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  1. 1. Vitamins essential for Energy production:Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Biotin, and pantothenic acid <br />By Group A: CAROLINA ARREOLA, CINDY BURNETT, KATHERINE MATTHEWS, MELISSA MITCHELL, ZIVILE RAUDONIS AND TINA WRIGHT <br />
  2. 2. introduction<br />There are 13 vitamins essential for bodily functions:<br /> Vitamins A, C, D, E, K, and the B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin b6, vitamin B12 and folate). Although only needed in small amounts, vitamins are important contributors to the body's daily functions and are essential to its growth and repair.<br />They are considered essential because the body does not produce vitamins naturally, and they must be obtained from food. Most discoveries about the human need for essential vitamins were made as a direct result of their deficiency. <br />Even though all these vitamins provide an important role in the human body, we will be discussing the importance of six water-soluble vitamins: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Biotin and Pantothenic Acid.<br />
  3. 3. Function and role of riboflavin<br />Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, is a water-soluble B vitamin. <br />This vitamin helps to produce energy in all the cells in the body and aids in metabolizing carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.<br />Riboflavin is important for red blood cell production, body growth, and maintenance of the skin, nails, eyes, and mouth. It is also beneficial to normal vision and aids in preventing cataracts.<br />
  4. 4. Food sources of riboflavin<br /><ul><li>Milk
  5. 5. Dairy products (yogurt and cheese)
  6. 6. Lean meats
  7. 7. Liver and venison
  8. 8. Eggs
  9. 9. Legumes and soybeans
  10. 10. Nuts
  11. 11. Dark, green leafy vegetables (spinach, broccoli, asparagus)
  12. 12. Mushrooms
  13. 13. Fortified / enriched bread, cereal, and grain products</li></li></ul><li>Deficiency of riboflavin<br />Riboflavin deficiency is not very common in the United States since riboflavin is abundant in the U.S. food supply. However, a deficient quantity of riboflavin in the body would produce symptoms such as:<br /><ul><li>Inflammation of the membranes of the mouth, skin, or eyes
  14. 14. Inflammation of the membranes of the GI tract
  15. 15. Sore throat
  16. 16. Anemia
  17. 17. Lip sores
  18. 18. Skin disorders
  19. 19. Light sensitivity
  20. 20. Eye disorders</li></li></ul><li>Toxicity of riboflavin<br />Riboflavin is a water-soluble vitamin. Because the vitamin is water-soluble, excess amounts of riboflavin are excreted from the body by way of urine. Thus it is unlikely adverse effects from consuming too much riboflavin would occur.<br />
  21. 21. Function and role of niacin<br />Vitamin B3 is one of 8 B vitamins. It is also known as niacin (nicotinic acid) and has 2 other forms, niacinamide (nicotinamide) and inositol hexanicotinate, which have different effects from niacin.<br />Niacin (B3) helps the body to convert food (carbohydrates) into fuel (glucose), which is "burned" to produce energy. These B vitamins, often referred to as B complex vitamins, also help the body metabolize fats and protein. B complex vitamins are necessary for healthy skin, hair, eyes, and liver. They also help the nervous system function properly.<br />Niacin also helps the body make various sex and stress-related hormones in the adrenal glands and other parts of the body. Niacin is effective in improving circulation and reducing cholesterol levels in the blood. All the B vitamins are water-soluble, meaning that the body does not store them.<br />
  22. 22. Food sources of niacin<br /><ul><li>Beets
  23. 23. Brewer's yeast,
  24. 24. Beef liverand kidney
  25. 25. Salmon, swordfish and tuna
  26. 26. Sunflower seeds and peanuts
  27. 27. Breads and cereals are usually fortified with niacin
  28. 28. Foods that contain tryptophan, an amino acid the body coverts into niacin include poultry, red meat, eggs, and dairy products.</li></li></ul><li>Deficiency of niacin<br />You can meet all of your body's needs for B3 through diet; it is rare for anyone in the developed world to have a B3 deficiency. <br />In the United States, alcoholism is the prime cause of vitamin B3 deficiency. Symptoms of mild deficiency include indigestion, fatigue, canker sores, vomiting, and depression. Severe deficiency can cause a condition known as Pellagra. Pellagra is characterized by cracked, scaly skin, dementia, and diarrhea. It is generally treated with a nutritionally balanced diet and niacin supplements. Niacin deficiency also results in burning in the mouth and a swollen, bright red tongue<br />
  29. 29. Toxicity of niacin<br />Very high doses of B3 (available by prescription) have been shown to prevent or improve symptoms of the following conditions: high cholesterol, diabetes, atherosclerosis, osteoarthritis, and possibly Alzheimer’s disease and skin conditions. <br />However, taken at high doses Niacin can be toxic which can cause liver damage so you should not take doses higher than the Recommended Daily Allowance only under your doctor's supervision. <br />
  30. 30. Function and role of thiamin <br />Thiamin functions as a coenzyme in the metabolism of carbohydrates and branched-chained amino acids. The daily requirement for thiamin is 1.2 mg for men and 1.1 mg for women<br />
  31. 31. Food sources of thiamin<br /><ul><li>Bread and bread products
  32. 32. Foods that "grain' is the main ingredient
  33. 33. Ready to eat cereals, enriched, fortified, or whole-grains
  34. 34. Pork, ham, meat substitutes fortified with vitamins. </li></li></ul><li>Deficiency of thiamin<br /> Special considerations that require an increased need for Thiamin are people receiving hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. People with Malabsorption Syndrome, women carrying multiple children, and/ or breastfeeding more than one baby. <br />Thiamin deficiencies result in Beriberi and are associated with chronic alcoholics presenting as Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome. The clinical signs and symptoms are anorexia, weight loss, change in mental status, apathy, short term memory loss, confusion, irritability, muscle weakness, enlarged heart. Beriberi = edema and muscle wasting. Infants= sudden cardiac failure. <br />
  35. 35. Toxicity of thiamin<br />There are no reports available showing any adverse effects of too much Thiamin; there is no UL set. <br />
  36. 36.
