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Week 12 -- Traditional
Ecological Knowledge
November 25, 2020
Dr. Zoe Todd
Department of Sociology and Anthropology
Copyri...
Class Outline
§ Kimmerer: Windigo (Weetiko)
§ Viewing of Wakening
§ Onandaga Lake
§ Traditional Ecological Knowledge –
McG...
RECAP: WEEK 11
- Pacific/Oceania Indigenous
experiences and environment
- Salmon, cedars, lichen
Copyright Professor Zoe T...
Windigo
- Kimmerer draws parallels to
contemporary consumption (2003, p.
305):
Copyright Professor Zoe Todd
2020
Insatiable hunger
§ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bbmi2ff3MBk
Copyright Professor Zoe Todd 2020
§ Group work
| Discuss the ways that insatiable consumption are
present in your world
Copyright Professor Zoe Todd
2020
“There is an established link between poverty and the
increased risk of exposure to toxic and hazardous chemicals.
Exposur...
Week 11 Gender and
Environment
§ Aamjiwnaang
First Nation
and Chemical
Valley (Sarnia)
| Canada's Toxic
Chemical Valley
(F...
§ Onondaga Lake
Copyright Professor Zoe Todd
2020
§ “Sid Hill, a leader of the Onondaga Nation, calls
the cleanup project an expensive Band-Aid. He
says the cleanup is not ...
Onondaga Lake
§ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PAC_PHfjIPc
Copyright Professor Zoe Todd
2020
Honeywell
http://slideplayer.com/slide/3839835/
§ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X1FiF9JcXg8
Copyright Professor Zoe Todd...
Learning Activity
§ Compare the Honeywell video with
Kimmerer’s descriptions of efforts to
restore/reclaim/re-incorporate ...
TEK
§ Deborah McGregor (2006):
§ “What, then, is TEK? Well, depending on whom you ask, you will
get a different response. ...
TEK: McGregor
§ TEK is not linear – it can be shared
between generations in a circular way
§ TEK is a lived experience of ...
TEK: Scott (2011)
§ It is only in moments of unusual reflexive insight, for example, that
modern Westerners are conscious ...
TEK: Paul Nadasdy(2003: 137)
“The problem, I suggest, lies in the assumption that knowledge
exists in discrete Epistemolog...
TEK: Todd (me!) (2016:249-250)
§ “The problem is that the questions being asked about TEK versus
science within the enviro...
Learning question
§ How do the principles we started the
term with – environmental racism –
inform how the topic we are fi...
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#INDG2015 Week 12, November 25 -- Traditional Ecological Knowledge Slide 1 #INDG2015 Week 12, November 25 -- Traditional Ecological Knowledge Slide 2 #INDG2015 Week 12, November 25 -- Traditional Ecological Knowledge Slide 3 #INDG2015 Week 12, November 25 -- Traditional Ecological Knowledge Slide 4 #INDG2015 Week 12, November 25 -- Traditional Ecological Knowledge Slide 5 #INDG2015 Week 12, November 25 -- Traditional Ecological Knowledge Slide 6 #INDG2015 Week 12, November 25 -- Traditional Ecological Knowledge Slide 7 #INDG2015 Week 12, November 25 -- Traditional Ecological Knowledge Slide 8 #INDG2015 Week 12, November 25 -- Traditional Ecological Knowledge Slide 9 #INDG2015 Week 12, November 25 -- Traditional Ecological Knowledge Slide 10 #INDG2015 Week 12, November 25 -- Traditional Ecological Knowledge Slide 11 #INDG2015 Week 12, November 25 -- Traditional Ecological Knowledge Slide 12 #INDG2015 Week 12, November 25 -- Traditional Ecological Knowledge Slide 13 #INDG2015 Week 12, November 25 -- Traditional Ecological Knowledge Slide 14 #INDG2015 Week 12, November 25 -- Traditional Ecological Knowledge Slide 15 #INDG2015 Week 12, November 25 -- Traditional Ecological Knowledge Slide 16 #INDG2015 Week 12, November 25 -- Traditional Ecological Knowledge Slide 17 #INDG2015 Week 12, November 25 -- Traditional Ecological Knowledge Slide 18 #INDG2015 Week 12, November 25 -- Traditional Ecological Knowledge Slide 19
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#INDG2015 Week 12, November 25 -- Traditional Ecological Knowledge

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12. November 25: Traditional Ecological Knowledge

Braiding Sweetgrass, Chapter 5, “Burning Sweetgrass” (pp.303-340) update: the page numbers don't correspond in all versions of the book so I'll start listing sections instead: Windigo Footprints, The Sacred and the Superfund

McGregor, Deborah. 2006. “Traditional Ecological Knowledge”. Ideas: the Arts and Science Review, vol. 3, no. 1 http://www.silvafor.org/assets/silva/PDF/DebMcGregor.pdf

Berkes, Fikret. 1999. Chapter 1: Context of Traditional Ecological Knowledge, pp. 1-16 in Sacred Ecology: Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Natural Resource Management. Philadelphia: Taylor and Francis.

