Chapter 1 the knowledge context


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  • These questions can be used to focus students at the beginning, and to encourage reflection and discussion at the end. They draw together the key points from the text. The lecturer may wish to pose one or several of these questions at various points during the session.
  • Technological change relates to the ways in which computers are fundamental work tools and also play a major role in most people’s lives. The ease with which people use technology has enabled the creation of many new systems and innovations. Increasingly, people anticipate access to advanced systems and processes at both work and home. (Page 3) The industrial economy encouraged people to conform and follow standard practices. People were seen as sources of production, and their work settings reflected this philosophy. The knowledge economy values the creativity and innovation of individuals as an asset. The expertise held by individuals is a significant contribution to the services which are provided to the community of users. The knowledge economy places more value on the differences between individuals.
  • There are many external influences on organisations. Many of these are national or international in nature. The impact of globalisation on organisations has been significant. Globalisation has been greatly assisted by the ongoing moves to reduce regulation of markets. This has both advantages and disadvantages. On the positive side, it has enabled greater access to more customers, speedy service provision and the capacity to see what competitors are doing. On the negative side, it can also generate higher customer expectations, and increase the competition from other firms. The customer knowledge of the practices of other firms may also lead to greater pressure on firms to keep up with competitors. The expectation that firms will continuously demonstrate innovation and responsiveness can be challenging, as learning and experimentation will become more important, at the same time that shareholders expect economies of scale and leaner work settings.
  • Technological change is a major influence on organisations. Most businesses recognise the importance of creating effective technological systems for use by individual workers and to build more robust and effective systems. Employees expect to have equipment, software and associated support to undertake their roles. They also use technology as part of their work activities (including email, the Internet, access to information, and integrated system management). The presence of effective technological systems and support has transformed how business operates and how people work. (Page 4) Another influence on businesses relates to the increasing competition for high performing staff. People with significant talents and capabilities will be noticed and pursued by competitors. As work conditions grow less stable, the potential loss of valued employees increases. (Page 4) Organisations try to gather and review information from many sources to predict where the organisation needs to move towards. Sources of information can include those held within the organisation, and those which are external to a business. The prediction of directions and areas of potential growth helps to maintain a strategic focus for the organisation, and to determine where resources should be allocated. (Pages 4 – 5) Thus, the external influences on organisations are very major sources of direction and challenge. They are increasingly monitored, as their impact grows larger.
  • At the same time, organisational workplaces have changed. (Page 6-8) Most employees anticipate a range of career avenues, or at the least, a number of jobs with different employers. Within organisations we see a number of emerging trends which are altering how people work and how they perceive their contribution to the workplace. These include: Workforce composition and different types of employment practice, such as Core workers who are employed long-term Contract or short-term employees who may be valued, but less pertinent over a longer period. People experience evolving work and responsibilities which they must embrace. Few people hold the same roles for many years. Instead, employees are asked to refresh and redevelop their capabilities to meet the demands of new organisational activities or expectations. Teams play a very important part in the modern organisation. It is likely that most people work together on some projects or contribute to the work of others as regular aspects of their work. Teams build a strong sense of collective identity, culture, sense of purpose and valuing of each individual member. An integral element of team membership is the recognition that there is high interdependency: the work of each individual affects others’ work. Relationship building is seen as part of the basic role of any employee. This is partly attributable to their inter-relatedness with others, but also demonstrates the changing expectations of stakeholders as to what an organisation does. The need to develop strong connections with other underpins the modern workplace. At the same time, people generally expect to be self-managing: working as autonomous but effective individuals.
  • Communication has also changed in organisations. Most employees see email as a normal routine, and indeed, may spend inordinate amounts of time attempting to manage the many messages they see. In terms of face to face interaction, employees are expected to demonstrate a range of effective communication skills, including: active listening feedback skills negotiation skills and presentation skills. Leadership also plays a very critical role in successful workplaces. There are many leaders in the modern workplace – operating across the various levels. Some may be team leaders, others in official management roles, and some will play a part in the overall leadership of the organisation. Employees expect good leadership and it is increasingly critical as workplace complexity increases. Leaders should: Provide direction and guidance Establish and maintain a positive work environment Create and maintain effective people practices Encourage high performance and high standards Decision making has also evolved into a more contributory focus. More people contribute to decisions as they build expert knowledge in specialist areas. They can contribute through direct interaction with decision makers (through meetings and ideas generation activities) or through the contribution of information and data held within the organisation. Organisations draw on many source of information to guide their decisions – technology has assisted with this process, as it is easier to store and access various forms of data. Most organisations aim to avoid repeating prior mistakes by learning from past experience. This anticipates people sharing and collaborating to learn from those mistakes.