  37. 37. Functions and role of pantothenic acid<br />Also known as Vitamin B5. It is essential for all forms of life. <br />Pantothenic acid is a component of coenzyme A. CoA is required for chemical reactions that generate energy from food. The creation of fats, cholesterol, steroid hormones, acetylcholine, melatonin, and portions of hemoglobin is also required by CoA. <br />
  38. 38. Food sources of pantothenic acid <br /><ul><li> Fish
  39. 39. Chicken
  40. 40. Eggs
  41. 41. Milk
  42. 42. Yogurt
  43. 43. Broccoli
  44. 44. Lentils
  45. 45. Avocado
  46. 46. Sweet potato
  47. 47. Mushrooms
  48. 48. Lobster
  49. 49. Bread
  50. 50. Yeast</li></li></ul><li>Deficiency of pantothenic acid<br />Naturally occurring deficiencies in is very rare and has only been seen in severe cases of malnutrition. Participants in studies where they were fed a pantothenic acid free diet did not experience any symptoms. <br />
  51. 51. Toxicity of pantothenic acid<br />Pantothenic acid isn't toxic to humans. Because there haven't been reports of toxicity, the dietary reference intakes for pantothenic acid were not able to establish a tolerable upper level of intake. It is recommend that 5mg/day be consumed<br />
  52. 52. Function and role of biotin<br />Is a B Vitamin also knows as Vitamin H that functions as a coenzyme in metabolism. Biotin coenzyme has a crucial role in gluconeogenesis, fatty acid synthesis, and breakdown of certain fatty acids and amino acids. Biotin is used for diabetes and brittle nails. Biotin supports the health of the skin, nerves, digestive tract, metabolism and cells. Early research suggests that Biotin and Chromium might improve blood sugar. Biotin may decrease insulin resistance and nerve symptoms related to type 2 diabetes. Evidence suggests that biotin might help strengthen brittle nails. People usually don’t need biotin supplements because it is naturally found in food. <br />
  53. 53. Food sources of biotin<br /><ul><li>Organ meats
  54. 54. Egg yolks
  55. 55. Soybeans
  56. 56. Fish
  57. 57. Whole grains
  58. 58. Produced by GI bacteria</li></li></ul><li>Deficiency/toxicity of biotin<br />Toxicity reports from Biotin have not be reported<br />Depression, lethargy, hallucinations, numb or tingling sensation in the arms and legs, red scaly rash around the eyes, nose and mouth, hair loss. The protein Avidin in egg white binds biotin and prevents absorption. As the book states you would have to consume 2 dozen egg whites daily for several months. <br />
  59. 59. conclusion<br />Gaining more energy is an important goal for those who are stressed, depressed, fatigued or overweight. Incorporating exercise, proper nutrition and healthy sleep habits are essential for improving energy; however, if you need a little extra boost, ensure that you try to include the vitamins: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Biotin and Pantothenic Acid on a daily basis.<br />
  60. 60. WORD SEARCH<br />P W L I G Q D D F N D R F N B <br />I A F C L E S L D F I O I I K <br />X T N G C S F D M B R L D T O <br />J E X T L P N M O Q S P K O Y <br />U R I L O B W F H L R N D I T <br />R S V H G T L P S F B K Y B U <br />R O U H U A H G X N C N O J G <br />D L Q T V P G E B K D Q M W V <br />S U C I N E P K N F I S H C G <br />C B N Z O Q A H N I T F Y S C <br />K L A U C G J L O I C V C B F <br />N E K M K U A H E G C A S L K <br />Q K C N K Z Q A M E D A C T C <br />O T W Z C Q T Z T D I O I I H <br />V K X O K W N I M A I H T N D<br />BIOTIN FISH RIBOFLAVIN THIAMIN <br />EGGS NIACIN PANTOTHENICACID WATERSOLUBLE<br />
  61. 61. WORD SEARCH ANSWERS<br />+ T + + + + + + + + + + + + D <br />+ H + + + + + + + + + + + I + <br />+ I + + + + + + + S + + C H + <br />+ A + + + + + + + + G A + S + <br />+ M + + + R N + + + C G + I + <br />+ I + + + I I + + I + + E F + <br />+ N + + A + + B N + + + + + + <br />+ + + C + + + E O + + + + + + <br />+ + I + + + H + + F + + + + + <br />+ N + W A T E R S O L U B L E <br />+ N I T O I B + + + + A + + + <br />+ + + T + + + + + + + + V + + <br />+ + N + + + + + + + + + + I + <br />+ A + + + + + + + + + + + + N <br /> P + + + + + + + + + + + + + +<br />
  62. 62. Game<br /><br />You have one minute to feed chickens suffering from beriberi with the correct food to stop them from dying. If you are too slow, or provide the wrong food, the chickens will collapse and die. Cure them quickly, and you could end up on the list as "the fastest feeder this month"!<br />
  63. 63. Website/textbook sources<br />Website Sources:<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />Textbook Resources:<br />“Understanding Nutrition” by Eleanor Noss Whitney and Sharon RadyRolfes<br />