Chapter 5 Modified

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Chapter 5 Modified

  1. 1. CHAPTER 5 IT ARCHITECTURES
  2. 2. SECTION 5.0 HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE
  3. 3. LEARNING OUTCOMES <ul><li>Describe the six major categories of hardware and provide an example of each </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the different computer categories and explain their potential business uses </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the difference between primary and secondary storage </li></ul>
  4. 4. LEARNING OUTCOMES <ul><li>List the common input, output, storage, and communication devices </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the eight categories of computers by size </li></ul><ul><li>Define the relationship between operating system software and utility software </li></ul>
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Information technology (IT) - any computer-based tool that people use to work with information and support the information and information-processing needs of an organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware - consists of the physical devices associated with a computer system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software - the set of instructions that the hardware executes to carry out specific tasks </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. HARDWARE BASICS <ul><li>Computer - an electronic device operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory that can accept, manipulate, and store data </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware components include: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Central processing unit (CPU) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Primary storage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary storage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Input device </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Output device </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communication device </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. HARDWARE BASICS (RAM, ROM, Cache)
  8. 8. Hardware - Another View
  9. 9. Central Processing Unit <ul><li>Central processing unit (CPU) (or microprocessor ) - the actual hardware that interprets and executes the program (software) instructions and coordinates how all the other hardware devices work together </li></ul><ul><li>Control unit - interprets software instructions and literally tells the other hardware devices what to do, based on the software instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) - performs all arithmetic operations (for example, addition and subtraction) and all logic operations (such as sorting and comparing numbers) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Central Processing Unit <ul><li>The number of CPU cycles per second determines the speed of a CPU </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Megahertz (MHz) - the number of millions of CPU cycles per second </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gigahertz (GHz) - the number of billions of CPU cycles per second </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Central Processing Unit <ul><li>CPU speed factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clock speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word length </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bus width </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chip line width </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Binary digit ( bit ) - the smallest unit of information that a computer can process </li></ul><ul><li>Byte - a group of eight bits representing one natural language character </li></ul>
  12. 12. Advances in CPU Design <ul><li>Complex instruction set computer (CISC) chip - type of CPU that can recognize as many as 100 or more instructions, enough to carry out most computations directly </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced instruction set computer (RISC) chip - limit the number of instructions the CPU can execute to increase processing speed </li></ul><ul><li>Virtualization - a protected memory space created by the CPU allowing the computer to create virtual machines </li></ul>
  13. 13. Primary Storage <ul><li>Primary storage - the computer’s main memory, which consists of the random access memory (RAM), cache memory, and the read-only memory (ROM) that is directly accessible to the CPU </li></ul>
  14. 14. Random Access Memory (RAM) <ul><li>Random access memory (RAM) - the computer’s primary working memory, in which program instructions and data are stored so that they can be accessed directly by the CPU via the processor’s high-speed external data bus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Volatility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cache memory </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Random Access Memory (RAM)
  16. 16. Read-Only Memory (ROM) <ul><li>Read-only memory (ROM) - the portion of a computer’s primary storage that does not lose its contents when one switches off the power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flash memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory card </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory stick </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Secondary Storage <ul><li>Secondary storage - consists of equipment designed to store large volumes of data for long-term storage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Megabyte (MB or M or Meg) - roughly 1 million bytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gigabyte (GB) - roughly 1 billion bytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terabyte (TB) - roughly 1 trillion bytes </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Secondary Storage
  19. 19. Magnetic Medium <ul><li>Magnetic medium - a secondary storage medium that uses magnetic techniques to store and retrieve data on disks or tapes coated with magnetically sensitive materials </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic tape - an older secondary storage medium that uses a strip of thin plastic coated with a magnetically sensitive recording medium </li></ul><ul><li>Hard drive - a secondary storage medium that uses several rigid disks coated with a magnetically sensitive material and housed together with the recording heads in a hermetically sealed mechanism </li></ul>
  20. 20. Optical Medium <ul><li>Optical medium types include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compact disk-read-only memory (CD-ROM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compact disk-read-write (CD-RW) drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital video disk (DVD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DVD-ROM drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital video disk-read/write (DVD-RW) </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Input Devices <ul><li>Input device - equipment used to capture information and commands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manual input devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Joystick </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keyboard </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microphone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automated input devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bar code scanner </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Digital camera </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetic ink character reader </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Output Devices <ul><li>Output device - equipment used to see, hear, or otherwise accept the results of information processing requests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cathode-ray tube (CRT) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid crystal display (LCD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laser printer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ink-jet printer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plotter </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Communication Devices <ul><li>Communication device - equipment used to send information and receive it from one location to another </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dial-up access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital subscriber line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satellite </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. COMPUTER CATEGORIES <ul><li>Computer categories include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal digital assistant (PDA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laptop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tablet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desktop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workstation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minicomputer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mainframe computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supercomputer </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Computer Categories PDA Laptop/Tablet SmartPhone Desktop/Workstation Microcontroller Mainframe Supercomputer Ultra-Mobile PC Minicomputer Business, Industrial, Scientific, and Academic Personal (Micro Computers)
  26. 26. COMPUTER CATEGORIES <ul><li>For the past 20 years, federally funded supercomputing research has given birth to some of the computer industry’s most significant technology breakthroughs including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clustering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mosaic browser </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. SOFTWARE BASICS <ul><li>System software - controls how the various technology tools work together along with the application software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating system software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utility software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application software </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Categories of Software
  29. 29. Utility Software <ul><li>Types of utility software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crash-proof </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disk image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disk optimization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encrypt data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>File and data recovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Text protect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preventative security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spyware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uninstaller </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Application Software <ul><li>Types of application software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bowser </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desktop publishing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-mail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Groupware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentation graphics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Programming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spreadsheet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word processing </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. How Hardware and Software Interact
  32. 32. OPENING CASE QUESTIONS Electronic Breaking Points <ul><li>Identify six hardware categories and place each product listed in the case in its appropriate category </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the CPU and identify which products would use a CPU </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the relationship between memory sticks and laptops. How can a user employ one to help protect information loss from the other? </li></ul><ul><li>What different types of software might each of the products listed in the case use? </li></ul>
  33. 33. SECTION 5.1 MANAGING ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURES
  34. 34. LEARNING OUTCOMES <ul><li>5.1 Explain the three components of an enterprise architecture </li></ul><ul><li>5.2 Describe how an organization can implement a solid information architecture </li></ul>
  35. 35. LEARNING OUTCOMES <ul><li>5.3 List and describe the five-ilities in an infrastructure architecture </li></ul><ul><li>5.4 Compare web services and open systems </li></ul>
  36. 36. ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURES <ul><li>Enterprise architecture - includes the plans for how an organization will build, deploy, use, and share its data, processes, and IT assets </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprise architect (EA) - a person grounded in technology, fluent in business, a patient diplomat, and provides the important bridge between IT and the business </li></ul>
  37. 37. ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURES <ul><li>Primary goals of enterprise architectures </li></ul>
  38. 38. ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURES
  39. 39. INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE <ul><li>Information architecture - identifies where and how important information, such as customer records, is maintained and secured </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprise information architecture should focus on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Backup and recovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disaster recovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information security </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE
  41. 41. Backup and Recovery <ul><li>Backup - an exact copy of a system’s information </li></ul><ul><li>Recovery - the ability to get a system up and running in the event of a system crash or failure and includes restoring the information backup </li></ul>
  42. 42. Backup and Recovery <ul><li>Fault tolerance - a computer system designed that in the event a component fails, a backup component or procedure can immediately take its place with no loss of service </li></ul><ul><li>Failover - a backup operational mode in which the functions of a computer component (such as a processor, server, network, or database) is assumed by secondary system components when the primary component becomes unavailable through either failure or scheduled down time </li></ul>
  43. 43. Disaster Recovery <ul><li>Disaster recovery best practices include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mind the enterprise architectures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor the quality of computer networks that provide data on power suppliers and demand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure the networks can be restored quickly in the case of downtime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set up disaster recovery plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide adequate staff training </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Disaster Recovery <ul><li>Financial Institutions Worldwide Spending on Disaster Recovery </li></ul>
  45. 45. Disaster Recovery <ul><li>Disaster recovery plan - a detailed process for recovering information or an IT system in the event of a catastrophic disaster such as a fire or flood </li></ul><ul><li>Disaster recovery cost curve - charts (1) the cost to the organization of the unavailability of information and technology and (2) the cost to the organization of recovering from a disaster over time </li></ul>
  46. 46. Disaster Recovery
  47. 47. Disaster Recovery <ul><li>Hot site - a separate and fully equipped facility where the company can move immediately after a disaster and resume business </li></ul><ul><li>Cold site - a separate facility that does not have any computer equipment, but is a place where employees can move after a disaster </li></ul>
  48. 48. Disaster Recovery <ul><li>Business continuity planning (BCP) - is a plan for how an organization will recover and restore partially or completely interrupted critical function(s) within a predetermined time after a disaster or extended disruption </li></ul>
