Photography book pro forma


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Photography book pro forma

  1. 1. Photography Applications Henry Buckham 1
  2. 2. Advertising/Promotional Photography Advertising photography describes photographs that are taken with the express purpose of selling a specific product or service. Typically, images like this are very heavily edited, using a variety of artificial light techniques, saturation, smoothing and post processing techniques that make the product stand out to the viewer. Advertising appears in many forms, being quite prominent in magazines and the internet. Advertising photographs are usually some of the most controlled images in the industry. Attention is giving to lighting and effects as a good setup can really bring out the product and it’s features. For example, advertising a car on a blank infinity curve background with the right lighting can highlight every curve and edge of the car’s shape, making it look much more stylish and eye-catching than it would in real life. Advertising photographs are not limited to an artificial setup. The bottom example of an Aeroflot advertisement uses an ambient lighting style with elements of some editing-light rays and the use of black and white which reflects the intended advertisement, that Aeroflot is a luxurious and stylish airline. The positioning of the aeroplane in the background is at such an angle that it looks focused and dominating to the viewer. A famous example of an advertising photographer is Italian Riccardo Suriano, who is primarily known for his work with sports manufacturer Nike. Suriano’s photographs are typically very bold in colour, saturation and glow, and feature the models in the foreground, in very dominating or confident poses with the advertised company logos clearly visible to the viewer.
  3. 3. Use this slide to annotate an archetype image Image is extremely saturated and colourful with the colours of the seats and grass creating a very bold contrast. Model is in a dominating and confident pose with her head high and her hands on her hips. Nike logo is in the center of the vest and is black on a white garmentextremely visible to the viewer. The image of the stadium is an observational set but the model was likely shot in a studio and then doctored in during production. This is to add the edge to the image as the model is in a location that would be difficult to shoot in real life-hiring an empty stadium may be very expensive. Model has been edited to ‘glow’ slightly, giving the interpretation that she is a heroic or powerful figure. There is a large amount of airbrushing present, as normal skin in real life would have all sorts of spots and blemishes, whereas the model has been edited to have perfect skin.
  4. 4. Fashion Photography Fashion photography is quite similar to advertising imagery in the techniques used but is more suited to selling clothes and garments to consumers with heavy usage of models. Typically, many photoshoots use idealized people who represent what we want to be-tall and handsome for males and beautiful and sexy for women. This style of photography uses similar cues to advertising, with lots of artificial light, controlled posing, post processing and editing to make the models and clothing stand out, and look spotless and unblemished. Fashion photography is very common in lifestyle magazines, and usually found in catalogues supplied by large clothing companies such as Next or M&S. Fashion photography can use both outdoor and studio environments to make the products stand out. Outdoor environments are usually praised because it allows us to see the outfit in everyday life. Studio shoots allow us to look at the outfit in great detail and without anything to steal our attention. Models who work in this industry are most of the time if not always posed in a very specialised manner that shows off the clothing in a certain way-males modelling suits seen to the right are posed in a way that resembles them walking confidently towards the camera, while women who are modelling clothes tend to be posed in sexy or stylish poses. A famous fashion photographer is Richard Avedon, whose works have been noted for brining out the flair and personality of his models in their shoots, using intricate editing and carefully altered lighting that highlights his models and the dominating aspects of the images. Fashion photography is very important for clothing retailers in selling their wares as it allows their products to be shown in a light that can’t be achieved by other products. Seeing the clothes on actual people can encourage potential buyers as they can ‘see it in action’.
  5. 5. Dovima with Elephants – Richard Avedon The model is placed in the very center of the image, allowing her pose to grace the image and capture the viewer’s attention. Photograph has not been taken in a studio but what appears to be the elephant’s enclosure ‘rule of thirds’ shows the left elephant in the first third, the model in the centre, and the right elephant in the last. Usage of the elephants in this photograph suggests a down-toearth, natural mood.
