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#INDG 2015
• Week 11: “Indigenous ecological knowledges: Oceania and the Pacific”
• November 18, 2020
• Dr. Zoe Todd
Copyright Professor Zoe Todd 2020
Class outline
• Alice Te Punga Somerville: “Once were
Pacific”
• Tracey Banivanua Mar: “Saltwater: the
separation of people and
territory”Banivanu
• Kimmerer: Burning Cascade Head; Putting
Down Roots; Umbilicaria; Old Growth
Children; Witness to the Rain
Recap,
week 10
• Baofo et al. 2015
• IPACC. 2016.
• Keguro Macharia, “belated:
interruption”
• Hindou Oumarou Ibrahim “Indigenous
Knowledge meets Science to Solve
Climate Change”
Copyright Professor Zoe Todd 2020Sourcehttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pacific_Islander#/media/File:Oceania_UN_Geoscheme_Regions_with_Zones_and_ISO3166_labels.svg/
Source: https://www.geographicguide.com/oceania-map.htm
Countries in
Oceania
• “Oceania is a geographic region that
includes Australasia, Melanesia, Microne
sia and Polynesia.[5] Spanning
the Eastern and Western Hemispheres,
Oceania has a land area of 8,525,989
square kilometres (3,291,903 sq mi) and
a population of over 41 million.” source:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oceania
• “American Samoa - Australia - Cook
Islands - Federated States of Micronesia -
Fiji - French Polynesia - Guam - Kiribati -
Marshall Islands - Nauru - New Caledonia
- New Zealand - Niue - Northern Mariana
Islands - Palau - Papua New Guinea -
Pitcairn Islands - Samoa - Solomon
Islands - Tokelau - Tonga - Tuvalu-Vanuatu
- Wallis and Futuna.” source:
https://www.iucn.org/commissions/commission-ecosystem-
management/regions/oceania
Indigenous
Peoples
(IPs) in
Australia
and Oceania
• |”
Indigenous
Peoples
(IPs) in
Oceania
• “The indigenous people of Oceania are
Polynesians, Melanesians (including Torres
Strait Islanders), Micronesians, Papuans,
and Aboriginal Australians. With the
notable exceptions of Australia, New
Zealand, Hawaii, New Caledonia and Guam,
indigenous peoples make up the majority of
the populations of Oceania.”
Indigenous
Peoples
(IPs) in
Oceania and
Australia
Resources from Vehia Wheeler:
• Pacific:
McMillen, H., Ticktin, T., Friedlander, A., Jupiter, S., Thaman, R., Campbell, J.,
Veitayaki, J., Giambelluca, T., Nihmei, S., Rupeni, E. and Apis-Overhoff, L.,
2014. “Small islands, valuable insights: systems of customary resource use
and resilience to climate change in the Pacific.”
Ecology and Society, 19(4).