  49. 49. Information Security <ul><li>Good information architectures include… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A strong information security plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing user access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Up-to-date antivirus software and patches </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. INFRASTRUCTURE ARCHITECTURE <ul><li>Infrastructure architecture - includes the hardware, software, and telecommunications equipment that, when combined, provides the underlying foundation to support the organization’s goals </li></ul><ul><li>As an organization changes, its systems must be able to change to support its operations </li></ul>
  51. 51. INFRASTRUCTURE ARCHITECTURE
  52. 52. INFRASTRUCTURE ARCHITECTURE <ul><li>Five primary characteristics of a solid infrastructure architecture: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scalability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Flexibility <ul><li>Organizations must watch today’s business, as well as tomorrow’s, when designing and building systems </li></ul><ul><li>Systems must be flexible enough to meet all types of business changes </li></ul>
  54. 54. Scalability <ul><li>Scalability - refers to how well a system can adapt to increased demands </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity planning - determines the future IT infrastructure requirements for new equipment and additional network capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performing a capacity plan is one way to ensure the IT infrastructure is scalable </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. Reliability <ul><li>Reliability ensures all systems are functioning correctly and providing accurate information </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability is another term for accuracy when discussing the correctness of systems within the context of efficiency IT metrics </li></ul>
  56. 56. Availability <ul><li>Availability - addresses when systems can be accessed by users </li></ul><ul><li>High availability - refers to a system or component that is continuously operational for a desirably long length of time </li></ul>
  57. 57. Performance <ul><li>Performance - measures how quickly a system performs a certain process or transaction (in terms of efficiency IT metrics of both speed and throughput) </li></ul><ul><li>Not having enough performance capacity can have a devastating, negative impact on a business </li></ul>
  58. 58. APPLICATION ARCHITECTURE <ul><li>Application architecture - determines how applications integrate and relate to each other </li></ul><ul><li>With new architectures, IT can build new business capabilities faster, cheaper, and in a vocabulary the business can understand </li></ul>
  59. 59. Web Services <ul><li>Web service - contains a repertoire of Web-based data and procedural resources that use shared protocols and standards permitting different applications to share data and services </li></ul><ul><li>Interoperability - the capability of two or more computer systems to share data and resources, even though they are made by different manufacturers </li></ul>
  60. 60. Web Services
  61. 61. Web Services <ul><li>The two primary parts of web services are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Event - detect threats and opportunities and alert those who can act on the information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service - more like software products than they are coding projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need to be reusable if they are going to have an impact on productivity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  62. 62. Open Systems <ul><li>Open system - a broad, general term that describes nonproprietary IT hardware and software made available by the standards and procedures by which their products work, making it easier to integrate them </li></ul><ul><li>Open source - refers to any program whose source code is made available for use or modification as users or other developers see fit </li></ul>
  63. 63. OPENING CASE QUESTIONS Virgin Mobile <ul><li>How can an organization use an information architecture to protect its IT investment in electronic devices outlined in the case? </li></ul><ul><li>How can an organization use the architectures mentioned in the case to protect information security? </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the five-ilites and rank them in order of importance for a cell phone (1 highest, 5 lowest) </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the importance of web services and open systems to companies such as Virgin Mobile </li></ul>
  64. 64. SECTION 5.2 ARCHITECTURE TRENDS
  65. 65. LEARNING OUTCOMES <ul><ul><li>5.5 Describe the business value in deploying a service oriented architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5.6 Explain the need for interoperability and loose coupling in building today’s IT systems </li></ul></ul>
  66. 66. LEARNING OUTCOMES <ul><ul><li>5.7 Identify the logical functions used in a virtualized environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5.8 Explain the business benefits of grid computing </li></ul></ul>
  67. 67. ARCHITECTURE TRENDS <ul><li>Organizations today must continually watch new architecture trends to ensure they can keep up with new and disruptive technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Three architecture trends that are quickly becoming requirements for all businesses including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Service oriented architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtualization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grid computing </li></ul></ul>
  68. 68. SERVICE ORIENTED ARCHITECTURE <ul><li>Service oriented architecture (SOA) is a business-driven IT architectural approach that supports integrating a business as linked, repeatable tasks or services </li></ul><ul><li>SOA ensures IT systems can adapt quickly, easily, and economically to support rapidly changing business needs </li></ul>
  69. 69. SERVICE ORIENTED ARCHITECTURE
  70. 70. SOA Business Benefits <ul><li>The key technical concepts of SOA are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interoperability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loose coupling </li></ul></ul>
  71. 71. SOA Business Benefits
  72. 72. Service <ul><li>Service oriented architecture begins with a service </li></ul><ul><li>(A SOA) service - can be a business task, such as checking a potential customer's credit rating only opening a new account </li></ul><ul><li>Services are “like” software products </li></ul>
  73. 73. Service
  74. 74. Interoperability <ul><li>Interoperability - is the capability of two or more computer systems to share data and resources, even though they are made by different manufacturers </li></ul><ul><li>Extensible Markup Language (XML) - a markup language for documents containing structured information </li></ul>
  75. 75. Loose Coupling <ul><li>Loose coupling - is the capability of services to be joined together on demand to create composite services, or disassembled just as easily into their functional components </li></ul><ul><li>Loose coupling is a way of ensuring that the technical details are decoupled from the service </li></ul>
  76. 76. VIRTUALIZATION <ul><li>Virtualization - is a framework of dividing the resources of a computer into multiple execution environments </li></ul><ul><li>It is a way of increasing physical resources to maximize the investment in hardware </li></ul>
  77. 77. VIRTUALIZATION
  78. 78. What are Virtual Machines? <ul><li>System virtualization - is the ability to present the resources of a single computer as if it is a collection of separate computers (&quot;virtual machines&quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>Each with its own virtual CPUs, network interfaces, storage, and operating system </li></ul>
  79. 79. What are Virtual Machines?
