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Investigacion de mercados

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Investigacion de mercados

  1. 1. INTRODUCCIÓN A LA INVESTIGACIÓN DE MERCADOS POR: ALMA AGUILAR
  2. 2. La investigación de mercados es el proceso de recopilación, procesamiento y análisis de información, respecto a temas relacionados con la mercadotecnia, como: Clientes , Competidores y el Mercado . La investigación de mercados puede ayudar a crear el plan estratégico de la empresa, preparar el lanzamiento de un producto o soportar el desarrollo de los productos lanzados dependiendo del ciclo de vida. Con la investigación de mercados, las compañías pueden aprender más sobre los clientes en curso y potenciales. ¿Qué es investigación de mercados?
  3. 3. <ul><li>A partir de las técnicas de análisis y recolección de información, se reconocen cuatro grandes tipos de estudios en la investigación de mercados: </li></ul><ul><li>Cuantitativo o numérico </li></ul><ul><li>Cualitativo </li></ul><ul><li>Documental o de fuentes secundarias </li></ul><ul><li>De marketing </li></ul>Tipos de estudios de mercado
  4. 4. ¿Cuantitativo o Cualitativo? ¿Por qué sí o por qué no? ¿Cuándo? ¿De qué depende? ¿Cómo? ¿Dónde? ¿Con quién? ¿Qué le hace sentir? Etc. Cuantitativo ¿Qué calificación le da? ¿Cuántos? ¿Cada cuánto? ¿Cuánto gastaría? En una escala del 1 al 5… Etc. Cualitativo
  5. 5. <ul><li>Los pasos para el desarrollo de una investigación de mercados son: </li></ul><ul><li>Definir el problema de marketing (justificación del estudio). </li></ul><ul><li>Establecer los objetivos y necesidades de información. </li></ul><ul><li>Diseño de la investigación. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metodología </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tipo de muestreo y tamaño de muestra </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Herramientas de obtención de la información </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recolección de datos (trabajo de campo). </li></ul><ul><li>Preparación de los datos. Codificación, captura, estructura de la bdd. Videos, transcripciones. </li></ul><ul><li>Procesamiento de datos </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpretativo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Univariado / Multivariado </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Análisis de la información global, concretar hallazgos. </li></ul><ul><li>Toma de decisiones. </li></ul>Etapas de la investigación Cuantitativo Cualitativo
  6. 6. Metodología Diseño de la investigación <ul><li>Encuesta </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Telefónica </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Por correo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal (casa por casa) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal (centro de afluencia) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mystery Shopper </li></ul><ul><li>Bitácora </li></ul><ul><li>Sondeos </li></ul><ul><li>Panel de consumidores </li></ul><ul><li>Sesiones de grupo (6-12) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsesiones (4-5) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diadas / triadas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Entrevistas profundas </li></ul><ul><li>Talleres de grupo </li></ul><ul><li>Mystery Shopper </li></ul><ul><li>Teatro invisible </li></ul><ul><li>Recorridos de campo (obstáculos) </li></ul><ul><li>Estudios de sombra (comportamiento) </li></ul>Sala Restaurante C. de Gessel Cuantitativa Cualitativa Etapas
  7. 7. Muestra Diseño de la investigación Cuantitativa Cualitativa <ul><li>Considerando: </li></ul><ul><li>Tipo de investigación: Existen temas que en general no es conveniente manejar con sesiones mixtas (Deportes, Políticos en niveles bajos y de mayor edad). </li></ul><ul><li>Tomando en cuenta los NSE a investigar: Las personas de NSE bajo tienden a inhibirse frente a las de nivel alto. Las personas de NSE altos tienden a devaluar las opiniones de los participantes de segmentos bajos. </li></ul><ul><li>Probabilístico </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aleatorio simple </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aleatorio sistemático </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estratificado </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Por conglomerados </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Por etapas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No probabilístico </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accidental o casual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intencional o de opinión </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Por cuotas </li></ul></ul>Para saber más: Curso de muestreo (FES Acatlán - Actuaría)