Marshall Islands:
Marshallese Poet, Kathy Jetnil-Kijner on sea-level rise and how it affects her
atoll island nation:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hGOuHoKrzBQ
Solidarity poem between Inuk poet, Aka Niviana and Marshallese poet,
Kathy Jetnil-Kijner about how climate change will affect their home islands:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HYf4yIYHVws
Resources from Vehia Wheeler, con’t
• Aotearoa/New Zealand:
Dr. Rangi Matamua, very amazing, award-winning Maori astronomer talks about stars and Maori and Hawai'i lunar
calendars "Dr Matamua has produced a number of publications in his specialist areas, and sits on a number of
related boards including Society for Māori Astronomy Research and Traditions (SMART)." from his bio at Waikato
University
https://nativestories.org/maori-astronomy-with-dr-rangi-matamua/
https://www.waikato.ac.nz/staff-profiles/people/rmatamua
Hawai'i:
Dr. Kiana Frank, Hawaiian microbiologist and how she uses traditional knowledges in her microbiology work, Na Kilo
Ao Maiki: Observing the Microbial Realm
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DQU6Fsgh2WE&t=43s
Dr. Mehana Vaughan, cultural and natural resource specialist from Kauai, Hawai'i
Pāwehe Ke Kai a‘o Hā‘ena: Creating State Law based on Customary Indigenous Norms of Coastal ManagementMB
Vaughan, B Thompson, AL Ayers Society & Natural Resources 30 (1), 31-46
Resources from Vehia Wheeler, con’t
• The Moku System: Managing biocultural resources for abundance within social-ecological regions in
HawaiʻiKB Winter, K Beamer, MB Vaughan, AM Friedlander, MH Kido, ... Sustainability 10 (10), 3554
• Australia and the bushfires of 2020:
https://www.culturalsurvival.org/publications/cultural-survival-quarterly/australia-burning-preventing-loss-
using-traditional
Korero o te orau, Cook Islands non-profit who does work on culturally-based science knowledge:
https://www.facebook.com/korerooteorau/
https://www.korerooteorau.org/focal-areas
SOS Mo'orea, non-profit located in Mo'orea, Tahiti that focuses on culturally-based science teaching to
tahitian youth (this is my non-profit! :) )
https://soceanias.com/
Twitter: https://twitter.com/soceanias
Aotearoa
“land of a long
white cloud”
Copyright Professor Zoe Todd 2020
https://www.andrewdc.co.nz/product/te-reo-maori-map-of-aotearoa-new-zealand-
print/
Alice Te Punga
Somerville
• Tensions between Māori experiences as
both Indigenous in Aoetearoa and
migrants in the Pacific:
“Certainly Māori once were Pacific. A series of
complex and impressive ocean journeys were
undertaken over the last five thousand years in an
unparalleled and unparallelable feat of navigaAon
and curiosity. The last legs of those deliberate
journeys were across unprecedented distances: to
Hawaı̒i, Rapanui (Easter Island/Isla de Pascua), and
Aotearoa.7” (p. xvi)
Alice Te
Punga
Somerville
“Once we arrived in Aotearoa, we began to recall
Hawaiki, the warmer homeland from which we had
physically departed and to which we would
spiritually return after death.11 Hawaiki is a
consolidation of our Pacific origins, and around
Polynesia this mythical homeland bears versions of
the same name. Whereas this Pacific is recalled in
some specific spaces, however, our location (both on
the cold islands of Aotearoa and in the nation-state
of New Zealand) has shaped how we articulate who
we are. Although Māori are ethnically Polynesian
and Aotearoa is clearly a part of the Pacific region,
within the New Zealand national space, Māori and
Pacific colloquially refer to two distinct communities:
Māori are Indigenous, whereas Pacific refers to those
migrant communities from elsewhere in the region.
It can feel like we once were Pacific but are no
longer, and this book explores the ways in which the
relationship between Māori and the Pacific has been
articulated over a long period of time and in multiple
sites.” (p. xvii)
Te Ika a Māui
• “When we are on Matiu, we are in the mouth of a fish. Before the North Island
was given its descriptive, poetic, and creative English name, it had another name
that we still use: “Te Ika a Māui.” This name is derived from the original fishing up
of the island by Māui, the trickster demigod figure who pops up all around the
Pacific. Māui took his grandmother Murirangawhenua’s jawbone and fished up te
ika, the memory of which is still encoded in the name for the various parts of the
fish. One end of the island is called “Te Hiku o te Ika,” the “tail of the fish,” and
Wellington is located at the other end: “Te Ūpoko o te Ika,” the “head of the fish.”