  80. 80. Virtualization Business Benefits <ul><li>Trends that have moved virtualization into the spotlight: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware being underutilized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data centers running out of space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased energy costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System administration costs mounting </li></ul></ul>
  81. 81. Additional Virtualization Benefits <ul><li>Rapid application deployment </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic load balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Streamlined disaster recovery </li></ul>
  82. 82. GRID COMPUTING <ul><li>Grid computing - is an aggregation of geographically dispersed computing, storage, and network resources, coordinated to deliver improved performance, higher quality of service, better utilization, and easier access to data </li></ul>
  83. 83. GRID COMPUTING
  84. 84. Grid Computing Business Benefits <ul><li>Improving productivity and collaboration of virtual organizations and respective computing and data resources </li></ul><ul><li>Allowing widely dispersed departments and businesses to create virtual organizations to share data and resources </li></ul><ul><li>Building robust and infinitely flexible and resilient operational architectures </li></ul>
  85. 85. Grid Computing Business Benefit <ul><li>Providing instantaneous access to massive computing and data resources </li></ul><ul><li>Leveraging existing capital investments, which in turn help to ensure optimal utilization and costs of computing capabilities </li></ul>
  86. 86. Grid Computing Business Benefits
  87. 87. OPENING CASE STUDY QUESTIONS Virgin Mobile <ul><li>Explain the advantages Virgin Mobile has using a service oriented architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Why does Virgin Mobile need to use interoperability and loose coupling in their architecture? </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the business drivers for Virgin Mobile using virtualization </li></ul><ul><li>What business benefits would Virgin Mobile experience deploying grid computing? </li></ul>
  88. 88. CLOSING CASE ONE Chicago Tribune <ul><li>Review the five characteristics of infrastructure architecture and rank them in order of their potential impact on the Tribune Co.’s business </li></ul><ul><li>What is the disaster recovery cost curve? Where should the Tribune Co. operate on the curve? </li></ul><ul><li>Define backups and recovery. What are the risks to the Tribune’s business if it fails to implement an adequate backup plan? </li></ul>
  89. 89. CLOSING CASE ONE Chicago Tribune <ul><li>Why is a scalable and highly available enterprise architecture critical to the Tribune Co.’s current operations and future growth? </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the need for information security at the Tribune Co. </li></ul><ul><li>How could the Tribune Co. use a classified ad web service across its different businesses? </li></ul>
  90. 90. CLOSING CASE TWO The US Open Supports SOA <ul><li>Review the five characteristics of infrastructure architecture and rank them in order of their potential impact on the USOpen.org </li></ul><ul><li>What are the USTA security concerns regarding interoperability between the tournament database and its website? </li></ul><ul><li>How could the USTA benefit from virtualization? </li></ul>
  91. 91. CLOSING CASE TWO The US Open Supports SOA <ul><li>Identify the value of integrating the tournaments information with the USTA website USOpen.org? </li></ul><ul><li>Explain why a sudden surge in server utilization during the middle of the US Open could spell disaster for the USTA </li></ul><ul><li>Why is loose coupling a critical business component to the USTA architecture? </li></ul>
  92. 92. CLOSING CASE THREE eBay’s Grid <ul><li>Review the five characteristics of infrastructure architecture and rank them in order of their potential impact on eBay’s business </li></ul><ul><li>What are the business benefits that eBay enjoys thanks to grid computing? </li></ul><ul><li>What precautions would eBay take to ensure 100 percent security? </li></ul>
  93. 93. CLOSING CASE THREE eBay’s Grid <ul><li>How can eBay take advantage of implementing SOA? </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how eBay uses fault tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the potential value of eBay using virtualization </li></ul><ul><li>What ethical and security concerns should eBay be aware of to ensure its business operates properly? </li></ul>
  94. 94. BUSINESS DRIVEN BEST SELLERS <ul><li>THE NEW LANGUAGE OF BUSINESS: SOA & WEB 2.0 , by Sandy Carter </li></ul>
  95. 95. BUSINESS DRIVEN BEST SELLERS <ul><li>DOES IT MATTER? , by Nicholas G. Carr </li></ul>

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