  • Because organisations change so rapidly, it is important to build good mechanisms to manage change. In many workplaces, there is recognition that change management must be undertaken as a regular, iterative process. Ongoing process improvement and review of pressures is undertaken – particularly with respect to the ways competitors are changing. Any change process involves staff in the evolution, as they need to both accept and adapt to the new processes. (See Page 11) Worker motivation needs to be high. The emphasis on creativity and self-management requires people who are keen to contribute and actively working toward higher performance. Employees anticipate challenging and fulfilling work. If this is allowed, they build much greater commitment to the organisation. Part of the motivational influence relates to how people are treated. If they feel valued and the workplace is a positive and constructive environment, they will be more likely to stay. Unhappy, demotivated people are dangerous to an organisation as they can undermine other colleagues and reduce productivity. (See Page 11 – 12) Infrastructure has become a stronger component of the workplace, reflecting the capacity to link different systems and processes together. Infrastructure relates to the range of systems and services which support the core business of the organisation. Some major examples of infrastructure include the technological systems, human resources services and information services. These serve to bind the various employees together by providing common support processes. (see page 12)
  • The nature of the organisation changes how people work and the outcomes they expect. The purpose and long-term goals are strongly based around the outcomes which are anticipated. These, in turn, are driven by who funds and directs the activities. Each organisation will have a specific purpose and desired outcomes which should be reflected in all activities. The stakeholders play a large part in determining the focus of the business. Stakeholders can include members of the firm, customers, shareholders and national groups. This can best be seen by exploring three common types of organisations.
  • Private firms focus on profit – they are intended to return income to those who have invested in the business. The investors are likely to be shareholders, or the company may be privately owned. In either case, there is a very strong desire to ensure the business is profitable to those stakeholders, who anticipate ongoing growth and development, but with a healthy short-term return. The Chief Executive Officer, CEO, is the public face of the firm. This person plays a major role in determining the direction and focus of the company, and is responsible for building its reputation and standing in the community. If the business fails, the CEO is normally the person who carries responsibility, even though many people may have contributed to that outcome. Conversely, very successful private firms are recognised as having good leadership from their CEOs, who may gain major remuneration packages as a consequence.
  • Public enterprises (page 13) are sponsored and funded by the government. They are normally based on ministerial portfolios which reflect the functions of government as laid out in the Australian Constitution, or they may reflect the government’s own view of how their portfolios work. There is often major change to the structure when governments change. Employees are bound to support the business of government, and this can result in changes in organisational practice when the ruling group changes. In general, public enterprises provide services to the community in the areas determined by their governing bodies, or the Minister. In some cases, they assist with the governance of the groups by developing policies, systems and related processes which are implemented. In most cases, demand on these services is greatly increasing, but funds are not. This has placed increasing pressure on these organisations to operate in more intelligent ways by sharing practices, systems and ideas. The Australian Government Information Office (KM Viewpoint 1.3) is a good example of how collaboration and working together can result in effective work practices.
  • Not-for-profit agencies (page 14 – 15) fill the gap in the community, by supporting the needs of community members who require specialist assistance. Many relate to those with special illnesses or emotional needs. They are often established to address a community need. Funding is frequently collected from many different sources, sometimes from government, sponsors, and members of the community. As with public enterprises, not-for-profits experience high demand for their services. In many cases, they rely on volunteers who are not paid to provide many of these services. They also rely on strong staff loyalty and commitment, as their salaries are often modest.
  • Strategic management (page 15) has gained increasing recognition as a useful strategy to ensure organisations remain viable and effective. Strategic management combines careful long-term planning with ongoing responses to existing needs and demands which are evident. This two pronged approach ensures a relevant and effective organisation is achieved. Strategic management also aims to maintain relevance and appropriateness of the business to meet the users’ expectations. This is achieved by evaluating, measuring and monitoring trends across the business, and across the wider community. To be effective, strategic management needs to be linked to the employees, so that they are aware of the goals which should be pursued.
