The Role and functions of a stock exchange


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The Role and functions of a stock exchange

  1. 1. The Role and Function of a Stock Exchange By Enid E Bissember GASCI
  2. 2. Outline • Overview of financial markets • Institutional infrastructure • Role and functions of stock exchange
  3. 3. Overview of Financial Markets • Two types of financial markets • Money markets • Capital markets • Primary market • Secondary market
  4. 4. The Hierarchy of Markets Asset backed securities & derivatives Corporate bonds & equities Government bond market Gov’t T Bills Money market
  5. 5. Financial Market Capital Insurance Primary Money market Mkt Inst market cos NIS Commercial Primary banks Credit unions market Second Stock ary Firms raise exch market Short term capital ange Investors instruments debt trade equity securities issued in Public primary Private market placement
  6. 6. Market infrastructure • Stock exchange • Clearing and settlement • Education and training • Investors’ protection • Rating agency
  7. 7. Instruments • Equities Most popular investing instruments Stocks and shares Bonus issues Rights issues • Bonds Corporate Government
  8. 8. Intermediaries Hand in Hand • Brokerage houses Beharry stockbrokers Trust company GuyAmerica • Stock brokers • Advisors
  9. 9. Regulation & Supervision A few questions • Ever wondered how the capital markets work • Who sets the rules • What does the stock exchange do • What is the role of the stock broker • How to become a registered broker
  10. 10. The Regulator • Foremost authority presiding over the capital markets • With mission to promote and maintain Fair, efficient , secure and transparent market and to facilitate the orderly development of the stock exchange
  11. 11. Role and Functions of a stock exchange Established for the purpose of assisting, regulating and controlling business of buying, selling and dealing in securities
  12. 12. Role and Functions of a stock exchange cont’d • Provides a market for the trading of securities to individuals and organizations seeking to invest their saving or excess funds through the purchase of securities
  13. 13. Role and Functions of a stock exchange cont’d Provides a physical location for buying and selling securities that have been listed for trading on that exchange
  14. 14. Role and Functions of a stock exchange cont’d Establishes rules for fair trading practices and regulates the trading activities of its members according to those rules
  15. 15. Role and Functions of a stock exchange cont’d The exchange itself does not buy or sell the securities, nor does it set prices for them
  16. 16. Fair The exchange assures that no investor will have an undue advantage over other market participants
  17. 17. Efficient market This means that orders are executed and transactions are settled in the fastest possible way
  18. 18. Transparency Investor make informed and intelligent decision about the particular stock based on information
  19. 19. Transparency cont’d Listed companies must disclose information in timely, complete and accurate manner to the Exchange and the public on a regular basis
  20. 20. Transparency cont’d Required information include stock price, corporate conditions and developments dividend, mergers and joint ventures, and management changes etc
  21. 21. Doing business People who buy or sell stock on an exchange do so through a broker
  22. 22. Doing business cont’d The broker takes your order to the floor of the exchange looks for a broker representing someone wanting to buy/sell • If a mutually agreeable price is found the trade is made
  23. 23. Some type of orders • Limit order • Market order • Day order • Open • All or none • Any part • Good through
  24. 24. Price At any point in time, the price of previously issued stock is determined by the ebb and flow of supply and demand
  25. 25. Listing requirements There are specific requirements for allowing a public company to list its securities on the Stock Exchange these are set out in the legislation
  26. 26. Benefits of listing • Visibility • Market support • Investors confidence • Increased demand for products and services • Overall increase in profitability
  27. 27. Once traded • Aura of reliability • Accuracy in reporting financial data • Reputation • Strength
  28. 28. Delisting Stock exchange can delist companies for a number of reasons including :- • Merger with another company • Solvency problems • Name change company asked to be removed • Failure to comply with exchange rules
  29. 29. Desirable Characteristics of a stock market Liquidity Ability to sell an asset quickly at a fairly known price Low transactions costs
  30. 30. Desirable Characteristics of a stock market cont’d • Availability of information Market efficiency • Prices react quickly to new information • Small price fluctuations • Narrow price spread
  31. 31. Financing the exchange • Transaction fees paid by members for each order executed • Fees paid by firms when their securities are originally listed • Annual fees by firms • Entrance fees from new members • sale of historic trading and market information
  32. 32. Major challenges for the Exchanges • Cross border trading • Issuers and investors are expanding their horizons beyond their home markets • Investors becoming much more demanding
  33. 33. •Regulatory improvement Transparency and Corporate Governance Protection to Strong minority industry Shareholders regulator Enhance Corporate market Governance confidence Disclosure
  34. 34. Ownership of the Owners company is by the public in the form of shares one share, one vote Board is elected by shareholders to represent the best interests of the owners Board hires and fires the Managers management of the company