corporations save up to $53 billion in IT costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SOA can help save up to 25% on application development costs when used over the entire development life cycle </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. SOA in Government “ Gentlemen, we have no money, … therefore we must think.” Lord Rutherford
  26. 26. SOA Examples – City Government <ul><li>Local Government - Citizen services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DCStat ( http:// =18271 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Integrates data stored on individual systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>150 data sets, crime statistics, city services requests, geographic features, etc </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analyzes data to reveal patterns and trends </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Notifies city officials of potential problems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SOA architecture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Integration with a agency legacy systems </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>J2EE backend, .NET as the presentation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improved services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced costs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level 1, with aspects of Level 2 & 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated SOA in development processes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Integration with externals, Enhanced business processes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. SOA Examples – County Government <ul><li>County Government – Legacy Assets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Miami-Dade County </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Majority of applications on mainframe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leveraged SOA to expose legacy applications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Standardized access to Property Tax System </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Answer Center Project </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows the public call, fax, email or enter queries over the web for any issue </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Single access point </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extensive integration with legacy systems </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improved customer service levels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced costs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level 1, with aspects of Level 2 & 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated SOA in development processes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Integration with externals </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. SOA Examples – State Government <ul><li>Human Services – Child Welfare </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wisconsin & DC SACWIS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Systems built with web services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inter-application functionality </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>External agency integration </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile device integration </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Potential for value-add services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Master Data Management </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Common eligibility determination </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility and responsiveness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced Cost </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Level 1, with aspects of Level 2 & 3 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated SOA in development processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration with externals </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. SOA Examples – State Government <ul><li>Enterprise State Government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>California Enterprise Architecture Program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SOA a key component (segment) of the Enterprise Architecture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SOA Blueprint that supports business </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Defined SOA principles and Established SOA Center of Excellence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SOA leadership, governance, and management of components </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expected Benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced total cost of ownership </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More responsive to changing business requirements, reduce the time to develop new applications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attempting level 4/5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enterprise governance, tracking performance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Full business processes via SOA </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. SOA Examples Federal Government The Customer The Business Problem <ul><li>US-Visit is an evolving program administered by the Department of Homeland Security </li></ul><ul><li>Captures biometric information of most non-US citizens going through specific Ports of Entry (PoE) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Market study for SOA platform </li></ul><ul><li>Point of entry screening system that required integration to multiple systems including MQ Series </li></ul>Key Takeaways <ul><li>Completeness of SOA solution and ease of use </li></ul><ul><li>Gov’t preference of ease of integration to Oracle DB </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely Scalability Issues Resolved with Benchmark </li></ul>
  31. 31. SOA Examples Federal Government The Customer The Business Problem <ul><li>The FAA is responsible for regulating civil aviation in the United States to promote safety </li></ul><ul><li>http:// / </li></ul><ul><li>Decision maker: CSC Program Manager, FAA TFM-M Program Manager </li></ul><ul><li>Project: Traffic Flow Management Modernization Project (TFM-M) </li></ul><ul><li>Need to process 17,000 transactions/minute </li></ul><ul><li>CSC already prototyping a 100% proprietary Integration solution involving: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ProActivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BEA WL Platform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CA-Entrust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oracle DB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business Objects </li></ul></ul>Key Takeaways <ul><li>Complete SOA Oracle stack lowers time-to-completion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Application Server EE, Discoverer, Portal, BPEL PM, BAM </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>NAVSEA </li></ul><ul><li>September 16, 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>(Derived from: Conversation with Dave Scheid, NAVSEA Port Hueneme and W White.) </li></ul><ul><li>Organization deploying: Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC) under NAVSEA </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Goal : to have a seamless data flow from people who create infomation to the people who consume it—i.e. the sailor on the deck plate who requires tech procedure and knowledge to his job. Tech procedure are created on the shore. Flow must be seamless between </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creation of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publication of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distribution of information (out to ship) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shore – Need to access reliability data, historical, current supply info via apps: SCM, R&D apps, Test and evaluation, Engineering </li></ul></ul>SOA Examples Federal Government Current Implementation Timeframe: -      Live with 2,500 users and involves about 20-25 apps. Using Plumtree Portal and Active Directory. -      Plan is to then rollout to other warfare centers in FY06 and 07 (one year’s time), to around 15,000-20,000 users.   Use of Oracle COREid NAVSEA is most interested in the access control portion and to set up policies for individuals to access thee different applications. -      They want SSO as well as the logging capability for security concerns. In the future, they will likely adopt a federated model to share access across the US Naval organizations, including - NAVSEA, NAVSUP, (support) and SPAWAR, NAVAIR.
