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Biogas Technology Evolution in Pakistan

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Information About Biogas Achievements at Zorays Solar Pakistan.

Zorays Biogas 5 Cubic Metre Plant Solution: https://www.zorays.com/product/biogas/

Zorays Biogas Plant Design Patent Detailed Article: https://www.zorays.com/biogas/

Published in: Engineering
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Biogas Technology Evolution in Pakistan

  1. 1. Bio-Gas Technology in Pakistan
  2. 2. Biogas Technology • Biogas Production is basically a process of in which methane gas is produced anaerobically from organic matters (like animal waste, crop residue etc).
  3. 3. This process proceeds in three steps: 1. Hydrolytical Breakdown of complex organic matters in the simpler compounds 2. Formation of organic acid from simpler compounds 3. Conversion of organic acids into methane gas
  4. 4. R&D Work Conducted on Various Designs of Biogas Plants in Pakistan
  5. 5. Modified Indian-Type Vertical Biogas Plant 1 Mixing tank, 2 inlet pipe, 3 digester, 4 movable gas holder, 5 gas line, 6 water tap, 7 iron guide to movement of gas holder, 8 outlet pipe, 9 stove, 10 ground level 1.
  6. 6. Modified Indian-Type Vertical Biogas Plant • 2.8 m3 / day biogas produced in summers • 1.6 m3 / daybiogas produced in Winters (temp 8o C to 10o C) • Suitable for areas where temperature > 20o C • Corrosion Resistant Paint such as polyvinyl solution required to be coated on the steel drum used for biogas storage. • 2m3 plant produced enough gas to meet the heating & cooking requirements for 8 hours daily of a medium size family. • 30 kg cow dung is required daily. • Total Cost of the 2m3 biogas plant is approx. Rs.80000
  7. 7. Horizontal Biogas Plant for High Water Table Areas 1 mixing tank, 2 inlet pipe, 3 primary chamber, 4 secondary chamber, 5 main hole, 6 digester portion above ground level, 7 gas holder, 8 water with oil seal, 9 gas line, 10 outlet, 11 water trap, 12 stove, 13 ground level 2.
  8. 8. Horizontal Biogas Plant for High Water Table Areas • 2.4 m3 /daybiogas produced in summers • 20% reduction in biogas produced in Winters • Suitable for areas where water table is high or soil is too sandy to prevent deep excavation. • More efficient Methanogenesis than in vertical type biogas plants. • Mixture of oil and water protected the corrosion of gas holder as well as prevented leakage of gas that was noticed in vertical biogas plants.
  9. 9. Community-size Biogas Plant 1 mixing tank, 2 primary digester, 3 secondary digester, 4 movable gas holder, 5 water with oil seal, 6 gas line, 7 gas measuring gauge, 8 water trap, 9 dsicharge pipe, 10 support for movement of drum, 11 colony 3.
  10. 10. Community-size Biogas Plant • 10.3 m3 /daybiogas produced in summers • Sufficient biogas produced to meet the daily heating / cooking requirements of five normal sized families. • 15% reduction in biogas produced in Winters • The plant could also operate a 1 hp electric generator for 21 hr a day. • Painting the drum black, charging the biogas plant in the evening, diluting the dung with solar-heated water and reflecting sunlight on gas holder reduced heat losses in winter. • Mixture of oil and water protected the corrosion of gas holder and prevented excessive dilution of slurry by rain water as well as prevented leakage of gas that was noticed in vertical biogas plants.
  11. 11. Modified Chinese type Fixed Dome Biogas Plant 1 fixed dome gas holder, 2 digester, 3 mixing tank, 4 auxiliary chamber, 5 gas line, 6 water trap, 7 outlet, 8 stove 4.
  12. 12. Modified Chinese type Fixed Dome Biogas Plant • 1.2 m3 / day biogas produced in summers • Wide inlet & outlet and less depth of the plant was suitable for using biomass containing high fibrous materials like rice barn, wheat straw, fruit & vegetable wastes. • The plant has low gas pressure and minor leakages in the dome. • Many cracks appeared in the dome as a result of atmospheric temperature variation from 10o C to 44o C in Pakistan.
  13. 13. French type Biogas Plant for cold climate 1 inlet pipe, 2 stainless steel digester, 3 outlet pipe, 4 biomass covering steel drum, 5 gas line, 6 water trap, 7 truck tyre tubes, 8 gas tap, 9 stove, 10 ground level 5.
  14. 14. French type Biogas Plant for cold climate • Produced 1.13 m3 / day biogas • Suitable for regions with low atmospheric temperatures. • Most suitable for biomass with high percentage of fibre. • Municipal waste covering of digester ensured internal temperature of 56o C even in winters. • Also recommended for areas where only available biomass is plant roots, shoots and bushes.