  • This model is based on the text Figure 1.1 (Page 16) It shows the various ways in which strategic management is influenced in an organisation. Leadership plays a critical part in translating the organisational goals into values, priorities, systems and policies, activities and encouraging employee capabilities to reflect those activities. The greater the alignment between these five levels of operation, the greater the capacity to build a strategic and unified focus and process. When one of these areas is not linked to those goals, it is likely that the strategic focus will be less evident, and that strategic management will be more ineffective. The role of leadership in maintaining this alignment is a major determinant of how effective strategic management will be. It should be remembered that leadership may be across all levels of the organisation – everyone plays a part in maintaining a strategic focus.
  • Strategic Values (page 16) will vary according to the organisation, although there are some common values which most organisations hope to see in their staff. These include collaboration, communication skills, flexibility, teamwork, service orientation and quality focus. Each of these values emphasises providing ‘added value’ back to the stakeholders, so that they may feel they are supported effectively by the organisation. They also reflect the recognition that the workplace is highly interactive and focused on relationship building.
  • Organisations operate in challenging contexts, where they may be asked to generate much more than they can manage. It becomes necessary to identify the main priorities which should be emphasised. These should link to the goals and the business focus, and may be determined by the organisational community or by senior leaders and external stakeholders. The priorities need to reflect both long-term and short-term viability, so that customers remain satisfied, but the organisation retains a healthy capacity to keep afloat in the long-term. Leadership is required to both define and communicate priorities to those who will implement these directions. These priorities also link to the mission statement, and are often described as goals and objectives. Goals are quite broad in focus, while the objectives provide very specific guidance on what the priorities should be.
  • Systems and policies (page 16) need to reflect the focus and directions described in the priorities and values. Policies provide guidance on the main principles which should be reflected across the organisation. They are normally designed to be long-term principles which can operate as robust standards for people to reflect in their work roles. Often, they will have guidelines and procedures attached to them. These are constantly refined to build better practice and systems. Systems enable the implementation of the specified policies through practical and functional processes. They are constantly amended to reflect new learning, better processes, and possibly, changing stakeholder expectations.
  • Organisational activities (page 17) are the actual tasks and routines which are undertaken in the organisation. They need to closely reflect the policies, systems and priorities which have been determined. The alignment needs to be carefully managed and monitored. Slippage in activities can occur when employees fail to shift their actions to reflect changed expectations. This is an area where leadership is particularly critical. Slippage often occurs if staff are demotivated, marginalised from the strategic priorities, or if change has been too rapid and too confronting.
  • Employee capabilities (page 17) also need to keep track with the directions the organisation is taking. The skills, knowledge and expertise of the employee may operate across two levels: as individual capabilities which are particular to that person, or as capabilities that all staff demonstrate. In general, core capabilities which every staff member needs will be likely to link to the values of the organisation, while the specialist capabilities may relate to the technical knowledge of the individual.
  • (Page 18) Knowledge is the process of translating information and past experience into a meaningful set of relationships which can be applied by the individual. This implies that the individual is a reflective employee who weighs and assesses new experiences and makes judgements as to what can be learnt. Employees who are highly motivated and responsible for their own actions will be likely to build strong knowledge sets. Knowledge is an organisational asset: it should be identified, managed and valued to the same degree as other assets. But it is often ignored and undervalued. We need to recognise that the shift to a knowledge economy has generated a significant reliance on knowledge as a corporate resource. Frequently, organisations don’t even know what knowledge assets they hold, or which they should be nurturing. The successful organisation aims to identify, cultivate, manage and publicly value the knowledge its staff generate.
  • Explicit knowledge (page 19) can be documented, categorised, transmitted, demonstrated… It can be accessed by other people even if the knowledge source is absent. Declarative knowledge relates to principles and facts that can be explained to others. Procedural knowledge enables the sharing and demonstration of processes. In an organisation, explicit knowledge should be recognised and recorded so that it may be accessed by others at point of need. Tacit knowledge draws on the accumulated experience and learning of an individual. It is hard to reproduce or share with others. Individuals hold that knowledge, and often find it hard to either explain or demonstrate. Instead, they become the source of guidance for others, and may need to be nurtured and recognised for their contribution. A major risk to organisations is the lack of awareness as to what tacit knowledge is held within the community.