Scott, Colin. 2011 [1989]. “Science for the West, Myth for the Rest? The Case of James Bay Cree Knowledge Construction.” Pp. 175-197 in The Postcolonial Science and Technology Studies Reader edited by Sandra Harding. Durham: Duke University Press.

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#INDG2015 Week 12, November 25 -- Traditional Ecological Knowledge

  1. 1. Week 12 -- Traditional Ecological Knowledge November 25, 2020 Dr. Zoe Todd Department of Sociology and Anthropology Copyright Professor Zoe Todd 2020
  2. 2. Class Outline § Kimmerer: Windigo (Weetiko) § Viewing of Wakening § Onandaga Lake § Traditional Ecological Knowledge – McGregor, Scott, Berkes Copyright Professor Zoe Todd 2020
  3. 3. RECAP: WEEK 11 - Pacific/Oceania Indigenous experiences and environment - Salmon, cedars, lichen Copyright Professor Zoe Todd 2020
  4. 4. Windigo - Kimmerer draws parallels to contemporary consumption (2003, p. 305): Copyright Professor Zoe Todd 2020
  5. 5. Insatiable hunger § https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bbmi2ff3MBk Copyright Professor Zoe Todd 2020
  6. 6. § Group work | Discuss the ways that insatiable consumption are present in your world Copyright Professor Zoe Todd 2020
  7. 7. “There is an established link between poverty and the increased risk of exposure to toxic and hazardous chemicals. Exposure of poor people to toxic chemicals is often strongly correlated to geography. In urban settings, low-income or minority populations typically reside in neighborhoods considered undesirable, such as areas adjacent to industrial zones. These places can be major sources of environmental exposure to toxic chemicals, originating from factories, landfill sites, incinerators, and/or hazardous waste dumps.” (UNDP 2014: 2) Copyright Professor Zoe Todd 2020
  8. 8. Week 11 Gender and Environment § Aamjiwnaang First Nation and Chemical Valley (Sarnia) | Canada's Toxic Chemical Valley (Full Length) VICE Canada § https://www.y outube.com/ watch?v=Un HWZE0M_-k Copyright Professor Zoe Todd 2020
  9. 9. § Onondaga Lake Copyright Professor Zoe Todd 2020
  10. 10. § “Sid Hill, a leader of the Onondaga Nation, calls the cleanup project an expensive Band-Aid. He says the cleanup is not enough for a site that has important historic and cultural significance to his people. § "In seven generations, that's still going to be a Superfund site," Hill says. "For that amount of damage that they've done to the lake, it doesn't seem fair to the lake or to the people who use the lake.”” http://www.npr.org/2012/07/31/157413747/americas-most- polluted-lake-finally-comes-clean Copyright Professor Zoe Todd 2020
  11. 11. Onondaga Lake § https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PAC_PHfjIPc Copyright Professor Zoe Todd 2020
  12. 12. Honeywell http://slideplayer.com/slide/3839835/ § https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X1FiF9JcXg8 Copyright Professor Zoe Todd 2020
  13. 13. Learning Activity § Compare the Honeywell video with Kimmerer’s descriptions of efforts to restore/reclaim/re-incorporate Onandaga Lake into local kinship relations. Where do the film and her work converge? Where do they diverge? Why? What underlying worldviews shape both perspectives? Copyright Professor Zoe Todd 2020
  14. 14. TEK § Deborah McGregor (2006): § “What, then, is TEK? Well, depending on whom you ask, you will get a different response. Some Aboriginal scholars, such as Marie Battiste (Micmaq) and James Henderson (Cherokee), argue that it cannot and should not be defined as definitions of TEK vary from Nation to Nation and from individual to individual; reducing this diversity to more universal definitions, it is believed, is a first step in the Eurocentric process of separating TEK from its intended context. Others point out that TEK has been defined largely by non-Aboriginal academics, and that Aboriginal perspectives are conspicuously absent in the literature (a situation that is changing, slowly). Some practitioners, like Henry Lickers (Seneca from Six Nations of the Grand River and Director of Environment for the Mohawks of Akwesasne), reject the term altogether and substitute their own. A growing trend, then, is for Aboriginal people to generate their own definitions, and to use TEK as a label only in certain situations.” Copyright Professor Zoe Todd 2020
  15. 15. TEK: McGregor § TEK is not linear – it can be shared between generations in a circular way § TEK is a lived experience of knowledge about lands/waters/atmospheres/relations § TEK is hard work!: “No one called the principles by which we lived TEK—and they probably would have been amused if the idea had been presented to them. A far cry from the somewhat idealized descriptions bandied about in academic discussions, actually living and learning TEK was not at all glamorous— mostly just hard work.” (McGregor 2006: 1) Copyright Professor Zoe Todd 2020