  8. 8. Herramientas Diseño de la investigación Cuantitativo : Cuestionario Cualitativo : Guía de Tópicos <ul><li>Un buen cuestionario / guía de tópicos debe tener: </li></ul><ul><li>Claridad en el lenguaje. Hay que procurar términos que sean suficientemente claros (coloquiales), lo que evitará errores de interpretación. </li></ul><ul><li>Respuestas fáciles. Para evitar incoherencias como consecuencia de la fatiga, hay que elaborar preguntas cuyas respuestas no supongan gran esfuerzo mental. </li></ul><ul><li>Evitar, en lo posible, preguntas molestas. Si a pesar de ello es preciso realizarlas, conviene introducir al entrevistado en el espíritu de la encuesta. </li></ul><ul><li>No influenciar la respuesta. Hay que dejar entera libertad a la hora de elegir la respuesta, sin influir de ninguna forma al entrevistado. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Codificación </li></ul><ul><li>Verbalizaciones semejantes = mismo código </li></ul><ul><li>Códigos semejantes = netos </li></ul><ul><li>Captura de códigos </li></ul>Preparación de los datos <ul><li>NETO 1: BAJOS COSTOS Y COMISIONES </li></ul><ul><li>Código 1: Bajo costo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbalización 1: El precio es bajo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbalización 2: El precio es muy bajo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbalización 3: Me parece que el costo es bajo </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Código 2: Bajas comisiones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbalización 4: La comisión es la más baja </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbalización 5: Cobran pocas comisiones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NETO 2: POR LOS SEGUROS </li></ul><ul><li>Código 3: Seguro de vida </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbalización 6: Porque me dan un seguro de vida </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbalización 7: Porque el seguro de vida es útil </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Código 4: Seguro de auto </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbalización 8: Puedo asegurar mi auto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbalización 9: Me ofrece un seguro de auto </li></ul></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>Cuantitativo Para saber más: Curso de SPSS, SAS, S-Plus, MiniTab, etc. (FES Acatlán - Actuaría) Etapas
  10. 13. Preparación de los datos Cualitativo <ul><li>Preparación de videos </li></ul><ul><li>Transcripciones </li></ul>Ver video NOMBRE DEL ESTUDIO: PLAZA: NÚMERO DE ENTREVISTA: FECHA: día/agosto/07 HORA: TARGET: MODERADOR: TIEMPO QUE DURÓ LA ENTREVISTA: NOMBRE DEL TRANSCRIPTOR: P1 ¿Cómo considera que fue el proceso de contratación? Considero que…
  11. 14. Procesamiento de los datos Cuantitativo * Para saber más: Cursos de Estadística I y II, Análisis Multivariado, Series de tiempo y P. Estocásticos (FES Acatlán - Actuaría) <ul><li>Tablas de frecuencia * </li></ul><ul><li>Tablas de contingencia * </li></ul><ul><li>Contraste de hipotesis * </li></ul><ul><li>Diferencias significativas * </li></ul><ul><li>Cluster * </li></ul><ul><li>Componentes principales * </li></ul><ul><li>Factorial * </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminante * </li></ul><ul><li>Análisis conjunto (Conjoint) </li></ul><ul><li>Regresión simple/múltiple * </li></ul><ul><li>Regresión logística </li></ul><ul><li>Árboles de decisión (CHAID, C&RT, QUEST) </li></ul><ul><li>Probabilidades de transición * </li></ul><ul><li>Correspondencias </li></ul><ul><li>Series de tiempo * </li></ul><ul><li>Ecuaciones estructurales </li></ul><ul><li>Redes neuronales artificiales </li></ul>Etapas
  12. 15. Procesamiento de los datos Cualitativo <ul><li>Mapas perceptuales </li></ul><ul><li>Mapas de posicionamiento </li></ul><ul><li>Mapas semánticos </li></ul><ul><li>Semáforos </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluación monádica </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluación global </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pertiniencia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevancia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Significancia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Productividad </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impacto total </li></ul><ul><li>Call to action </li></ul>Etapas

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