  6. 6. Photojournalism Photojournalism is an application of photography that produces images that are used to tell a story in the news. These types of images are very commonly observant, and lack an abundance of post-production, making them quite raw and unmolested in terms of source which usually contributes to the intended message, as many examples of photojournalism depict war or conflict. As photojournalism’s intended purpose is relaying news stories in a visual format, they are most commonly found in newspapers and other news outlets, such as blogs or websites. The aim of photojournalism is to tell a story using the image itself, with the story only providing more info. Viewers should be able to look at a photo like this and get the message immediately. Photojournalism pictures can vary greatly in their subject and application, such as sports and lifestyle, but most commonly they are seen for major new stories around the globe. These images are very commonly designed to capture the heat of a news story, or the big events. If a war was being documented via photojournalism, the photographer would most likely take their photos focusing on the actual fighting, or the consequences of the war itself, seen in the landscape or civilians. They are more than often designed to evoke feelings by showing distressing or graphic scenes. However, this means that sometimes journalists can control the intended outlook on these events by hiding or censoring certain scenes. A very famous photojournalist was Eddie Adams, who was the photographer of the famous Saigon 1968 image seen on the right. The effect of this image was not just seen in Adams, who said that it haunted him for most of his life, but also in the American public, who saw that just a single image could change their entire view on the current Vietnam War. The black & white colours coupled with the raw unedited nature of the photograph ensured that American citizens saw the true face of the conflict.
  7. 7. Saigon, 1968 – Eddie Adams Parts of the image are quite grainy and blurry which adds a level of obscurity. Both figures are in the center and thus dominant in attention The man’s expression is very clearly shown, highlighting the horror and anguish. To add to the very horrific feel of the image, the shooting has been photographed in a normal city street. Both men are against what looks like a very bleak backdrop, adding to the melancholic feel of the image. The ‘rule of thirds’ rule very much applies here, with one third being the man being shot, the middle being the gun and the shooter’s arm, and the leftmost being the shooter.
  8. 8. Portraiture Portraiture is the application of photographing people’s faces for a number of different uses, be it for news stories, documentaries, personal mementos, or for record keeping. The most common forms of portraiture have always been for an artistic purpose, and can either be self-portraits or taken by an external photographer. Other practical uses of portraiture may be photographing a person for use on official documents or in police records. The typical setup for portraits can vary but many follow a similar set of rules. Most if not all portraits are candid as the shots are close up, so the person being photographed has likely posed or prepared themselves beforehand. The shots are not limited to the face, and can include the entire body in a variety of poses. The setting can vary from being a studio to being shot outside, in the person’s environment or familiar location such as their home. Altered or artificial lighting is also very commonly used, allowing photographers to highlight the desired features of the person’s face. This can also prevent shadowing which obscures certain features. The typical people that appear in portraits are part of a very wide range. Family portraits are becoming popular with families as many studios can offer high quality prints. In past years however, portraits were mostly reserved for famous figures or high-class nobility who could afford the costs of a photographer. One of the world’s most famous photographers was Armenian Yousuf Karsh, who photographed a huge number of celebrities and famous figures over his lifetime, including the famous portrait of Winston Churchill. Karsh’s photographs showed a great deal of style and clarity, as well as defining an entire era of portraiture with his usage of lighting and poses.
  9. 9. Use this slide to annotate an archetype image Focus is on the subject as the background is very slightly blurred. Subject is in the centre of the picture and facing towards the camera. Closeup show’s that Churchill’s left elbow was left out in order to include his full upper body.
  10. 10. High Street High Street photography is a relatively new application of photography that describes studios that offer photography services for the public – for a fee people can have themselves professionally photographed with friends and family. The main usage of high street photography is getting high quality photographs to cherish or keep, and they are quite common of gifts. This kind of photography could also be seen in the studio’s catalogue or website as advertising. High street photography is very similar to both studio work and portraiture in that all focus is placed upon the person being photographed, although it is not limited to their face as many services take photographs of the entire person. The environment in which these photographs are taken is usually very controlled and in studio conditions, which means that the models will directed and posed according to their specifications and the lighting will be heavily controlled to ensure the best look. These services usually alter their light to bring out the best of people’s features and sometimes edit them slightly afterwards to clean up their skin or remove imperfections. A famous High Street Photographing company is Venture, who now have several studios around the UK. Venture offers several different packages relegating to each customer’s tastes. Among the most popular is the packages that poses each person in a way that reflects their personality-showing that these are photographs that are cherished by people and meant to represent their family or friends.