Māui’s hook went into the mouth of the fish, which (according to my relatives) is
our harbor. This is a story of firstness: as long as there has been a fish, there have
been us. When we introduce ourselves to other Māori people, we name the
mountains, lakes, rivers, and harbors to which we are related so they know who
we are. We are standing in the mouth of a fish on which our people have always
lived, and on this basis, we are Indigenous.” (p. xviii)
Te Ika a Māui
• hJps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H7nyFunHx9A&ab_channel=Stor
yIsKingMedia
Te Punga Somerville“When we stand on Matiu,
we are standing on a
memorial to our collective
voyaging from across the
ocean we know as Te
Moananui a Kiwa. On this
basis, we are migrants; we
are Pacific” p.xviii
Once were
Pacific
Copyright Professor Zoe Todd 2020
“The project of decolonization in which all Indigenous
people are engaged demands the grappling with, not
the erasure of, colonization; it is about re-
remembering.” p. xix
• https://www.facebook.com/
matthew.tukaki/videos/the-
story-of-maori-
migration/223702910974810
5/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M%C4%81ori_m
igration_canoes#/media/File:Polynesian_Migra
tion.svg
Te Punga Somerville
• “How do Māori ar[culate and nego[ate the rather difficult
intersec[on between discourses of migra[on (we came from Hawaiki
on waka) and claims to Indigeneity (we’ve always been here)?
Claiming that we once were Pacific does not undermine or
delegi[mize na[onal or transna[onal discursive forma[ons that seal
Māori into one of two possible rela[ons—with the state or with
Indigeneity—but rather suggests that the Pacific is a rich and
significant addi[onal context for Māori ar[cula[on and scholarship.”
(p. xxi)
“On the other side of the world, when war ended in 1945, a loose coalition
of labour unions, student and women’s organisations, the Pan-African
Federation and anti-colonial organisations from throughout the British
Empire met at the HolbornTown Hall in London under the banner of the
‘All Colonial People’s Conference’. Its name was a play on earlier meetings
held by world powers in Moscow, Dumbarton Oaks and San Francisco as
another new world order of united nations was mapped out. The opening
session of the All Colonial People’s Conference called for elected representatives
of subject peoples to be invited to participate on ‘terms of absolute
equality’ at the United Nations meetings then taking place in San Francisco.
The London Conference was attended by forty delegates and twenty-five
observers representing ‘Burma, India, West Africa, East Africa, Malaya, the
West Indies and other colonies’, and speaker Iqbal Singh remarked that
despite the diversity of voices, he was struck by the unity of their story, that of
‘degradation imposed upon the human spirit by imperialism’.5 Delegates at
the All Colonial People’s Conference produced a manifesto, The Colonies
and Peace, which asserted that imperialism was the root cause of war and
only ‘liberation from [its] tentacles’ would ensure peace.6 Delegates called
for a World Colonial Council, to replace the Permanent Mandates Council,
that would be run by representatives of colonised countries rather than
imperial powers. Its task would be to formulate a programme for
the unconditional and immediate ending of colonialism.” p. 115
•Tracey
Banivanua
Mar:
“Saltwater:
the
separation
of people
and
territory”
The impact of WW2 on Pacific Islands was significant:
Saltwater
(Tracey
Banivanua
Mar)
Kimmerer
• This weeks’ readings covered many things,
including: Cedars, salmon, west coast
ecosystems
• Burning Cascade Head, Pu=ng Down Roots,
Umbilicaria, Old Growth Children, Witness to
the Rain
Salmon
- Kimmerer provides us insight into salmon/human
relaqons on the West coast in Burning Cascade
Head
google.com
Salmon Source: http://www.pac.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/fm-gp/rec/identify-identifier-eng.html
Coast Salish
salmon
relations
h$ps://www.youtube.com
/watch?v=nYFXdOLMJIQ
Estuaries
• http://slideplayer.com/slide/3839835/
Wolves, fish, water,
plants
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ysa5OB
hXz-Q
Super Salmon
• https://vimeo.com/169336239
• Watch this video (approximately 30 minutes).
• FOLLOW UP QUESTION: what is included in the story.
Who is missing? Why do you think the communities
included are included? Why are certain communities
not included?
• Drawing on the teachings we have covered about
reciprocity and collective governance, how would you
approach this story if you could re-film and edit it?