  16. 16. TEK: Scott (2011) § It is only in moments of unusual reflexive insight, for example, that modern Westerners are conscious of the extent to which a (meta- )physics of impersonal forces imposes itself on our perception of “nature.” So embedded are the Cartesian myths of the dualities of mind-body, culturenature, that we tend to privilege models of physical causality, rather than relations of consciousness or significance, in our perception even of sentient nature. It is true that we have begun to culturalize animals in animal communications studies, and to naturalize culture in anthropological ecology. But our conventional attitude is to assume fundamental differences between people and animals, while exploring the nature of their connections. The Cree disposition seems rather the converse: to assume common connections among people, animals, and other entities while exploring the nature of their differences. The connectedness assumed by the Cree reminds me of what Gregory Bateson (1979) has termed the “pattern which connects,”4 patterns of dancing, interacting parts within larger patterns, the stories “shared by all mind or minds, whether ours or those of redwood forests and sea anemones,” the “aesthetic unity” of the world” p. 178-179 Copyright Professor Zoe Todd 2020
  17. 17. TEK: Paul Nadasdy(2003: 137) “The problem, I suggest, lies in the assumption that knowledge exists in discrete Epistemological systems. All attempt to conceptualize science necessarily take this assumption for granted. Indeed, most Western academics have a stake in distinguishing science from non-science because they wish either to preserve for science a privileged epistemological status (vis-à-vis other systems of knowledge) or to deny that status as unwarranted or ethnocentric (i.e. to argue that other knowledge systems are equally valid). Proponents and critics of science alike use the term “science” to stand for a collection of beliefs and practices, the actual meaning/content of which they take for granted. Even when scholars engage with one another in a struggle over whether some knowledge artifact qualifies as scientific, they need consider only the status of the contested artifact not the overall meaning/content of the term “science” itself.” Copyright Professor Zoe Todd 2020
  18. 18. TEK: Todd (me!) (2016:249-250) § “The problem is that the questions being asked about TEK versus science within the environmental/co-management literature, generally, are too narrow. The questions, essentially, need to look beyond framing Indigenous knowledge as analogous solely to science. Indigenous people are employing legal thinking that encompasses rights and duties of both human and more-than- human agents to one another, while scientists necessarily narrow the focus of their queries about animals and their behavior to the empirical field of science—behaviour, population size, movement. The nature-culture duality that informs Western scientific thinking prevents scientists from understanding that discussions about respecting animals, about appropriate human-animal relations, are in fact diplomatic, legal- governance, intra-nation conversations for Paulatuuqmiut.” (Zoe Todd, 2016, unpublished PhD thesis, University of Aberdeen) Copyright Professor Zoe Todd 2020
  19. 19. Learning question § How do the principles we started the term with – environmental racism – inform how the topic we are finishing with – TEK – inform how Indigenous and Black communities’ knowledges are understood by state/institutional actors in colonial contexts in Canada and the US? Copyright Professor Zoe Todd 2020

12. November 25: Traditional Ecological Knowledge Braiding Sweetgrass, Chapter 5, “Burning Sweetgrass” (pp.303-340) update: the page numbers don't correspond in all versions of the book so I'll start listing sections instead: Windigo Footprints, The Sacred and the Superfund McGregor, Deborah. 2006. “Traditional Ecological Knowledge”. Ideas: the Arts and Science Review, vol. 3, no. 1 http://www.silvafor.org/assets/silva/PDF/DebMcGregor.pdf Berkes, Fikret. 1999. Chapter 1: Context of Traditional Ecological Knowledge, pp. 1-16 in Sacred Ecology: Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Natural Resource Management. Philadelphia: Taylor and Francis. Scott, Colin. 2011 [1989]. “Science for the West, Myth for the Rest? The Case of James Bay Cree Knowledge Construction.” Pp. 175-197 in The Postcolonial Science and Technology Studies Reader edited by Sandra Harding. Durham: Duke University Press.

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