  15. 15. Low Cost Rubber Tubes Biogas Plant 1 mixing tank, 2 rubber tube digester, 3 gas vent, 4 outlet, 5 rubber tube gas holder, 6 gas line, 7 stove 6.
  16. 16. Low Cost Polyethylene Bag Biogas Plant 1 mixing tank, 2 PVC inlet pipe, 3 circular bag digester above ground, 4 circular bag digester portion under ground, 5 outlet with auxiliary chamber, 6 gas line, 7 water trap, 8 stove, 9 ground level. 7.
  17. 17. Low Cost Plastic & Rubber Tubes Biogas Plant • Plastic and rubber-tubes biogas plants deteriorated rapidly due to seasonal changes and sunlight. • Both type of plants despite of great care during fabrication and installation, did not give reliable results because of leakage of biogas produced.
  18. 18. Composition of Biogas • Methane = 60 – 70 % • Carbon dioxide = 30 – 40 % • Hydrogen = 0.1% • Oxygen = 0.1% • Hydrogen Sulphide = Traces
  19. 19. Photographs of Vertical Biogas Plant Installed in Lahore
  20. 20. Vertical Type Biogas Plant being used for generation of electricity and to operate water lifting pump
  21. 21. Use of Biogas Effluent for Fish Farming in Pakistan
  22. 22. Live Stock population in the country to produce substrate for Biogas Generation (2006 -07) Animals (No. in Millions) Buffaloes 27.3 Cattle 29.6 Goats 53.8 Sheep 26.5 Poultry 401 Camels 0.9 Asses 4.3 Horses 0.3
  23. 23. Potential of Biogas Production for Animal Waste in the Country • Availability of Dung @ 15 kg per animal per day for 56900000 (cows & buffaloes) = 426750000 kg on the basis of 50% collectivity • Biogas produced per kg = 0.05 m3 • Biogas production capacity for 4.3 x 108 kg dung per day = 21337500 m3 or 2.1 x 107 m3 • 1 m3 Biogas = 0.67 Litre Kerosene Oil • 1 m3 Biogas = 8260 kCal of Heat Energy
  24. 24. Quantity of Important Crops Produced in Pakistan (2006 -07) Crops (No. in 1000 Tonnes) Wheat 23520 Rice 5438 Bajra 238 Jowar 180 Maize 2968 Barley 83 Gram 842 Sugar Cane 54752
  25. 25. Facts and Figures of a Working Biogas Plant • Methane Gas Generation Capacity = 10m3 • No of animals required = 15 (animals) • Quantity of dung available from 15 animals @ 15kg per animal = 225kg • Water required for dilution = 225 kg • Biogas produced = 10 m3 Approx. • 1 hp Engine can run for 20 hrs. • Additional fertilizer with added nitrogen contents will be available (225 x0.72) = 162kg
  26. 26. Benefits of Biogas Production 1. Self reliance in Energy Production 2. Production of Organic Fertilizer with higher nitrogen contents that can improve crop yield by 10 - 15% 3. Smokeless flame of burner 4. Pathogen free and odourless effluent 5. Provide fuel energy 6. Import substitute of oil 7. Substitute of natural gas 8. 1 m3 of Biogas = 19085 – 24737 BTU 9. 1 m3 of Biogas = 0.6 Litre Kerosene oil 10. 1 m3 of Biogas can run 1hp engine for 2 hr.
  27. 27. Additional Work by Zorays Solar 1. Consultancy provided to different private parties regarding Biogas Plant Setup 2. Training of Manpower 3. Provision of Research Facilities for M.Sc and B.E Students from various institutes regarding Biogas Production.
  28. 28. Chemical Analysis of Various Substrates used for Biogas Generation
  29. 29. Substrate Dry Matter % Ash % Lipids % Fiber % Crude Protein % N.F.E. % Buffalo dung 20.0 18.8 1.4 26.9 9.0 43.9 Chicken droppings 42.0 31.8 2.6 22.7 21.0 21.9 Municipal waste 73.4 36.8 1.6 47.0 4.9 9.8 N.F.E. = Nitrogen Free Extract
  30. 30. Waste Wheat Straw • Crude protein = 0.56 x 6.0 = 3.36 % • Lipids = 1.2% • Crude Fibre = 37.16% • Ash = 15.2% • Dry Matter = 19.9% • Nitrogen Free = 43.09% extract
  31. 31. Chemical Analysis of Effluent of Biogas Plant Dry matter = 18.90 % Ash = 19.10% Lipids = 1.25% Fibre = 22.16% Nitrogen = 3.51% Crude Protein = 21.94%
  32. 32. Effect of Effluent on the Yield of Barseem Production (Tonnes / Hactare) Protein content (%) Without fertilizer 10.14 21.50 With Effluent 11.25 26.00
  33. 33. Future R&D Work • To improve Biogas Production per kg cow / buffalo dung and other organic matter • Purification of Biogas from impurities as required • Utilization of Biogas in the generation of electricity and mechanical energy • Establishment of Biogas Research Institute for R&D and HR development at Zorays Solar • Training of Manpower from foreign countries having advanced Biogas Generation Systems Contd..
  34. 34. • Rectification of biogas plants not working in rural areas • Provision of technical know how to consumer • Elimination of difficulties in Biogas generation.
  35. 35. Thank You

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