  11. 11. Use this slide to annotate an archetype image Family appears on a white background-indicating usage of post effects or a white screen in a studio. Post effects have been added to remove skin blemishes. Picture focuses on models close up, barely any background visible
  12. 12. Studio Work Studio work is an application defining photographs that are taken in a studio environment. Usually photographs in this category are taken against a backdrop (white screen which removes all depth and makes the subject appear in an infinite environment) Studio work can be found in brochures, magazines and advertisements, as well as for individual clients. Studio work is very popular with clients to produce stylish images for a whole range of uses. This can include things like weddings, school photos, group photos, and official photography. In these uses you can find a whole range of techniques that fit the client’s needs, like wide range shots, blur, vignettes and infinity curves. The examples show here show each subject on a plain white backdrop to make sure it stands out. This means that all the studio’s lighting is heavily controlled to make sure that we can easily see all of the curves and lines of each subject, and that shadows are no obscuring the view. The full bright effect makes each image look like it has been taken in a vast void without a background to distract us. An example of a studio that produces such photographs is Clifton Photographic operating in York, that produces professional photographs of people and their families or friends. Customers can choose a wide range of services and techniques used in their pictures.
  13. 13. Use this slide to annotate an archetype image Model is in full shot, nothi ng is slightly out of shot. Full bright lighting is used, as there are no shadows on the model Arms show lack of blemish so they have been edited out in Photoshop afterwards.
  14. 14. Architectural Architectural photography is the application of photographing buildings and structures for both aesthetic and practical purposes. Photographs in this category will usually be observant and use ambient lighting, however there are some cases where models of buildings are used, and the lighting and positioning can be controlled. Architectural photography is most likely to be found is specialised works, such as magazines, websites or manuals. Many architectural photos are taken purely for the aesthetic element but some are taken to show design teams the completed structure, use as examples when planning another construction, and as inspiration for future projects. Common rules for architectural photography dictate that photos should be clear and free from any kind of distortion or warping as these types of photos are used for professional work, such as reviewing the structural integrity of said building. Distortion can make certain aspects look much bigger or smaller than they actually are, and this is of no use to professional bodies. For example, the building in the top left uses a 3rd quarter view that would allow viewers to observe both the front and right side of the building, giving a good overall view, whereas the middle picture gives the viewer just a view of the building’s façade albeit in a simple and defined style, with all the curves and features clearly visible. An example of a architectural photographer is Albert Levy, who was a pioneering French photographer and worked in both Europe and North America producing photographs of buildings. In his lifetime he published around 36 famous albums that contained his works, of various buildings in the US and Europe.
  15. 15. Use this slide to annotate an archetype image No distortion so photo displays the correct dimensions and structure. Ambient lighting used-no set up light. Photo’s angle shows the entire front of the building, not slanted or warped.
  16. 16. Medical Medical photography is a diverse application that covers all photographs taken in a hospital environment, either for the purpose of training fellow medical staff, for records, or for identifying conditions and injuries. Medical photography can most commonly be seen in training material as it allows trainee staff to observe what occurs in the theatre and how to spot conditions. Medical photography also extends to photographs taken by such as an X-ray machine or a CAT scanner. These machines produce images that offer a cross section of the patient, allowing staff to identify injuries such as fractures or breaks as these will clearly show up in the photograph. The environments in which these photographs are taken can vary greatly, with the light being controlled under most circumstances to either highlight the operation or procedure taking place, or with the special feature of highlighting bones in black on an X-ray. Most models will be posed in this situation to mimic an actual operation, or if is a real operation, the models will not be posed and will be doing their duties. A third use of medical photography is the application of crime scene photography. Investigators use photographs of the scenes to crosslink evidence and help solve cases, as well as for the purpose of recording the incident. An overview photograph includes a shot of the entire scene, yet a close up image is a detailed view of something in particular, like the weapon or a blood stain. A famous medical photographer is Alphonse Bertillon, who pioneered the ‘mug shot’ photograph. He believed that a shot of a person’s face could hold the key to their genetics and that they would be able to be traced through a photograph of their features.
