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Indg 2015 week 3 slides 2020 public

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Week 3 slides for #INDG2015

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Indg 2015 week 3 slides 2020 public

  1. 1. INDG 2015 Week 3: Indigenous ecological ways of knowing, North America Copyright Professor Zoe Todd please do not reproduce or share without written permission from the author
  2. 2. Week 2 Recap § Environmental racism | What examples did we explore last week? § Kimmerer: | Skywoman story (a Haudenosaunee origin story -- how North America was formed; relationality, reciprocity), Council of Pecans (collectivity), Gift of Strawberries (gift economy), An Offering (giving thanks), Asters and Goldenrod (complementarity) Copyright Professor Zoe Todd please do not reproduce or share without written permission from the author
  3. 3. Week 2 human-environmental relations, environmental racism, colonization, and Indigenous Studies,an introduction § Objectives for Today’s Class | Watershed activity to place yourself in relation to watersheds | Kimmerer: relationality and reciprocity, continued | Vanessa Watts, Nicholas Reo: ecological ways of knowing, relationality Copyright Professor Zoe Todd please do not reproduce or share without written permission from the author
  4. 4. Watershed Activity § To sensitize participants to the waterscapes of the territory Carleton is situated in | Expand awareness of Indigenous territories beyond the abstract to more concrete/tangible factors | Consider relationship to space and place and its role in principles such as ‘nature’ and ‘culture’ Copyright Professor Zoe Todd please do not reproduce or share without written permission from the author
  5. 5. Professor Todd’s watershed activity* § Normally, over the last five years, we would do this in class, as a group, but this is adapted to pandemic realities! § Supplies: pens/pencils, post-it notes or paper and tape Step 1: § Take five minutes to write down the names of three or more waterways that are important to you (whether a creek, pond, lake, river, delta, ocean) Copyright Professor Zoe Todd please do not reproduce or share without written permission from the author *Please do not recreate this activity without credit and permission from Dr. Zoe Todd
  6. 6. Professor Todd’s Watershed Activity § Label the waterways | Place post-it notes on the walls that correspond with the direction of the waterways around us (in relation to the room you are in) Copyright Professor Zoe Todd please do not reproduce or share without written permission from the author
  7. 7. Professor Todd’s watershed activity, Part 2 § Further explanation: tape the post-it notes or pieces of paper onto the walls of the room you are in, corresponding with the direction that this body of water is to where you are (for example, if the Ottawa River is north of your house, tape its name on a north wall of your room) Copyright Professor Zoe Todd please do not reproduce or share without written permission from the author
  8. 8. Discussion § Take a few moments to contemplate the waterways – what do they mean to you? § Do you ever think about where these water bodies are in relation to where you are as you go about your day? § If you have time, try the following activity for the next week: pause once or twice a day and orient yourself towards the nearest body of water and any bodies of water significant for you. How does this change your relationship to the lands you are in? Copyright Professor Zoe Todd please do not reproduce or share without written permission from the author
  9. 9. Activity: debrief “[T]this territory that we’re all on today is the territory of my ancestors. And this particular place that we’re all gathered on this evening used to be the gathering place of my ancestors, and the river that you see behind us used to be their travel-ways. And that used to be their traditional highways. So I wanted you to think about that. Think about the Algonquin people who traditionally inhabited this territory, think about the fact that this is on unceded and unsurrendered traditional Algonquin territory, and that we as Anishinaabek people still have a lot to discuss with Canada.” –Caitlin Tolley, Pierre Elliott Trudeau Foundation Conference, Ottawa, November 2015 Copyright Professor Zoe Todd please do not reproduce or share without written permission from the author Land is often emphasized in conversations about homelands, territories, however:
  10. 10. How did we do? Source: maps.google.com Copyright Professor Zoe Todd please do not reproduce or share without written permission from the author Maps for Ottawa – did you include any local waterways?
