Thermoelectricpresentation

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Thermoelectricpresentation

  1. 1. Energy and Operational Benefits of Thermoelectric Chillers in Semiconductor Manufacturing Nick Collins 2011 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Industry Main Headquarters: 120 Water Street, Suite 350, North Andover, MA 01845 With offices in: NY, ME, TX, CA, OR www.ers-inc.com
  2. 2. Introduction  Project  Retrofit of vapor compression chillers with TECs  Thermoelectric chillers  What are they?  What is the Peltier effect?  Energy  Pre Savings and post install metered data 2
  3. 3. The Players National Semiconductor Maine – Semiconductor fabrication, Project Owner (NOTE: Recently acquired by Texas Instruments) Efficiency Maine – State energy efficiency and alternative energy programs. ERS – Energy engineering contractor. Administers the Efficiency Maine program on behalf of the State of Maine. Solid State Cooling Systems – Manufacturer of thermoelectric chillers 3
  4. 4. The Players National Semiconductor Maine National’s flagship manufacturing facility Fabricate 200mm wafers in an 80,000 ft2 Class 1 clean room (“Ballroom”) Over 100 automated tools Return air plenum (RAP) beneath the ballroom contains support equipment 4
  5. 5. The Players Efficiency Maine State energy efficiency and alternate energy programs Prescriptive and custom cash incentive program for business Provide up to $300,000 in cash incentives annually for qualifying projects 5
  6. 6. The Players energy and resource solutions Progressive energy engineering firm based in North Andover, MA Office is New York, Texas, Maine, Oregon, and California Areas of specialization include assessment and implementation of energy efficiency projects, utility program planning, management, and evaluation; renewable/sustainable building assessment; energy analysis; and efficient lighting design 6
  7. 7. The Players Solid State Cooling Systems Design and manufacture compact thermoelectric chillers Located in Wappingers Falls, NY 100 – 6,000 Watt applications 7
  8. 8. The Project National Semiconductor, South Portland, ME 80,000 ft2 of fabrication space Over 100 automated tools, most with dedicated cooling Corporate emphasis on energy efficiency, reducing kWh/production unit 8
  9. 9. The Project  Existing  Forty one Edwards TCU 40/80 vapor compression chillers  2.8 kW compressor  2400 Watt cooling capacity  Proposed  Forty one Solid State Cooling Systems 1200W Thermorack thermoelectric chillers  No compressor  1200 Watt cooling capacity 9
  10. 10. The Technology   What is a thermoelectric chiller?  Grossly simplified, it is a chiller that makes use of the Peltier effect to remove heat Wait back up, what is a chiller?  A chiller is a machine that removes heat from a liquid, typically through the vapor compression cycle 10
  11. 11. The Technology  Peltier Effect  Discovered in 1834 by French physicist Jean Peltier  “The Peltier effect occurs whenever electrical current flows through two dissimilar conductors. Depending on the direction of current flow, the junction of the two conductors will either absorb or release heat.” – Tellurex.com 11
  12. 12. The Technology 12
  13. 13. The Technology  Vapor Compression Chiller   Absorbs Heat Reject Heat Drives the process Cold Junction •   Mechanical Parts Refrigerant  Reject Heat DC Power source •  Absorbs Heat Heat Sink • Compressor •   Condenser •  Thermoelectric Chiller Evaporator •   Drives the process No Mechanical Parts (except auxiliary systems) No Refrigerant 13
  14. 14. The Results Pre and Post Metering Results on Lam Research PTC Plasma Etch Tool #02 Pre-retrofit, Edwards TCU 40/80 – 2.2 kW avg. Post-retrofit, SSC Thermorack 1200 – 0.3 kW avg. 14
  15. 15. The Results  Direct Savings Unit Quantity Average kW Edwards TCU 40/80 41 2.2 SSC ThermoRack 1200 41 0.3 Annual Run Hours Annual Direct Electric Use kWh 8660 781,132 8660 106,518 Annual kWh Savings 674,614 15
  16. 16. The Results  Indirect Savings (not metered) Unit Edwards TCU 40/80 SSC ThermoRack 1200 Quantity BTU per Unit Annual Run Hours Annual Indirect Electric Use – kWh* 41 7502 8660 177,577 41 1023 8660 24,215 Annual kWh Savings 153,362 *assumes 0.8 kW/ton cooling efficiency 16
  17. 17. The Results  Total predicted annual savings  827,976 kWh  Assume $0.11/kWh – $91,077 in savings 17
  18. 18. Partnering  Efficiency Maine provided metering of preretrofit condition and generated independent analysis  The project met the requirements for preapproval and received the maximum annual incentive of $300,000  The project did not meet National corporate requirements for payback period without the EMaine incentive 18
  19. 19. Final Thoughts    Thermoelectric chillers are not efficient  Carnot efficiency of TEC: 5%-8%  Carnot efficiency of Vapor compression chillers 40%-60% For energy savings, only suitable for niche applications Other benefits  Fine temperature control – 0.2◦C vs. 1.0◦ C  Smaller footprint and weight – 75 lbs vs.. 375 lbs  No moving parts  No CFCs or HCFCs 19
  20. 20. Questions 20

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