  33. 33. SOA Examples Local Government The Customer The Business Problem <ul><li>So. CAL Regional Crime Fighting Data Sharing Initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce crime and fear of crime </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent terrorist acts </li></ul><ul><li>http:// / </li></ul><ul><li>Need to Integrate: LASD, LAPD, Local Cities, State, FBI data based on Global Justice XML Standard </li></ul><ul><li>Greater Los Angeles region, effectively fighting crime and terrorism </li></ul><ul><li>Regional Data Sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Real time crime Intel (criminals don’t care about borders) </li></ul><ul><li>Crime alerts immediately available </li></ul><ul><li>Failed integration project using Vitria against LARCIS – LA County’s Incident Crime Database and sharing this data with LA Police Department </li></ul><ul><li>Must use Open Standards </li></ul>Key Takeaways Successful Proof of Concept Integration strategy as the front end of a standards-based Global Justice XML solution
  34. 34. SOA Examples Local Government The Customer The Business Problem <ul><li>LA DHS provides Welfare Programs, Clinics, Hospitals & Public Health Care Programs in LA County </li></ul><ul><li>http:// / </li></ul><ul><li>Disperate Systems required a Health Care Data Model </li></ul><ul><li>Needed strong HL-7 Support and Easy to Use HealthCare Adapter </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure to improve the quality of care </li></ul><ul><li>Important regulatory, security & privacy requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Regional eHealth Care Record </li></ul>Key Takeaways BPEL strong support for “message formatted data” leapfroged Oracle past competition DHS will replace all of SeeBeyond with BPEL – our time to deployment is much faster .
  35. 35. The Path to Successful SOA “ Success is going from failure to failure without a loss of enthusiasm.” Winston Churchill
  36. 36. The Path to a Successful SOA Project Select Application Build Service Portfolio Service Bus Business Process User Interface Dashboard Security Scalability The Path to a Successful SOA Project
  37. 37. Step 0 | Select An Application CRITERIA <ul><li>Broken Process </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Visibility </li></ul><ul><li>Variance </li></ul><ul><li>Integration Points </li></ul><ul><li>Clear Metrics </li></ul>start Eligible For Services ? Manager Approval Check Fraud Detection Notify Citizen Benefits Processed end Human Task Business Rules Automated Tasks Business Event DELIVERABLE <ul><li>Process Sketch </li></ul><ul><li>Set of Human Tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Set of Automated Tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Set of Business Events </li></ul><ul><li>Set of Business Rules </li></ul>Step 0 | Select An Application
  38. 38. Step 1 | Build Portfolio of Services Database Java BEST PRACTICES <ul><li>Contract/Interface First </li></ul><ul><li>Coarse Grain Documents </li></ul><ul><li>Asynchronous Interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Undo/Cancel Operations </li></ul><ul><li>Versioning </li></ul><ul><li>WS-I, Wrapped Document Style </li></ul><ul><li>WSIF Binding to Java, JCA </li></ul>IMS, CICS SAP Oracle, PSFT Step 1 | Build Portfolio of Services