  11. 11. How did we do? http://www.ottawariverkeeper.ca/map-gallery/ Copyright Professor Zoe Todd please do not reproduce or share without written permission from the author Did you consider the direction of flow in these waterways?
  12. 12. Copyright Professor Zoe Todd please do not reproduce or share without written permission from the author • How do waterways and Indigenous homelands in Canada correspond to one another? • Are they connected? • Why would that be? Watershed activity, continued
  13. 13. https://equitableeducation.ca/wordpress/wp- content/uploads/Map-Ottawa_watershed-Mar23_2014.jpg Copyright Professor Zoe Todd please do not reproduce or share without written permission from the author How do the communities listed here correspond with the Ottawa river watershed? Whose homelands does this map represent? (click on link for higher resolution image) Watershed activity, continued
  14. 14. Some final thoughts § http://www.canadiangeographic.com/educational_products /activities/tiled_lake_winnipeg_watershed/lake-winnipeg- watershed.pdf § As Metis scholar Darren O’Toole points out (personal communication), the Red River Métis nation’s political formation is closely tied to the Lake Winnipeg Watershed. Copyright Professor Zoe Todd please do not reproduce or share without written permission from the author
  15. 15. Kimmerer: The grammar of animacy § As Kimmerer explains - Potawatomi (and many other Indigenous languages in the US/Canada) are verb based not noun based § What does this mean? | Locus of of a verb-based language is action, being vs owning, possession, ‘things’ in noun-based language | “1) There is a lot of verbal morphology in this language (prefixes, suffixes, conjugated tenses, and a wealth of other information encoded into verbs,) but very little for nouns, 2) Base words or root forms are typically verbs, and noun forms often have to be expressed by adapting a verb or using a phrase.” (source: http://www.native- languages.org/definitions/verb-based.htm) Copyright Professor Zoe Todd please do not reproduce or share without written permission from the author
  16. 16. The Grammar of Animacy § “I come here to listen, to nestle in the curve of the roots in a soft hollow of pine needles, to lean my bones against the column of white pine, to turn off the voice in my head until I can hear the voices outside it: the shhh of wind in needles, water trickling over rock, nuthatch tapping, chipmunks digging, beechnut falling, mosquito in my ear, and something more—something that is not me, for we have no language, the wordless being of others in which in which we are never alone. After the drumbeat of my mother’s heart, this was my first language.” Kimmerer 2013, p. 46. Copyright Professor Zoe Todd please do not reproduce or share without written permission from the author
  17. 17. What does it mean to ‘be a bay’ § Take a moment to consider this action § What does it mean to ‘be a bay’, as the word for bay (wiikwegamaa) denotes in Bodewadmimwin (Potawatomi language) § How do you come to know how a bay is | Sound, sight, smell, feel – by visiting a bay, by moving through it | A verb based language invites you to invoke place, relationships in order to understand concepts, words, worlds Copyright Professor Zoe Todd please do not reproduce or share without written permission from the author
  18. 18. The Grammar of Animacy § Kimmerer invites us to consider how our relationships to place and being shift if we use a verb-based language -- an ontology (reality/being/existence) that is rooted in reciprocal relationships vs an ontology rooted in the possibility of ownership. You cannot own land if your entire cosmology/worldview and language centres always co-constituting relationships to something/someone vs owning and commanding inanimate things (ie: English) Copyright Professor Zoe Todd please do not reproduce or share without written permission from the author
  19. 19. § How can you apply a grammar of animacy in how you approach environmental issues in your own life? | How would you speak differently about more-than-human beings or environmental relationships if they were no longer things but actions/beings/agents in their own right? Copyright Professor Zoe Todd please do not reproduce or share without written permission from the author
  20. 20. Maple Sugar Moon § How did humans come to learn about maple sugar? § Why is access to maple sap so important at the particular time of year that it runs? | Who benefits from access to maple sap? Make a list of creatures (human and nonhuman) | Why did maple sap become watered down, according to Anishinaabe or Potawatomi oral history? | What key concepts are invoked through relationships to maple sap? • Reciprocity, nonhuman agency, animal teachings (squirrels and maples have things to teach us), gift economy Copyright Professor Zoe Todd please do not reproduce or share without written permission from the author