  17. 17. Use this slide to annotate an archetype image Clear shot of the operation taking place so this could be used for training. Bloom has been used on the overhead light, making it appear brighter
  18. 18. Illustration Illustration is the usage of photography to compliment text in books, guides and manuals with a visual aid, usually in the form of a step by step guide or to give the reader an idea about the topic. This is quite a wide application and involves many different subjects as this application can appear in many different genres. Common rules are that most if not all illustration photographs will be candid and set up to show the step by step process in clear detail for the purpose of educating or informing. Usually the light will be controlled as well, directed to show the process taking place and that it is well illuminated to the viewer. The first image is from a guide on how to change a tyre. Light has been controlled here to illuminate the tutor’s hand so that we can see what he is doing, which is crucial as that is the entire purpose of the guide. Glare has been reduced from the shiny alloy as to prevent obscuring the image The second picture follows more or less the same formula. Here, the photos focus directly on the process with no shots of the tutors or the background. The lighting is very controlled here, being in a well-lit room with likely an angled lamp nearby that assures that focus is on the process. Finally, the third picture follows a similar convention to the previous picture, but this time seems to adopt a more stylized aspect of lighting, with reflections on the counter clearly visible. The focus is still on the process with the lighting being beamed in all directions, meaning that there are no shadows on the work taking place. Examples of illustrative photography is the Wikihow website, which hosts thousands of how-to guides written by users on a variety of topics. Often these guides are complimented with images that show ach step taking place to add a visual guide.
  19. 19. Use this slide to annotate an archetype image Images have been brighte ned and touche d up for clarity. Images are show in a procedural sequence and in order. Shots show process taking place as the main focus, the tutor is not in the shot and does not need to be.
  20. 20. Fine Art Fine art is the application of using photography for an abstract or artistic purpose by using a wide variety of techniques, styles and equipment to build the artistic vision. Usually, fine art is about seeing the world in a different perspective, and this means that sepia/black and white tones are quite common, as well as blurring, distortion and other cinematic effects. Fine art is very often seen in magazines and books, but is also popular in public places, exhibitions and showings. For example, the second picture uses several different techniques to make a simple picture stand out by a lot. Firstly, it is in black and white, which is a feature some cameras support but can also be the result of post production via Photoshop. Secondly it features a vignette, an effect that adds a subtle black border around the photo to make it appear glowing or give the effect of a spotlight. Finally, the flower is the only aspect coloured in this photo which adds a layer of detail and makes it stand out to the viewer, called selective colour. This can be achieved using infrared photography or in Photoshop. The third picture uses a very small vignette but this time incorporates a sepia filter. Sepia is popular in fine art as it can give photos a ‘retro’ tint, which is quite popular among artists in the 21st century. This photo doesn’t focus on the girl’s head but rather on the rear of the car, which means that it is ambiguous what she might be looking out onto and increases the artistic value as it makes us think. An example of a fine art photographer is Henrik Knudson, whose photographs represent daily life with people in observant poses and unaltered lighting, also include usage of techniques such as blur and HDR.
  21. 21. Use this slide to annotate an archetype image Photo uses a sepia tone giving it a retro styling coupled with the classic car. Level of ambiguity with the image – we don’t know where or what the model is staring at. Depth of field is used as the background is slightly blurry yet the car is clear.
  22. 22. Documentary Documentary photography is an application to tell a story in a series of pictures. This is quite similar to photojournalism, but the benefit of documentary style portfolios is that the story can be told over a number of different images, giving it a natural sense of progression rather than just having one image to represent the story. Photojournalism is intended for one-shot stories, but documentaries are continuing stories. They are most commonly seen in newspapers or magazines, as well as blogs on the internet. Documentary photography is very often candid and centres around people more than locations or objects. Thanks to this, many examples are pictures of the particular subject being photographed in their daily live, often without the knowledge that they have been photographed. This means that the models will not be posed in any way, nor will any controlled lighting be used. Most documentary photos are in black and white, as the lack of colour can strongly emphasise the emotion being portrayed in the images. In all three of these images, the subjects appear to be aware that they are being photographed but have not set up extravagant poses, being captured in their daily life or routine. A famous documentary photographer is Ed Thompson, who produced several series that documented the Syrian refugees from the civil war in their home country. Thompson used a combination of vignettes and HDR to compliment his work and bring out the colours in the scenes he captures.
  23. 23. Use this slide to annotate an archetype image Nobody in this picture seems to be aware they are being photographed, makin g it observational. Photographer doesn’t focus on a huge scene but a snippet of this crowd only.