  • This slide reflects Figure 1.2. Organisational Knowledge (page 20) reflects the composite sources of knowledge held within the organisational community. It draws on data housed within the various organisational systems; explicit knowledge which has been captured and documented; tacit knowledge held by individuals. Individual knowledge reflects the particular knowledge that people acquire as they work, reflect and interact with others. While many aspects of that knowledge may be unique, it will also have some commonalities with others. For example, this might include a knowledge of systems and processes which operate across the organisation, and which many people access, or it might be a specialist knowledge which is less widely practised. Corporate knowledge is the accreted knowledge of individuals as they learn from each other, share good practice or document what they know. It reflects the degree to which communication and collaboration operates. At a basic level, corporate knowledge is also reflected in the systems which are developed and used regularly. Both corporate and individual knowledge are accrued through a number of avenues. As people gain experience, listen to advice, learn and make errors, they acquire new insights which are built into their existing knowledge. External source of guidance, including those found in libraries, are also drawn into this knowledge set. Historical information, particularly that from knowledgeable parties can also prove useful. This can be seen in the operation of committees, an important form of corporate knowledge. In this instance, a decision may be explored from many angles, drawing on the knowledge of individuals, and the learning evident from other sources. These many sources of guidance are weighed, judged and debated until a higher level of corporate knowledge is acquired. This knowledge is then shared back to individual members of the community. Organisational knowledge is the term used to describe all of these processes. It reflects the very dynamic and integrated amalgamation of various sources so that when strategic processes must be determined, they can access the best guidance possible. Where the sources lack the rich feed-in from experience, advice etc, the quality of organisational knowledge becomes lessened.
  • Page 21 explores this concept. Strategic knowledge is a higher level of organisational knowledge, in that it seeks to use that knowledge toward the determined goals and priorities of the organisation. Thus, the focus on the learning / reflecting / analysing is directed toward what is best for the organisation, and aims to corral resources toward this outcome. This can be very important, as people often find it hard to keep focused on what is essential. A strong articulation on what is strategic can assist people with cultivating more advanced expertise in those areas, and in disseminating that knowledge to other corporate stakeholders. Strategic knowledge can shift as priorities evolve. It is most important that organisations are aware of the trends and maintain each individuals’ awareness of any changes. The leadership, change management and communication processes are particularly critical during any evolving phase. It should also be noted that strategic knowledge is very particular to the organisation. Each enterprise will determine the fit which is most appropriate – and this is partly driven by stakeholders, but also based on the sources of guidance which are accessible. The more open the channels of learning (from experience, errors etc), the richer and more informed the strategic knowledge.
  • Knowledge management (page 22 – 23) relates to the various strategies which guide the activities that draw together the different sources of organisational knowledge into a cohesive and logical organisational process. This form of management aims to build on the strategic assets which are found within the knowledge community, and to guide their usage so that more effective learning and knowledge is then generated and shared. The key concepts associated with knowledge management relate to collaboration and social community. These constructs are strongly supported though leadership and the development of a collaborative culture. The ways in which knowledge is perceived, valued and rewarded also play a large role in determining how successfully knowledge management will be enacted.
  • As this illustration shows, knowledge management (page 21 – 22) relates to the building of strong linkages between the organisational knowledge within the work community and the values, priorities, systems, policies, activities and employee capabilities which are created from that knowledge. It acts as the linking element to build a strong and robust knowledge community which distributes organisational knowledge to the various strategic activities and agencies. The value of knowledge management is that it encourages collaboration and the construction of a social community, so that organisational knowledge is enriched and fully supported by all members of that workplace. Sharing across boundaries is greatly facilitated through knowledge management initiatives. Leadership with respect to knowledge management is particularly important, as it determines the degree to which alignment between the higher level values and priorities are reflected in the actions, and ultimately, in the new organisational knowledge which is regenerated. The ultimate goal of knowledge management is to ensure these five tiers of organisational process all integrate knowledge management into their daily routines, and draw appropriately on organisational knowledge to do so.
  • Page 22 – 23. Different forms of organisations rely on knowledge management, with some demonstrating a greater valuing of the knowledge which is to be found and employed within their walls. Three types of organisations are worth highlighting. The learning organisation, as conceptualised by Senge, has become a major framing device for many firms. These organisations encourage learning growth and development across the many individuals and as standard work practice. These environments encourage reflection and the sharing of new understanding. They also regard errors as sources of learning, not as failures. The focus on learning, evaluating and remodelling from those processes makes learning organisations particularly powerful knowledge intensive communities. Developmental organisations are those which monitor their capacity and accuracy in supporting the strategic priorities identified for the organisation. They are also focused on learning and growing, but from the perspective of maintaining a strategic edge which assists competitiveness and relevance. Asset Based corporate development recognises that the knowledge held by individuals and as corporate knowledge is a critical asset to the organisation. This encourages ongoing strengthening, valuing and capturing of knowledge so that it is retained and applied in a range of contexts. An effective knowledge organisation may use all three orientations when building their knowledge management strategy, as each provides a different, but very legitimate, perspective on how knowledge should be both employed to maintain organisational sustainability.
