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  1. 1. DotNetNuke® 2006 Enterprise Open Source Conference + Expo – New York Open Source on the Microsoft Platform Shaun Walker, CEO Perpetual Motion Interactive Sytems Inc. [email_address] Web Application Framework
  2. 2. Presenter <ul><li>Shaun Walker, CEO </li></ul><ul><li>Perpetual Motion Interactive Systems Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Based in British Columbia, CANADA </li></ul><ul><li>Founder of DotNetNuke® </li></ul><ul><li>Published Author ( WROX Press, .NETDJ ) </li></ul><ul><li>Featured Speaker ( Conferences, User Groups ) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Session Goals <ul><li>Focus on the similarities and differences of developing and using open source software on the Microsoft versus non-Microsoft platform </li></ul><ul><li>Draw on first-hand experience managing the DotNetNuke® Web Application Framework open source project </li></ul>“ Open Source on the Microsoft Platform”
  4. 4. Agenda <ul><li>Microsoft / Open Source </li></ul><ul><li>DotNetNuke® </li></ul><ul><li>Platforms </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual Property </li></ul><ul><li>Revenue Models </li></ul><ul><li>Questions </li></ul>
  5. 5. Microsoft / Open Source <ul><li>February 1976 – Bill Gates writes the infamous “Open Letter To Hobbyists” criticizing free users of Altair BASIC and proclaiming “Who can afford to do professional work for nothing?” </li></ul><ul><li>October 1998 – “Halloween Documents” leaked by anonymous source within Microsoft to Eric Raymond of the Open Source Initiative. Documents provide insight into Microsoft’s position on open source: </li></ul><ul><li>“ OSS poses a direct, short-term revenue and platform threat to Microsoft, particularly in server space. Additionally, the intrinsic parallelism and free idea exchange in OSS has benefits that are not replicable with our current licensing model and therefore present a long term developer mindshare threat.” </li></ul><ul><li>June 2001 - Steve Ballmer publicly criticizes the &quot;viral&quot; nature of the GPL license saying &quot;Linux is a cancer that attaches itself in an intellectual property sense to everything it touches”. Bill Gates follows up with his own “Pac-Man” reference to the GPL license. The media use these comments as fodder to pit Microsoft against the burgeoning Open Source movement. </li></ul>“ An allergic reaction…”
  6. 6. Microsoft / Open Source <ul><li>November 2001 – Bill Gates’ comments from shareholder meeting regarding “the open source movement wouldn't exist without Microsoft” and “open source is a follower, not an innovator, and destroys jobs and the economy” are leaked to the media </li></ul><ul><li>October 2002 - Microsoft announces its Shared Source initiative which promises to share Windows source code with key industry partners. Critics are quick to point out that Microsoft’s Shared Source license does not conform to open source standards. </li></ul><ul><li>June 2003 – Microsoft announces GotDotNet, an online collaborative development environment where .NET developers can create, host, and manage projects throughout the project lifecycle. GotDotNet is intended to be a Microsoft community alternative to SourceForge.Net but is largely unsuccessful due to sparse resource allocation. </li></ul>“ Uncomfortable bedfellows…”
  7. 7. Microsoft / Open Source <ul><li>March 2004 – Microsoft announces its first officially managed open source project, Windows Installer XML (WiX), a toolset that builds Windows installation packages from XML source code. The project is made available via SourceForge.Net. </li></ul><ul><li>September 2004 – Microsoft announces another officially managed open source project, FlexWiki. </li></ul><ul><li>October 2005 - Microsoft announces its Permissive License, Community License, and Reference License initiatives. </li></ul><ul><li>May 2006 – Microsoft announces CodePlex, the successor to GotDotNet, offering free hosted services for community projects. The backend infrastructure leverages the new Microsoft Team Foundation Server product. </li></ul>“ Putting a toe in the water…”
  8. 8. DotNetNuke® <ul><li>Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Community </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Metrics </li></ul><ul><li>Partners </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft Relationship </li></ul>
  9. 9. Overview <ul><li>“ Our mission is to create opportunities and spread entrepreneurship to the world by providing a superior open source web application framework which cultivates a passionate developer community as well as a prosperous commercial ecosystem.” </li></ul><ul><li>DotNetNuke® is an Open Source Web Application Framework written in ASP.NET and includes a fully functional Content Management System as well as advanced Community Collaboration tools. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on enterprise class, multi-tier, object-oriented, service oriented architecture. </li></ul>“ By the People, For The People”
  10. 10. Community <ul><li>Most successful and active open source project on the Microsoft platform </li></ul><ul><li>Privately funded and managed. </li></ul><ul><li>Licensed under a standard BSD/MIT open source license </li></ul><ul><li>Released December 24, 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Used in private sector, public sector, military, non-profit, social networks, online communities, intranet, extranet, and individual web sites </li></ul><ul><li>Incubator for complementary open source projects </li></ul><ul><li>Architected with full extensibility in mind to encourage an active ecosystem </li></ul>“ Community, Content, Collaboration”
