Introduction• Total Quality Management (TQM) is enhancement to the traditional way of doing business.• Total:- Made up of whole or Involvement of all levels in the organization• Quality:-Degree of excellence a product or service provides or Conformance to agreed upon requirements• Management:- Act, art or manner of handling, controlling, directing
Introduction• TQM is defined as both philosophy and a set of guiding principles that represent the foundation of a continuously improving organization. It is the application of quantitative methods and human resources to improve all the processes within an organization and exceeds customer needs now and in future.
Introduction• Total Quality Management means that the organizations culture is defined by and supports the constant attainment of customer satisfaction through an integrated system of tools, techniques, and training. This involves the continuous improvement of organizational processes, resulting in high quality products and services.
TQM six basic Concepts1. Management commitment to TQM principles and methods & long term Quality plans for the Organization2. Focus on customers3. Quality at all levels of the work force.4. Continuous improvement of the production/business process.5. Treating suppliers as partners6. Establish performance measures for the processes.
Gurus of TQM• Walter A. Shewhart:- W.A Shewhart, PhD, spent his professional career at Western Electric and Bell Telephone Laboratories, both divisions of AT&T. He developed control chart theory with control limits, assignable and chance causes of variation, and rational subgroups, he authored Economic Control of Quality of Manufactured Product, which is regarded as a complete and though work of the basic principles of quality control. He also developed the PDSA(Plan, Do, Study, Act) cycle for learning and improvement.• W. Edward Deming:- Deming was protégé of Shewhart in 1950, he thought statistical process control and the importance of quality to the leading CEOs of Japanese industry. He is credited with providing the foundation for the Japanese quality miracle and resurgence as an economic power. Deming is the best known quality expert in the world. His 14 points provide a theory for management to improve quality, productivity, and competitive position
Gurus of TQM• Joseph M. Juran:- He worked at Western Electric from 1924-1941. There he was exposed to the concepts of Shewhart. Juran traveled to Japan in 1954 to teach quality management. He emphasized the necessity for management at all levels to be committed to the quality effort with hands on involvement. He recommended project improvements based on return on investment to achieve breakthrough results. The Juran Trilogy for managing quality is carried out by three interrelated processes of planning, control, and improvement.
Gurus of TQM• Armand V. Feiganbaum:- He argues that total quality control is necessary to achieve productivity, market penetration, and competitive advantage. Quality begins by identifying the customer’s requirements and ends with a product or services in the hands of a satisfied customer. In addition to customer satisfaction, some of Feiganbaum’s quality principles are genuine management involvement, employee involvement, first line supervision leadership, and companywide quality control.
Gurus of TQM• Kaoru Ishikawa:- PhD studied under Deming, Juran, and feigenbaum, he barrowed the total quality control concept and adapted it for the Japanese. Ishikawa is best known for the development of the cause and effect diagram, which is sometimes called Ishikawa diagram. He developed the quality circle concept in Japan whereby work groups including their supervisor were trained in SPC.• Phillip B. Crosby:- He argued that “doing it right the first time "is less expensive than the costs of detecting and correcting nonconformities. His four absolutes of quality are Quality is conformance to requirements, Prevention of nonconformance is the objective not appraisal, The performance standard is zero defects not “that is close enough” and The measurement of quality is the cost of conformance.
Gurus of TQM• Genichi Taguchi, PhD, developed his loss function concept that combines cost, target and variation into one metric. Because the loss function is reactive, he developed the signal to noise ratio as proactive equivalent his robust design of parameters and tolerances.
Historical Background of TQM• Quality in articles and artefacts produced by skilled craftsmen and artisans from the B.C. era e.g.. goldsmiths, silversmiths, blacksmiths, potters, etc.• Artists & Artisans Guilds in the Middle ages spent years imparting quality skills and the works men had pride in making quality products.• Industrial Revolution brought factory manufacturing where articles were mass-produced and each worker made only a part of the product, and did not sense the importance of his contribution to the quality of the product .
Historical Background of TQM• In 1924, W.A. Shewhart of Bell Telephone Labs developed a statistical chart for the control of product variables – the beginning of SQC and SPC.• In the same decade, H.F. Dodge and H.G. Romig of Bell Telephone Labs developed statistical acceptance sampling instead of 100% inspection.• In 1946,the American Society for Quality Control was formed.• In 1950, W. Edwards Deming, who learnt SQC from Shewhart, taught SPC & SQC to Japanese engineers and CEO’s
Historical Background of TQM• In 1954,Joseph M.Juran taught Japanese managements their responsibility to achieve quality .• In 1960, the first quality control circles were formed. SQC techniques were being applied by Japanese workers.• 1970’s US managers were learning from Japan Quality implementation miracles.• In 1980’s TQM principles and methods became popular.(also in auto industry)• In 1990’s ,the ISO 9000 model became the world-wide standard for QMS.
Obstacles• Lack of management Commitment• Inability to change organizational culture• Improper planning• Lack of continuous training and education• Incompatible organizational structure and isolated individuals and departments• Paying inadequate attention to customers• Inadequate use of empowerment and team work• Failure to continually improve