Analysis of the Economy and the Stock Market (PowerPoint Slides)


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  • Analysis of the Economy and the Stock Market (PowerPoint Slides)

    1. 1. INVESTMENTS: Analysis and Management Second Canadian Edition W. Sean Cleary Charles P. Jones
    2. 2. Chapter 15 Analysis of the Economy and the Stock Market
    3. 3. <ul><li>Describe the relationship between the stock market and the economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze the determinants of stock market values. </li></ul><ul><li>Make basic forecasts of market changes. </li></ul>Learning Objectives
    4. 4. <ul><li>Analyze economy/stock market  industries  individual companies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to understand economic factors that affect stock prices initially </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use valuation models applied to the overall market and consider how to forecast market changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stock market’s likely direction is of extreme importance to investors </li></ul></ul>Top-Down Approach
    5. 5. <ul><li>GDP : The value of all goods & services produced in a country within a given time period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GDP = C + I + G + (X - M) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic Growth – commonly measured as % growth in ‘real’ GDP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GNP : The value of all goods & services produced by a country’s nationals, whether at home or abroad </li></ul>Measures of Economic Activity
    6. 6. <ul><li>Direct relationship between the two </li></ul><ul><li>Economic business cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recurring pattern of aggregate economic expansion and contraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cycles have a common framework </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>trough  peak  trough </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can only be neatly categorized by length and turning points in hindsight </li></ul></ul>Economy and the Stock Market
    7. 7. <ul><li>Statistics Canada </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitors economic indicators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dates business cycle when possible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Composite Leading Indicator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Index that combines ten leading indicators of economic activity in order to assess the status of the business cycle and predict future economic conditions </li></ul></ul>Business Cycle
    8. 8. <ul><li>Leading Indicators </li></ul><ul><li>tend to change prior to changes in economic activity. Examples include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>housing starts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>manufacturers’ new orders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>changes in profits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>spot commodity prices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>average hours worked per week </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stock prices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>money flows </li></ul></ul>Business Cycle
    9. 9. Business Cycles GDP Growth (%) Time Expansion Peak Recession Trough Recovery Expansion
    10. 10. <ul><ul><ul><li>S&P/TSX Composite Index </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Real Money Supply (M1) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>US Composite Leading Index </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New orders for durables </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shipments to inventory ratio (finished goods) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Average work week </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Employment in bus. & services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Furniture & appliance sales </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sales of other retail durables </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Housing spending index </li></ul></ul></ul>Statistics Canada’s Leading Indicators
    11. 11. <ul><li>Coincident Indicators: change at the same time as changes in economic activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., GDP, industrial production, personal income, retail sales </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lagging Indicators: follow economic changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., business investment, unemployment rate, labour costs, inventory levels, inflation </li></ul></ul>Coincident and Lagging Indicators
    12. 12. <ul><li>Stock prices lead the economy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Historically, the most sensitive indicator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stock prices consistently turn before the economy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How reliable is the relationship? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ability of the market to predict recoveries is much better than its ability to predict recessions </li></ul></ul>Stock Market and Business Cycle
    13. 13. <ul><li>Global economic factors </li></ul><ul><li>Interest rates </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange rates </li></ul><ul><li>Inflation </li></ul><ul><li>Unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>Government policies </li></ul><ul><li>Fiscal Policy </li></ul>Other Factors Affecting the Aggregate Economy
    14. 14. <ul><li>How good are available forecasts? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prominent forecasters have similar predictions and differences in accuracy are very small </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Investors can use any such forecasts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Does monetary activity forecast economic activity? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes due to shifts in supply or demand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actions of Bank of Canada important </li></ul></ul>Macroeconomic Forecasts of the Economy
    15. 15. <ul><li>Market measured by index or average </li></ul><ul><li>Most indexes designed for particular market segment (ex. blue chips) </li></ul><ul><li>Most popular indexes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>S&P/TSX Composite Index </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S&P 500 Composite Stock Index </li></ul></ul>Understanding the Stock Market