  11. 11. Marketing “ The Ripple Effect” <ul><li>Multiple full-length books by mainstream publishers </li></ul><ul><li>Feature articles in .NET Developers Journal, Visual Studio Magazine, ASP.NET Pro Magazine, CoDe Magazine </li></ul><ul><li>Linked from official Microsoft web sites including , </li></ul><ul><li>300,000+ Registered Users ( ~120,000 Feb 2005 ) </li></ul><ul><li>1,500,000+ Downloads </li></ul><ul><li>Top 10 Project Activity Rank on SourceForge.Net </li></ul><ul><li>3.5 million page views per month for </li></ul><ul><li> rank of 5,990 </li></ul>
  12. 12. Metrics “ Membership Has Its Privileges”
  13. 13. Metrics “ Share the Source, Share the Wealth” Total Downloads: 1,500,000 Average Downloads / Month: 110,000
  14. 14. Partners “ Influential Partners”
  15. 15. Microsoft Relationship <ul><li>Arms-length, mutually beneficial working relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits to Microsoft: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial – encourages developers and users to purchase licensed versions of Microsoft products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational – encourages developers, vendors, and users to adopt Microsoft platform and tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing – cultivates an active and passionate developer community </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits to DotNetNuke: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing – broad distribution through highly visible channels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mentoring – direct access to program managers and developers for technical issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endorsement – strategic partnering provides consumer confidence </li></ul></ul>“ Back scratching…”
  16. 16. Platforms <ul><li>Software Stacks </li></ul><ul><li>LAMP Stack </li></ul><ul><li>Windows Stack </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative Stack </li></ul><ul><li>Mono </li></ul><ul><li>MainSoft </li></ul><ul><li>Development Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Industry Acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>Projects </li></ul>
  17. 17. Software Stacks <ul><li>An integrated combination of frameworks, web application development languages, database engines, and operating systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Customization allows for plug-in replacement of individual components in the stack </li></ul><ul><li>Components may be proprietary or open source </li></ul>“ Building Blocks ”
  18. 18. LAMP Stack <ul><li>PHP/Python/Perl </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Server-side, cross-platform, HTML embedded scripting language </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MySQL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Source ( GPL ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapidly deployable data store engine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Apache </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Source ( Apache ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most popular web server </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Linux </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Source ( GPL ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UNIX based operating system </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Windows Stack <ul><li>DotNetNuke </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Source ( BSD ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Powerful Web Application Framework </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ASP.NET ( 1.1 / 2.0 ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freely distributed web service layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration with Visual Studio IDE for advanced developer productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SQL Server </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mature and highly scalable database engine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Superior administration tools </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Windows Server / IIS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial operating system platform for powering connected applications, networks, and Web services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stable server environment on commodity hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affordable licensing through SPLA </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Alternative Stack <ul><li>DotNetNuke </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Source ( BSD ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web Application Framework for ASP.NET </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mono / MainSoft </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Source / Proprietary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross platform compatibility service layer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Firebird </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Source ( GPL ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capable database engine with simple file-based deployment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Apache / Linux </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most popular web server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UNIX based operating system </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Mono <ul><li>Founded by Miguel de Icaza ( GNOME, Ximian ) </li></ul><ul><li>ECMA standard compliant .NET compatible set of tools </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-platform implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Announced July 19, 2001 at an O’Reilly Conference </li></ul><ul><li>Licensed under GPL, LGPL, and MIT licenses </li></ul><ul><li>Acquired by Novell, Inc. on August 4, 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Mono 1.0 released June 30, 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Lacking VB.NET compiler </li></ul><ul><li>Potential patent infringement issues for Class Libraries </li></ul>“ Monkey See, Monkey Do…”
  22. 22. MainSoft <ul><li>Cross-platform development tool that enables development of J2EE applications using Visual Studio.NET </li></ul><ul><li>Compiles MSIL to Java byte code </li></ul><ul><li>Allows software vendors to port .NET applications to Linux </li></ul><ul><li>Visual MainWin for J2EE is a commercial, enterprise application </li></ul><ul><li>Grasshopper is a free, developer version </li></ul>“ Can we serve that with Java? ”
  23. 23. Development Tools “ The Great Debate: Open Source vs. Free Software ” Windows Non-Windows Windows ( bundled ) Linux UNIX Operating System IIS Cassini *Free* Apache / Tomcat Web Server SQL Server SQL Express *Free* mySQL Firebird PostgreSQL Database Engine Visual Studio 2005 Express Edition *Free* SharpDevelop (GPL) Eclipse ( IBM ) Emacs ( GNU ) Integrated Development Environment
  24. 24. Industry Acceptance <ul><li>No acceptance for Windows Open Source from traditional open source community </li></ul><ul><li>Open source purists argue that an application can not be considered open source unless it runs on a complete stack of open source components. </li></ul><ul><li>Excluded from most major open source channels including websites, magazines, surveys, etc… </li></ul><ul><li>Slashdot post on this subject in November 2005 resulted in 550 comments </li></ul>“ I don't get no respect! ”
  25. 25. Projects <ul><li>Tools & Utilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many popular Java utility applications ported to .NET Framework </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nant, nunit, nlucene, nhibernate ( forks ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very few PHP applications ported </li></ul></ul><ul><li>dasBlog ( newtelligence ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BSD License </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Community Server ( Telligent ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>*NOT* open source </li></ul></ul>“ Early Adopters… ”
  26. 26. Intellectual Property <ul><li>Founder Dilemma </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright </li></ul><ul><li>Licensing </li></ul><ul><li>GPL </li></ul><ul><li>BSD/MIT </li></ul><ul><li>Shared Source </li></ul><ul><li>Trademarks </li></ul><ul><li>Indemnification </li></ul><ul><li>Forking </li></ul>
  27. 27. Founder Dilemma <ul><li>Open source projects usually started by developers </li></ul><ul><li>Developers are not Lawyers </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions made early in the project life cycle are critical to its long term survival and success </li></ul>“ To scratch an itch”
  28. 28. Copyright <ul><li>The Copyright holder is the person who owns the rights to the Intellectual Property. </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright can be transferred to other individuals or companies. </li></ul><ul><li>The Copyright holder has the right to decide how their Intellectual Property can be used by others. </li></ul><ul><li>Usage details for software are published as a License agreement. </li></ul><ul><li>License agreements are essentially a standard legal contract - explicitly outlining the rights and responsibilities of each party. </li></ul><ul><li>The Copyright holder has the right to change the License at their discretion. </li></ul>“ The Right To Copy”
  29. 29. Open Source Licensing <ul><li>“ Open Source Definition” managed by the Open Source Initiative ( ) </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Profit entity for certifying open source licenses </li></ul><ul><li>The most common open source licenses are the GPL and BSD/MIT </li></ul><ul><li>Better to adopt an existing license than to invent a new license </li></ul>“ The 10 Commandments”
  30. 30. GPL License <ul><li>GNU General Public License </li></ul><ul><li>Created by the Free Software Foundation ( Richard Stallman ) </li></ul><ul><li>Contains a “viral” clause which requires that derivative works must be licensed under the same terms </li></ul><ul><li>“ Copyleft” ensures that the software remains in the public domain </li></ul><ul><li>Restricts linking to create proprietary applications ( LGPL allows linking ) </li></ul><ul><li>Limits commercial viability in some circumstances </li></ul>“ Copyleft?”
