Business Architecture and Business-Driven Development

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  • The development process cycle at the most consists of the development steps mentioned below, that mostly are executed in an iterative manner. In case of mortgages and insurances a jump start can be made for each development step using the corresponding generic models and specifications from the vertical frameworks that Everest provides. Process architecture modelling. Modelling of the role of the customer organization in the context of the value chain it operates in. Business processes are identified as black boxes, triggered by business events and delivering (intermediary) products and business services (= global business requirements). Business process modelling. Business oriented specification of the concerning business processes in terms of work processes, process steps, business events (also indicating results), sequence flows and resource roles in relation to process steps (= detailed business requirements). Process steps are defined in terms of the business activities they consist of. Often completely manual process steps and business activities are omitted and the description of business activities includes an indication of the automated support expected (= global functional requirements). Usage of the BPMN standard for model notation is preferred. Operational design. >> Process design. Refinement and extension (with exceptions) of the business process model aiming at the realization of a Business Process Manager component that drives and monitors the execution of the business process. Usage of the BPMN standard for model notation is preferred. >> Functional design. Refinement of the description of the system support for business activities (= detailed functional requirements) aiming at the realization of Business Application Services. Mostly this implies modelling of flows (orchestration) between user dialogs and system services, with visualizations of the dialogs in different states. Usage of the UML/2 standard is preferred. Realization. >> Realization (also simulation and testing) of Business Process Manager. Mostly Knowledge Studio is being used for realization, with some additional programming with JBuilder for exceptional behaviour. >> Realization (also simulation and testing) of Business Application Services. Mostly Knowledge Studio is being used for realization, with some additional programming with JBuilder for exceptional behaviour.
  • Process architecture for intake (demand chain) and delivery (supply chain) of high volume municipal services aiming at individual citizens. The organizational roles in the value chain are defined in terms of the business processes they own. This architecture provides a clear definition of front-office (FO), mid-office (behandelen klantverzoek) and back-office (leveren) processing. The process architecture defines what a local government does in cooperation with public parties, independently of how it is being done on a specific point of time. Therefore it can be used as a point of reference guiding and constraining changes in the operational design.
  • Example of a business process model for mortgage settlement (mid-office) according to the global BPMN standard.
  • Example of a functional design of the support the business application provides for a specific business activity. The flow (orchestration) between user dialogs (pages) and system services triggered by user events is specified. A user dialog can have different frequently occurring manifestations that may be depicted in a visualization (e.g. in the format of a PowerPoint slide).
  • Example of a domain model (entity/relation model, not to be tangled up with a data model) defining the terms in the functional specification. The example shows an UML view on the business content specified with Knowledge Studio. This clearly illustrates the structure preserving character of the realization with Knowledge Studio.
  • Mapping of process model / design on the user work list and the specification of flow and conditions (a.o. in the format of decision tables) with Knowledge Studio.
  • Example of the orchestration between user dialogs (pages) and system services. The example shows an UML view on the business content specified with Knowledge Studio.
  • Example of the content of a user dialogs (page). The example shows an UML view on the business content specified with Knowledge Studio.
  • Example of an overview of decision tables and business rules with an indication of the entity.attribute that can be derived. The example shows an UML view on the business content specified with Knowledge Studio.
  • Business Architecture and Business-Driven Development