  39. 39. Step 2 | Wire Through An Enterprise Service Bus .NET, SAP, Mainframe, Oracle, Retek, PeopleSoft, Siebel, etc Enterprise Service Bus Java BEST PRACTICES <ul><li>UDDI Registry </li></ul><ul><li>JCA Adapters </li></ul><ul><li>Integration with Policy Management Framework </li></ul><ul><li>Service Virtualization Logical Naming </li></ul><ul><li>Differed, Reliable Delivery (Configurable) </li></ul>Step 2 | Establish SOA Integration Framework
  40. 40. Step 3 | Orchestrate into End-to-End Processes .NET, SAP, Mainframe, Oracle, Retek, PeopleSoft, Siebel, etc Enterprise Service Bus Java BPEL Workflow Rules BEST PRACTICES fx <ul><li>BPEL </li></ul><ul><li>XSLT Transformation </li></ul><ul><li>Human Workflow Service </li></ul><ul><li>Rules Service </li></ul><ul><li>Notification Service </li></ul><ul><li>Error Hospital Service </li></ul><ul><li>ESB Binding and Wiring </li></ul><ul><li>Tracing and Debugging </li></ul><ul><li>Iterative Development </li></ul><ul><li>Unit Testing </li></ul>Step 3 | Orchestrate into End-to-End Processes
  41. 41. Step 4 | Expose through Rich User Interfaces .NET, SAP, Mainframe, Oracle, Retek, PeopleSoft, Siebel, etc Enterprise Service Bus Java Portal, JSF Applications, .NET, Microsoft Office BPEL Workflow Rules BEST PRACTICES fx <ul><li>JSF </li></ul><ul><li>WSRP, JSR-168 </li></ul><ul><li>.NET </li></ul>Step 4 | Expose through Rich User Interfaces
  42. 42. Step 5 | Deliver Real-time Dashboards .NET, SAP, Mainframe, Oracle, Retek, PeopleSoft, Siebel, etc Enterprise Service Bus Java Portal, JSF Applications, .NET, Microsoft Office BPEL Workflow Rules BEST PRACTICES fx <ul><li>KPI First </li></ul><ul><li>Sensors to Collect Events without Business Process Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Real-time Dashboard </li></ul><ul><li>Alert/Actions (Fusion Effect) </li></ul>Step 5 | Deliver Real-time Dashboards
  43. 43. Step 6 | Secure Interactions .NET, SAP, Mainframe, Oracle, Retek, PeopleSoft, Siebel, etc Enterprise Service Bus Java Portal, JSF Applications, .NET, Microsoft Office BPEL Workflow Rules BEST PRACTICES fx <ul><li>WS-Policy, WS-Security </li></ul><ul><li>Change Policy without Changing Endpoint </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated with ESB (Multi-binding Support) </li></ul><ul><li>Agent and Gateway Mode </li></ul><ul><li>Support for Java and .NET </li></ul>Step 6 | Secure Interactions
  44. 44. Step 7 | Scale On Demand .NET, SAP, Mainframe, Oracle, Retek, PeopleSoft, Siebel, etc Enterprise Service Bus Java Portal, JSF Applications, .NET, Microsoft Office BPEL Workflow Rules BEST PRACTICES fx <ul><li>Asynchronous Interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Support for Large XML Documents </li></ul><ul><li>Clustering-Friendly </li></ul><ul><li>JCA and Java Binding </li></ul><ul><li>Batch API </li></ul>Step 7 | Scale On Demand
  45. 45. Overall themes and recommendations <ul><li>Business drives architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need a vision to guide SOA evolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SOA creates opportunities for “pluggable business” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SOA applies to many scenarios </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Services must be designed in a process-centric way </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learn from emerging patterns in the real world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orchestration is a good first step into greater levels of SOA flexibility </li></ul></ul>In Summary
  46. 46. Questions and Comments
  47. 47. Thank You Timothy Davis 951.514.9951 [email_address] Mark Johnson 608.251.8218 [email_address]