  31. 31. BSD/MIT License <ul><li>Originated in public university environment </li></ul><ul><li>Least restrictive license </li></ul><ul><li>“ Copyright” indicates that redistributions must retain the original copyright notice </li></ul><ul><li>Allows the software to be customized and released as a proprietary application ( sometimes referred to as strip-mining ) </li></ul><ul><li>Maximizes the business potential for the open source application </li></ul>“ The Permissive License”
  32. 32. Shared Source Licenses <ul><li>Announced by Microsoft in October 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Permissive License – least restrictive license, similar to the BSD/MIT license </li></ul><ul><li>Community License – reciprocal source code license, similar to the Mozilla license </li></ul><ul><li>Reference License – most restrictive license, a “look but do not touch” license </li></ul>“ NIH Syndrome”
  33. 33. Trademarks <ul><li>A word or mark that distinctly indicates the ownership of a product or service, and that is legally reserved for the exclusive use of the owner. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the most valuable assets in any open source project is the brand </li></ul><ul><li>Legal protection of the brand is necessary to ensure the longevity and integrity of the project </li></ul><ul><li>Trademarks must be individually registered in each jurisdiction ( costly ) </li></ul><ul><li>Trademark usage guidelines must be published and enforced in order to protect the validity of the mark </li></ul>“ Protecting your identity”
  34. 34. Indemnification <ul><li>An agreement that protects a party from loss by transferring the responsibilities to a third party. </li></ul><ul><li>Project must have a legal entity that professionally manages all intellectual property transactions </li></ul><ul><li>Contributor License Agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Software Grant Agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize number of third party licensed components </li></ul>“ One throat to choke? ”
  35. 35. Forking <ul><li>creating your own independent open source project based on an existing open source application </li></ul><ul><li>Most open source licenses allow for this scenario to occur </li></ul><ul><li>Splinters the project ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention measures include management of communication channels, trademark enforcement, and active community involvement </li></ul>“ What we've got here is a failure to communicate”
  36. 36. Revenue Models <ul><li>Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Dual Licensing </li></ul><ul><li>Services Model </li></ul><ul><li>DotNetNuke Model </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosystems </li></ul>
  37. 37. Overview <ul><li>Many papers/books written on theoretical aspects of open source revenue models </li></ul><ul><li>Revenue models are heavily influenced by the vision of the project Founders as well as by the community </li></ul><ul><li>Highly challenging to introduce revenue models to an established open source project </li></ul>“ Show me the money”
  38. 38. Dual Licensing <ul><li>Offer a commercially licensed version of an open source product </li></ul><ul><li>The commercial version will often includes extra value-added features </li></ul><ul><li>The commercial license is usually accompanied by a professional support offering from the vendor </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional Product Licensing Revenue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict between commercial and open source stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application “crippling” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restrictive open source licenses to avoid forks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples: mySQL, SugarCRM </li></ul>“ Split personality disorder”
  39. 39. Services Model <ul><li>The open source product has a competitive advantage based on its huge market reach, resulting in an abundance of business opportunities in the ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Revenue through multiple service-oriented channels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adheres to open source community ideals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preserves delicate balance between commercial and open source stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not as lucrative or consistent as traditional product licensing revenue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples: JBOSS, Redhat </li></ul>“ The Halo Effect”
  40. 40. DotNetNuke Model <ul><li>Financially supported by members of the ecosystem: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advertising –provide partners with the ability to promote their products or services to the very large and targeted project membership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sponsorship – provide community members with the ability to support the project in exchange for recognition for their organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subscriptions – Benefactor Program provides a way for all levels of community stakeholders to obtain additional benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sponsored Development – partners have the ability to fund specific enhancements on the condition that the intellectual property becomes part of the project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community Programs – programs which provide additional value and opportunity to our partners and community members and generate passive revenue for the project. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Custom Consulting – subsidization of the open source development through client installation and integration. </li></ul></ul>“ By the people, for the people”
  41. 41. Ecosystems <ul><li>Microsoft Open Source projects are generally more accepting of commercial extensions to open source applications </li></ul><ul><li>Commercialization results in a more serious, professional, business-oriented open source ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>DotNetNuke has a marketplace containing hundreds of vendors offering competitive products and services </li></ul><ul><li>When we support, encourage and assist one another instead of competing for more at the expense of others, we are creating a sustainable, supportive community in which abundance and success; financial and otherwise, can flow freely. </li></ul>“ The Abundance Mentality”
  42. 42. Questions? [email_address]