  21. 21. Witch Hazel/Hazel Barnett § “There ain’t hardly no hurt the woods don’t have medicine for.” – Hazel Barnett quoted by Robin Wall Kimmerer’s daughter, p. 77 Copyright Professor Zoe Todd please do not reproduce or share without written permission from the author
  22. 22. § “Land sakes, flowers in November. The good Lord gave us witch hazel to remind us that there’s always somethin’ good even when it seems like there ain’t.” – Hazel Barnett, quoted by Robin Wall Kimmerer’s daughter, p. 77 Copyright Professor Zoe Todd please do not reproduce or share without written permission from the author
  23. 23. Week 3 § Vanessa Watts | Indigenous Place-Thought | “habitats and ecosystems are better understood as societies from an Indigenous point of view; meaning that they have ethical structures, inter-species treaties and agreements, and further their ability to interpret, understand and implement. Non-human beings are active members of society. Not only are they active, they also directly influence how humans organize themselves into that society...Human thought and action are therefore derived from a literal expression of particular places and historical events in Haudenosaunee and Anishnaabe cosmologies” (Watts 2013: 23). Copyright Professor Zoe Todd please do not reproduce or share without written permission from the author
  24. 24. Watts: Indigenous place-thought § Take a moment to write out a short summary of this article for yourself § What key concepts stood out for you? | Place is sentient | In an Anishinaabeg/Haudenosaunee perspective (such as Watts’): “human beings are literal extensions of territory’ (Watts, Common World Childhoods Talk, 2015) Copyright Professor Zoe Todd please do not reproduce or share
  25. 25. Vanessa Watts § Supplemental Material: Dr. Watts’ talk § “Indians, Animals, Dirt: Place-Thought and Agency” § https://www.youtu be.com/watch?v=0 G_5HzzA_vk&ab_c hannel=CommonW orldChildhoods Copyright Professor Zoe Todd please do not reproduce or share without written permission from the author
  26. 26. Land as a sentient being with agency *Styres, 2019 § Sandra Styres: “Placefulness is not something independent from Land but exists within the nuanced contexts of Land. Land reaches boundaries of place by embodying the principles, philosophies, and ontologies that transcend the material geography of land and the making of place or placefulness. With this understanding in mind, Land is more than the diaphonousness of inhabited memories; Land is spiritual, emotional and relational; Land is experiential, (re)membered, and storied; Land is consciousness - Land is sentient.” (Styres 2019: 27) § Styres, Sandra 2019 Literacies of Land: Decolonizing narratives, storying and literature in Tuhiwai Smith, Linda, Tuck, Eve and Yang, K. Wayne (Eds) Indigenizing and Decolonizing Studies in Education: Mapping the Long View. New York and London: Routledge. 24-38. Copyright Professor Zoe Todd please do not reproduce or share without written permission from the author
  27. 27. § Nicholas Reo | Reciprocity with nonhumans shapes our research methodologies | Reciprocity is key to Indigenous research methodologies Copyright Professor Zoe Todd please do not reproduce or share without written permission from the author Reo: Inawendiwin
  28. 28. Week 3 § Reo (2019): § “When researchers focus their attention on building and maintaining relationships, the connection between ontology and epistemology in ethnobiology becomes more clear. Rather than pondering what plant ontologies might look like, we can speak to plants. Whether or not as individual researchers we are ready to speak and listen to plants (or animals) directly in our work, we can set up our research collaborations, professional meetings, and classes in ways that make room for and value Indigeneity.” (Reo 2019: 68) Copyright Professor Zoe Todd please do not reproduce or share without written permission from the author
  29. 29. § Supplemental material on Dr. Reo’s work: (read/listen) https://www.cbc.ca/radio/unrese rved/earth-day-indigenous- scientists-academics-and- community-members-take-the- lead-in-environmental-causes- 1.4605336/every-plant-and- animal-is-useful-to-us- indigenous-professor-re- thinking-how-we-deal-with- invasive-species-1 Copyright Professor Zoe Todd please do not reproduce or share without written permission from the author
  30. 30. Week 2 § In-Class reflection | How does reciprocity with more-than-human beings relate to your own work? Copyright Professor Zoe Todd please do not reproduce or share without written permission from the author

Week 3 slides for #INDG2015

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