Summary
• Alice Te Punga Somerville: aJen[on to
local rela[onships to place and
connec[ons to broader homelands
(Indigeneity and migra[on are
interconnected)
• Tracey Banivanua Mar: histories of
imperialism in Pacific following WW2 –
liJle aJen[on is paid in US/Europe to
the coloniza[on of Indigenous
peoples/na[ons throughout the
Pacific
Final reflection
question
• How can we apply the issues raised in this
week’s readings to thinking about topics we
have explored in other parts of the term? For
example, how does Alice Te Punga
Somerville’s conversaBon about
Indigeneity/migraBon in a Māori and Pacific
context help illuminate quesBons about
Indigeneity/migraBon in other regions we
have been learning from this term?

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#INDG2015 Week 11 November 18: Introduction to Environmental Knowledges in Oceania

  • 1. #INDG 2015 • Week 11: “Indigenous ecological knowledges: Oceania and the Pacific” • November 18, 2020 • Dr. Zoe Todd Copyright Professor Zoe Todd 2020
  • 2. Class outline • Alice Te Punga Somerville: “Once were Pacific” • Tracey Banivanua Mar: “Saltwater: the separation of people and territory”Banivanu • Kimmerer: Burning Cascade Head; Putting Down Roots; Umbilicaria; Old Growth Children; Witness to the Rain
  • 3. Recap, week 10 • Baofo et al. 2015 • IPACC. 2016. • Keguro Macharia, “belated: interruption” • Hindou Oumarou Ibrahim “Indigenous Knowledge meets Science to Solve Climate Change”
  • 4. Copyright Professor Zoe Todd 2020Sourcehttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pacific_Islander#/media/File:Oceania_UN_Geoscheme_Regions_with_Zones_and_ISO3166_labels.svg/
  • 6. Countries in Oceania • “Oceania is a geographic region that includes Australasia, Melanesia, Microne sia and Polynesia.[5] Spanning the Eastern and Western Hemispheres, Oceania has a land area of 8,525,989 square kilometres (3,291,903 sq mi) and a population of over 41 million.” source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oceania • “American Samoa - Australia - Cook Islands - Federated States of Micronesia - Fiji - French Polynesia - Guam - Kiribati - Marshall Islands - Nauru - New Caledonia - New Zealand - Niue - Northern Mariana Islands - Palau - Papua New Guinea - Pitcairn Islands - Samoa - Solomon Islands - Tokelau - Tonga - Tuvalu-Vanuatu - Wallis and Futuna.” source: https://www.iucn.org/commissions/commission-ecosystem- management/regions/oceania
  • 7. Indigenous Peoples (IPs) in Australia and Oceania • |” Indigenous Peoples (IPs) in Oceania • “The indigenous people of Oceania are Polynesians, Melanesians (including Torres Strait Islanders), Micronesians, Papuans, and Aboriginal Australians. With the notable exceptions of Australia, New Zealand, Hawaii, New Caledonia and Guam, indigenous peoples make up the majority of the populations of Oceania.”
  • 8. Indigenous Peoples (IPs) in Oceania and Australia Resources from Vehia Wheeler: • Pacific: McMillen, H., Ticktin, T., Friedlander, A., Jupiter, S., Thaman, R., Campbell, J., Veitayaki, J., Giambelluca, T., Nihmei, S., Rupeni, E. and Apis-Overhoff, L., 2014. “Small islands, valuable insights: systems of customary resource use and resilience to climate change in the Pacific.” Ecology and Society, 19(4). Marshall Islands: Marshallese Poet, Kathy Jetnil-Kijner on sea-level rise and how it affects her atoll island nation: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hGOuHoKrzBQ Solidarity poem between Inuk poet, Aka Niviana and Marshallese poet, Kathy Jetnil-Kijner about how climate change will affect their home islands: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HYf4yIYHVws
  • 9. Resources from Vehia Wheeler, con’t • Aotearoa/New Zealand: Dr. Rangi Matamua, very amazing, award-winning Maori astronomer talks about stars and Maori and Hawai'i lunar calendars "Dr Matamua has produced a number of publications in his specialist areas, and sits on a number of related boards including Society for Māori Astronomy Research and Traditions (SMART)." from his bio at Waikato University https://nativestories.org/maori-astronomy-with-dr-rangi-matamua/ https://www.waikato.ac.nz/staff-profiles/people/rmatamua Hawai'i: Dr. Kiana Frank, Hawaiian microbiologist and how she uses traditional knowledges in her microbiology work, Na Kilo Ao Maiki: Observing the Microbial Realm • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DQU6Fsgh2WE&t=43s Dr. Mehana Vaughan, cultural and natural resource specialist from Kauai, Hawai'i Pāwehe Ke Kai a‘o Hā‘ena: Creating State Law based on Customary Indigenous Norms of Coastal ManagementMB Vaughan, B Thompson, AL Ayers Society & Natural Resources 30 (1), 31-46