    1. 1. Business Architecture and Business-Driven Development Knowledge-Based System Course TUE Leo Hermans (l.hermans@everest.nl) Principal All-Round IT-Business Architect
    2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Everest BV (www.everest.nl) </li></ul><ul><li>Business Process Management (BPM) </li></ul><ul><li>BPM in Practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business-Driven Solution Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Top-Down or Bottom-Up? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples of Business Models & Functional Design </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Everest BPM Framework </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of Business Content </li></ul><ul><li>The Trinity of Architectural Styles </li></ul>
    3. 3. Everest BV <ul><li>Autonomous operation unit of Getronics </li></ul><ul><li>Founded in 1996, 115 employees now </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Currently growing with 3-5 per month </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysts (Business Engineer) : Software Engineer = 3 : 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Long standing (some key players since 1985) background in knowledge engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Everest delivers innovative business solutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support of front- and mid office processes with a high degree of automation in the context of business innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimization of communication and service with client’s customers or partners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimization of business efficiency and agility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chaordic flat organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong delegation of responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wisdom of the crowds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Typical employee </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loving uncertainty and challenge, hating formalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analytical, goal oriented, ambitious and passionate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team worker, no ego tripper and politician </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High IQ combined with high EQ and good sense for humor </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Business Process Management = Business-Driven Solution Development <ul><li>Trend fracture in development of business solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Business has to become more and more agile </li></ul><ul><li>You must focus your IT on rapid results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IT processes become a subset of business processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You can't code your way into the future. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Now the real IT legacy, people and process, has to be changed radically </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extinction of software development and integration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasingly, code is replaced by content (metadata, rules) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moving process definition out of code, and even out of applications, results in more-fluid, malleable software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handoffs between people and systems must be explicit </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Business Process Management = Business-Driven Solution Development <ul><li>Prepare for a culture shift that is driven by constant re-evaluation of the process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New roles emerge around process facilitation, implementation and execution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The business process analyst deals with the more-tactical aspects of discovering, validating, documenting and communicating business process-related knowledge through modeling, simulating and analyzing both current and future states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IT professionals can be the biggest obstacles to success </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contemporary manifestation of the time-honored knowledge engineering and knowledge-based system paradigms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CommonKADS methodology for a knowledge level model of the business processes and tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure preserving implementation with a knowledge shell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Generic inference engine retrieves and applies knowledge stored in a knowledge base (separation of procedure and decisions) </li></ul></ul></ul>www.gartner.com
    6. 6. Business-Driven Solution Development <ul><li>Process: steps, actions, actors, services </li></ul><ul><li>Business Rules: rules, decision tables, decision trees, fuzzy matching rules </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction: flows, services, pages, actors </li></ul><ul><li>Domain model: entities, relations, attributes with many business characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Simple content </li></ul><ul><li>Specialization of several types of KB elements (not only entities) </li></ul>Business Engineers & Business Experts Specify, verify & validate Business Content Repository Business Workers Use Business Engineering Studio Generic Business Engines Simulate & test (MDA) Software Factory Machine readable publication (Offshore) developer readable publication Specific Executables Use & test Programmer Business Content Single point of specification Software engineering The model is the solution Enterprise Architecture & Global Business Model & Global Functional Specification
    7. 7. Example of a business engineering studio
    8. 8. Business-Driven Solution Development Balancing Top-down and Bottom-up MDA = Model-Driven Architecture ADM = Application- Driven Modeling Operational Improvement Limited Uncertainty = High Predictability Limited Operational Human Influence Hitting a Stationary Target Operational Innovation Extensive Uncertainty = Low Predictability Extensive Operational Human Influence Hitting a Moving Target By analogy with the Living Process Approach in traditional architecture described by Christopher Alexander in “The Nature of Order” Agile Business-Driven Architecture = Business-Driven Solution Development
    9. 9. Business-Driven Solution Development Balancing top-down design and bottom-up experience Business Engineers & Business Experts Architects & Business Engineers UML Repository Fully integrated model providing traceability (XMI) UML/2.0 Modeling Tool Specify, verify & validate Simulate Coding Exceptional behavior Verify, validate & add traceability links Business Content Repository Business Engineering Studio Programming Environment Generic Business Engines Vertical Framework Enterprise Architecture & Global Business Model & Global Functional Specification Programmer
    10. 10. Business-Driven Solution Development in Practice Balancing top-down design and bottom-up experience Business Engineers & Business Experts Architects & Business Engineers UML Repository UML/2.0 Modeling Tool Specify, verify & validate Simulate Coding Exceptional behavior Verify, validate & add traceability links Online integration Fully integrated model providing traceability (XMI) Business Content Enterprise Architecture & Global Business Model & Global Functional Specification Programmer
    11. 11. Example Process Architecture
    12. 12. Example Process Models Business Process Work Process Process Step
    13. 13. Example Functional Design Business Activities within a Process Step Link to a user dialog visualization in a specific manifestation User event User dialog System service Link to a user dialog visualization in a specific manifestation
    14. 14. Example Domain Model View on Business Content
    15. 15. Everest BPM Framework Business Engines DOMAIN CONTENT DIALOG INTERACTION PROCESS STEP BUSINESS TASK SERVICE INTERACTION PROCESS PRESENTATION & DEVICE BIE Enterprise Service Bus CONNECTIVITY IBM MQS BEA WLI MS BIZZTALK DB email doc
    16. 16. Example Procesmodel/design and BPM component Behandel aanvraag View on Business Content
    17. 17. Example Business Activity Orchestration View on Business Content
    18. 18. Example Page Composition View on Business Content
    19. 19. Example Business Logic Overview View on Business Content
    20. 20. The Trinity of Architectural Styles <ul><li>BPM implies a Business Rule Architectural Style (BRA) </li></ul><ul><li>BRA needs to be balanced with the Event-Driven (EDA) and Service Oriented (SOA) Architecture Styles for truly adaptive and intelligent business solutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BRA: Agile Business-Driven application assembly with, and differentiation of, services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SOA: Black-box encapsulation of reusable business logic and data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EDA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Complete decoupling between processes and between services -> Independent units (agents) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enabling Business Activity Monitoring </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligent agents for complex event processing </li></ul></ul></ul>Intelligent-agent solutions Ambient intelligence as emerging behavior Spin-off of AI-research The Power of Self-Organization BRA SOA EDA The Trinity of Architecture Effective & Adaptive Business Systems

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