Drenablingtechnologiespresentation

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Drenablingtechnologiespresentation

  1. 1. Technologies for Enabling Demand Response or kW Reduction Gary Epstein ERS US Department of Energy State Energy Program Regional Meeting October 2003 Boston, MA ers energy&resource solutions ers energy&resource solutions © 2003 Energy and Resource Solutions, Inc.
  2. 2. Demand Response Considerations Participant Facility Needs Technology Options Efficiency vs. Demand Control Technologies Permanent vs. Short Duration kW Reductions What Can and Can’t Be Done Determination of kW and Facility Impacts ers energy&resource solutions © 2003 Energy and Resource Solutions, Inc.
  3. 3. Enabling Technology Options Energy Efficiency Technologies Information and Reporting Systems Metering Systems Direct Load Control Backup Generation Distributed Generation Energy Management System Load Control Smart Load Control Systems Lighting Technology Options Load Shifting Technologies ers energy&resource solutions © 2003 Energy and Resource Solutions, Inc.
  4. 4. Energy Efficiency Technologies Many (Most) Energy Efficiency Technologies Also Have Demand Reductions Permanent Demand Reductions Measures Observed Through DR Programs Lighting Efficiency and Control Chiller Plant Upgrades EMS or BAS System Installation Process Measures Compressed Air Measures VFD for Short Duration Curtailment ers energy&resource solutions © 2003 Energy and Resource Solutions, Inc.
  5. 5. Information and Reporting Technologies Real-Time and Day-After Access to Load Data Online Access is Increasingly Popular – Customers report that they find the data useful for achieving load reduction and educating senior management. Baseline Data Aggregation Data for Multiple Sites Load Curtailment Notification Phone, Fax, Pager, Email ers energy&resource solutions © 2003 Energy and Resource Solutions, Inc.
  6. 6. Direct Load Control Traditionally Focused on Residential Sector DHW, Pool Pumps, AC Many New Approaches for C&I Sector Central Control of Multi-Facility Customers Remote EMS Control of Sites Programmable, Direct Load Control Thermostats Direct Load Control Switches: AC, Electric Heat, Etc. ers energy&resource solutions © 2003 Energy and Resource Solutions, Inc.
  7. 7. Distributed Generation Technologies Backup Generation Systems Assessment of Load Applicability During Curtailment is Critical Environmental Requirements are Similarly Critical Diesel Generators Steam Turbine DG MicroTurbine Systems Renewable Technologies Fuel Cells Photovoltaics ers energy&resource solutions © 2003 Energy and Resource Solutions, Inc.
  8. 8. Central and Focused Energy Management Systems for Demand Control Local Scheduling Controllers Typically Address HVAC and Lighting Many Energy Management Systems have Demand Control Features Programmed Scheduling Demand Limiting Duty Cycling Generally, EMS Systems Schedule (Turn Off) Predetermined Groups of Equipment Challenges or Limitations Demand Control Can Conflict with Control Rules Rules Based Logic Can Limit Certain Demand Control Effectiveness ers energy&resource solutions © 2003 Energy and Resource Solutions, Inc.
  9. 9. Smart Demand Control with kW Forecasting Systems are Dedicated to Demand Control Do Not Have Standard BAS or EMS Functionality Continually Monitor Facility kW Single or Multiple Meters Smart Algorithm Continually Forecasts Average kW During Specified Period (e.g.: 15 or 30 minute period) Smart Duty Cycling Routine is Used to Modulate or Turn Off End Use Equipment to Avoid Reaching Threshold kW Levels ers energy&resource solutions © 2003 Energy and Resource Solutions, Inc.
  10. 10. Smart Demand Control: Neural Net Technology (AI) Effectively, a Smart Building Automation System that Progressively Learns Best Operation of Building Systems Use Neural Net (Adaptive Learning) Computational Methodologies Ideally Suited for Full BAS System Operation Excellent Demand Control Features But: Control Functionality Seems Like a Black Box to Many Facility Managers, Who Have Been Slow to Adopt this Technology ers energy&resource solutions © 2003 Energy and Resource Solutions, Inc.
  11. 11. Demand Control with Lighting Technologies kW Impacts with Lighting Efficiency Technologies and Occupancy Sensors Scheduling with Lighting Control Panels Direct Addressable Lighting Systems (DALI, etc.) Multi-Level and Continuous Dimming Systems Load Shedding Ballasts Power Reducing or Current Limiting Devices ??? ers energy&resource solutions © 2003 Energy and Resource Solutions, Inc.
  12. 12. Load Shifting/Fuel Switching Technologies Load Shifting Thermal Storage Off-Peak Operations for Industrial Facilities Fuel Switching Technologies Absorption Chillers Steam Turbine Chillers Engine-Driven Chillers Engine-Driven Compressors ers energy&resource solutions © 2003 Energy and Resource Solutions, Inc.
  13. 13. Determination of kW Impacts Turning Off or Scheduling Certain Systems Can Have Effects on Other Building Systems Particularly True of HVAC Equipment Approaches for Determining kW Impact Spreadsheet Modeling Addressing Interactive Effects May Require Building Simulation or Other Complex Analysis ers energy&resource solutions © 2003 Energy and Resource Solutions, Inc.
  14. 14. Understanding Impacts on Space Conditions Does DR Approach Have an Impact on Space Conditions Space Temperatures and Humidity Ventilation Illumination Levels Safety Issues Approaches for Estimating Impact Duration of Impact and Recovery Period Communications with Customer ers energy&resource solutions © 2003 Energy and Resource Solutions, Inc.

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