  • 10. Resources from Vehia Wheeler, con’t • The Moku System: Managing biocultural resources for abundance within social-ecological regions in HawaiʻiKB Winter, K Beamer, MB Vaughan, AM Friedlander, MH Kido, ... Sustainability 10 (10), 3554 • Australia and the bushfires of 2020: https://www.culturalsurvival.org/publications/cultural-survival-quarterly/australia-burning-preventing-loss- using-traditional Korero o te orau, Cook Islands non-profit who does work on culturally-based science knowledge: https://www.facebook.com/korerooteorau/ https://www.korerooteorau.org/focal-areas SOS Mo'orea, non-profit located in Mo'orea, Tahiti that focuses on culturally-based science teaching to tahitian youth (this is my non-profit! :) ) https://soceanias.com/ Twitter: https://twitter.com/soceanias
  • 11. Aotearoa “land of a long white cloud” Copyright Professor Zoe Todd 2020 https://www.andrewdc.co.nz/product/te-reo-maori-map-of-aotearoa-new-zealand- print/
  • 12. Alice Te Punga Somerville • Tensions between Māori experiences as both Indigenous in Aoetearoa and migrants in the Pacific: “Certainly Māori once were Pacific. A series of complex and impressive ocean journeys were undertaken over the last five thousand years in an unparalleled and unparallelable feat of navigaAon and curiosity. The last legs of those deliberate journeys were across unprecedented distances: to Hawaı̒i, Rapanui (Easter Island/Isla de Pascua), and Aotearoa.7” (p. xvi)
  • 13. Alice Te Punga Somerville “Once we arrived in Aotearoa, we began to recall Hawaiki, the warmer homeland from which we had physically departed and to which we would spiritually return after death.11 Hawaiki is a consolidation of our Pacific origins, and around Polynesia this mythical homeland bears versions of the same name. Whereas this Pacific is recalled in some specific spaces, however, our location (both on the cold islands of Aotearoa and in the nation-state of New Zealand) has shaped how we articulate who we are. Although Māori are ethnically Polynesian and Aotearoa is clearly a part of the Pacific region, within the New Zealand national space, Māori and Pacific colloquially refer to two distinct communities: Māori are Indigenous, whereas Pacific refers to those migrant communities from elsewhere in the region. It can feel like we once were Pacific but are no longer, and this book explores the ways in which the relationship between Māori and the Pacific has been articulated over a long period of time and in multiple sites.” (p. xvii)
  • 14. Te Ika a Māui • “When we are on Matiu, we are in the mouth of a fish. Before the North Island was given its descriptive, poetic, and creative English name, it had another name that we still use: “Te Ika a Māui.” This name is derived from the original fishing up of the island by Māui, the trickster demigod figure who pops up all around the Pacific. Māui took his grandmother Murirangawhenua’s jawbone and fished up te ika, the memory of which is still encoded in the name for the various parts of the fish. One end of the island is called “Te Hiku o te Ika,” the “tail of the fish,” and Wellington is located at the other end: “Te Ūpoko o te Ika,” the “head of the fish.” Māui’s hook went into the mouth of the fish, which (according to my relatives) is our harbor. This is a story of firstness: as long as there has been a fish, there have been us. When we introduce ourselves to other Māori people, we name the mountains, lakes, rivers, and harbors to which we are related so they know who we are. We are standing in the mouth of a fish on which our people have always lived, and on this basis, we are Indigenous.” (p. xviii)
  • 15. Te Ika a Māui • hJps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H7nyFunHx9A&ab_channel=Stor yIsKingMedia