    16. 16. <ul><li>Shows how stocks in general are doing at any time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives a feel for the market </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shows where in the cycle the market is and sheds light on the future </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aids investors in evaluating downside </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Helps judge overall performance </li></ul><ul><li>Used to calculate betas </li></ul>Uses of Market Measures
    17. 17. <ul><li>Exogenous or predetermined variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential output of economy (Y*) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Productivity, resources, investment opportunities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corporate tax rate (t x ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government spending (G) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nominal money supply (M) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three policy variables subject to governmental decisions </li></ul></ul></ul>Determinants of Stock Prices
    18. 18. <ul><li>G and M affect stock prices by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affecting total aggregate spending (Y), which together with the tax rate (t x ) affects corporate earnings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Total aggregate spending, together with economy’s potential output (Y*) and past changes in prices, determine current changes in the price level (P) </li></ul>Determinants of Stock Prices
    19. 19. <ul><li>Corporate earnings and expected inflation affect expected real earnings </li></ul><ul><li>Interest rates and required rates of return also affected by expected inflation </li></ul><ul><li>Stock prices affected by earnings, rates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If economy is prospering, earnings and stock prices will be expected to rise </li></ul></ul>Determinants of Stock Prices
    20. 20. <ul><li>From constant growth version of Dividend Discount Model </li></ul><ul><li>P 0 =D 1 /(k-g) </li></ul><ul><li>Inverse relationship between interest rates (required rates of return) and stock prices is not linear </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determinants of interest rates also affect investor expectations about future </li></ul></ul>Determinants of Stock Prices
    21. 21. <ul><li>To apply fundamental analysis to the market, estimates are needed of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stream of shareholder benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Earnings or dividends </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Required return or earnings multiple </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Steps in estimating earnings stream </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimate GDP, corporate sales, corporate earnings before taxes, and finally corporate earnings after taxes </li></ul></ul>Valuing the Market
    22. 22. <ul><li>The earnings multiplier </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More volatile than earnings component </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to predict </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot simply extrapolate from past P/E ratios, because changes can and do occur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1986-2003 average for S&P/TSX: 37.44 (ignoring 2001) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P/E ratios tend to be high when inflation and interest rates are low </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Put earnings estimate and multiplier together </li></ul>Valuing the Market
    23. 23. <ul><li>Difficult to consistently forecast the stock market, especially short term </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EMH states that future cannot be predicted based on past information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Although market timing difficult, some situations suggest strong action </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Investors tend to lose more by missing a bull market than by dodging a bear market </li></ul>Forecasting Changes in the Market
    24. 24. <ul><li>Leading relationship exists between stock market prices and economy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can the market be predicted by the stage of the business cycle? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consider business cycle turning points well in advance, before they occur </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stock total returns could be negative (positive) when business cycle peaks (bottoms) </li></ul></ul>Using the Business Cycle to Make Forecasts
    25. 25. <ul><li>If investors can recognize the bottoming of the economy before it occurs, a market rise can be predicted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Switch into stocks, out of cash </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As economy recovers, stock prices may level off or even decline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on past, the market P/E usually rises just before the end of the slump </li></ul></ul>Using the Business Cycle to Make Market Forecast
    26. 26. <ul><li>Best known market indicator is the price/earnings ratio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Other indicators: dividend yield, earnings yield </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problems with key market indicators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When are they signalling a change? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How reliable is the signal? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How quickly will the predicted change occur? </li></ul></ul>Using Key Variables to Make Market Forecasts
    27. 27. <ul><li>Market forecasts are not easy, and are subject to error </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Investors should count on the unexpected occurring </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intelligent and useful forecasts of the market can be made at certain times, at least as to the likely direction of the market </li></ul>Conclusions
    28. 28. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Access Copyright (The Canadian Copyright Licensing Agency) is unlawful. Requests for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his or her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The author and the publisher assume no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein. Copyright