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  1. 1. Basics of Investing Over the long term, stocks have historically outperformed all other investments . From 1926 to 2005, the S&P 500 returned an average annual 10.46 percent gain. The next best performing asset class is bonds. Long term U.S. Treasury notes returned, on average, 5.08 percent over the same period. Be Careful, there is no guarantee!!!!
  2. 2. Basics of Investing Over the short term, stocks can be hazardous to your financial health. On Oct. 19, 1987, stocks experienced the worst one-day drop in stock market history -- 22.6 percent. More recently, the shocks have been prolonged and painful: If you had invested in a Nasdaq index fund around the time of the market's peak in March 2000, you would have lost three-fourths of your money over the next three years.
  3. 3. Basics of Investing Risky investments generally pay more than safe ones ( except when they fail ). Investors demand a higher rate of return for taking greater risks. That's one reason that stocks, which are perceived as riskier than bonds, tend to return more. It also explains why long-term bonds pay more than short-term bonds. The longer investors have to wait for their final payoff on the bond, the greater the chance that something will intervene to erode the investment's value.
  4. 4. Basics of Investing A diversified portfolio is less risky than a portfolio that is concentrated in one or a few investments. Diversifying -- that is, spreading your money among a number of different types of investments -- lessens your risk because even if some of your holdings go down, others may go up (or at least not go down as much). On the flip side, a diversified portfolio is unlikely to outperform the market by a big margin for exactly the same reason.
  5. 5. Basics of Investing <ul><li>Stocks : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stocks aren't just pieces of paper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are many different kinds of stocks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stocks are your best shot for getting a return over and above the pace of inflation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A smart portfolio positioned for long-term growth includes strong stocks from different industries. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It's smarter to buy and hold good stocks than to engage in rapid-fire trading. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Basics of Investing <ul><li>Stocks continued : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Investors may talk about large-cap vs. small-cap stocks, energy vs. technology stocks, or growth vs. value stocks, for example. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Since 1926, the average large stock has returned more than 10 percent a year -- well ahead of inflation, and the return of bonds, real estate and other savings vehicles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As a general rule, it's best to hold stocks from several different industries. That way, if one area of the economy goes into the dumps, you have something to fall back on. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The cost of trading has dropped dramatically -- it's easy to find commissions for less than $10 a trade. But there are other costs to trading -- including mark-ups by brokers and higher taxes for short-term trades </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Basics of Investing Mutual Funds : What exactly is a mutual fund? A mutual fund pools money from hundreds and thousands of investors to construct a portfolio of stocks, bonds, real estate or other securities, according to its charter. Each investor in the fund gets a slice of the total pie. Mutual funds make it easy to diversify. Most funds require only moderate minimum investments -- from a few hundred to a few thousand dollars -- enabling investors to construct a diversified portfolio much more cheaply than they could on their own.
  8. 8. Basics of Investing Mutual Funds : Returns aren't everything -- also consider the risk taken to achieve those returns. Before buying a fund, look at how risky its investments are. Can you tolerate big market swings for a shot at higher returns? If not, stick with low-risk funds. Low expenses are crucial. In order to cover their expenses -- and to make a profit -- funds charge a percentage of total assets. At no more than a few percentage points a year, expenses may not sound substantial, but they create a serious drag on performance over time. Don't chase winners. Funds that rank very highly over one period rarely finish on top in later ones. When choosing a fund, look for consistent long-term results.
  9. 9. Basics of Investing Mutual Funds : Don't be too quick to dump a fund. Any fund can -- and probably will -- have an off year. Though you may be tempted to sell a losing fund, first check to see whether it has trailed comparable funds for more than two years. If it hasn't, sit tight. But if earnings have been consistently below par, it may be time to move on