  • 16. Te Punga Somerville“When we stand on Matiu, we are standing on a memorial to our collective voyaging from across the ocean we know as Te Moananui a Kiwa. On this basis, we are migrants; we are Pacific” p.xviii
  • 17. Once were Pacific Copyright Professor Zoe Todd 2020 “The project of decolonization in which all Indigenous people are engaged demands the grappling with, not the erasure of, colonization; it is about re- remembering.” p. xix
  • 19. Te Punga Somerville • “How do Māori ar[culate and nego[ate the rather difficult intersec[on between discourses of migra[on (we came from Hawaiki on waka) and claims to Indigeneity (we’ve always been here)? Claiming that we once were Pacific does not undermine or delegi[mize na[onal or transna[onal discursive forma[ons that seal Māori into one of two possible rela[ons—with the state or with Indigeneity—but rather suggests that the Pacific is a rich and significant addi[onal context for Māori ar[cula[on and scholarship.” (p. xxi)
  • 20. “On the other side of the world, when war ended in 1945, a loose coalition of labour unions, student and women’s organisations, the Pan-African Federation and anti-colonial organisations from throughout the British Empire met at the HolbornTown Hall in London under the banner of the ‘All Colonial People’s Conference’. Its name was a play on earlier meetings held by world powers in Moscow, Dumbarton Oaks and San Francisco as another new world order of united nations was mapped out. The opening session of the All Colonial People’s Conference called for elected representatives of subject peoples to be invited to participate on ‘terms of absolute equality’ at the United Nations meetings then taking place in San Francisco. The London Conference was attended by forty delegates and twenty-five observers representing ‘Burma, India, West Africa, East Africa, Malaya, the West Indies and other colonies’, and speaker Iqbal Singh remarked that despite the diversity of voices, he was struck by the unity of their story, that of ‘degradation imposed upon the human spirit by imperialism’.5 Delegates at the All Colonial People’s Conference produced a manifesto, The Colonies and Peace, which asserted that imperialism was the root cause of war and only ‘liberation from [its] tentacles’ would ensure peace.6 Delegates called for a World Colonial Council, to replace the Permanent Mandates Council, that would be run by representatives of colonised countries rather than imperial powers. Its task would be to formulate a programme for the unconditional and immediate ending of colonialism.” p. 115 •Tracey Banivanua Mar: “Saltwater: the separation of people and territory”
  • 21. The impact of WW2 on Pacific Islands was significant:
  • 23. Kimmerer • This weeks’ readings covered many things, including: Cedars, salmon, west coast ecosystems • Burning Cascade Head, Pu=ng Down Roots, Umbilicaria, Old Growth Children, Witness to the Rain
  • 24. Salmon - Kimmerer provides us insight into salmon/human relaqons on the West coast in Burning Cascade Head google.com
  • 28. Wolves, fish, water, plants • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ysa5OB hXz-Q
  • 29. Super Salmon • https://vimeo.com/169336239 • Watch this video (approximately 30 minutes). • FOLLOW UP QUESTION: what is included in the story. Who is missing? Why do you think the communities included are included? Why are certain communities not included? • Drawing on the teachings we have covered about reciprocity and collective governance, how would you approach this story if you could re-film and edit it?
  • 30. Summary • Alice Te Punga Somerville: aJen[on to local rela[onships to place and connec[ons to broader homelands (Indigeneity and migra[on are interconnected) • Tracey Banivanua Mar: histories of imperialism in Pacific following WW2 – liJle aJen[on is paid in US/Europe to the coloniza[on of Indigenous peoples/na[ons throughout the Pacific
  • 31. Final reflection question • How can we apply the issues raised in this week’s readings to thinking about topics we have explored in other parts of the term? For example, how does Alice Te Punga Somerville’s conversaBon about Indigeneity/migraBon in a Māori and Pacific context help illuminate quesBons about Indigeneity/migraBon in other regions we have been learning from this term?