  • The model of strategic knowledge management (Page 25) suggests that there are four main areas which guide knowledge communities. The numbers in brackets represent the chapters of the text where these issues are discussed. Knowledge management is influenced by a number of factors. As this lecture has shown, these include external and internal elements of the sector in which the organisation operates, and the type of business which is undertaken. The members of that corporate community also determine how knowledge management will be employed. The next session will delve more into the process of creating a very strategic knowledge focus – a central element of this unit. The impact of leadership and the establishment of a knowledge culture which encourages adoption of knowledge principles throughout the five tiers of organisational process. Knowledge foundations will be covered over a two week period, exploring the major contributions stemming from human resource management and the construction of effective knowledge systems. These two systems form the foundation on which knowledge management operates, reflecting the two aspects of good accessible systems and the building of a socially constructed knowledge community. Knowledge applications then explore how knowledge is built and nurtured through the work community. Four elements are explored. In the first week, core knowledge, that is, the cultivation of knowledge critical to the workplace, will be explored. The process of creating an effective knowledge repository to assist with preserving core knowledge will then be examined. The value of a knowledge service, which assists users to work effectively within a knowledge community, and the learning and development needs of users to build their critical capabilities are also aspects of this focus. Knowledge enhancement and review is the final element of the model. This reflects the notion of a developmental, asset based organisation, which seeks to build measures of effectiveness and to explore how better practice can be generated. Week 11 will examine the ways in which knowledge management can be evaluated, while week 12 will consider the ways in which knowledge is sustainable – particularly in a global context. Stemming from these considerations, it is also important to consider how knowledge issues and research feedback into the ongoing development of this field.
  • This first session has aimed to provide some contextual grounding as to why knowledge is important, and how it supports organisations. It has aimed to emphasise the integral role knowledge plays in our work communities, and the way people rely on each other and the corporate knowledge sources which are available. The awareness of organisational knowledge is often under-valued until it is lost, but it needs to be more significantly valued and profiled. Most importantly, the link between organisational knowledge and strategic positioning of the business needs to be more fully recognised. As we move more into a knowledge economy, we will become more reliant on what is known and the sharing of that expertise across our various members. Knowledge management assists with these processes by linking knowledge, corporate assets, strategic management and the organisational priorities into a composite strategy.
  • Chapter 1 the knowledge context

    2. 2. REFERENCE BOOKS• Knowledge Management WILEY – Shelda Debowski• Knowledge Management in Therory & Practice Kimiz Dalkir• Harvard Business Review on Knowledge Management Harvard University - Peter Ferdinand Drucker, David Garvin, Dorothy Leonard, Susan Straus, John Seely Brown
    3. 3. Start Impression About Management Yes Does it No Work ?Leave it Yes Did you fiddle No alone with it Did your IDIOT! Yes Subordinate fiddle No with it? No Did anyone see Yes Fire you? Him! Can you blame Even Bigger Yes No RUN Idiot!!! on a rival? Can you Talk No Yes your way out of it? Go do Try Any It! Way! Yes RESIGN? No Start Talking! Good Bye! FIRED!!! QUIT
    4. 4. Chapter 1The Knowledge Context
    5. 5. Today’s focus:• How is our working world changing?• What is knowledge and how does it impact on organisational practice?• What is knowledge management?• Why and how does knowledge management vary across different organisations?
    6. 6. Introduction• Technological and social change have reshaped our world and the way we work• We have shifted from an industrial economy (focusing on commercial products) to a knowledge economy (focusing on services and expertise)• This has affected most workplaces and most workers
    7. 7. External Influences on Organisations• Globalisation – Access to more customers from far-flung areas – Greater awareness of international practice• Increased competition• Increased pressure to be innovative and responsive• Shareholder expectations – Pressure to achieve economies of scale
    8. 8. External Influences (contd)• Technological change• Competition for high performing staff• Forward planning and analysis – Review of emerging trends – Learning from competitors Organisations are dynamic, vulnerable and volatile….
    9. 9. The Changing Nature of Organisations• The workplace has changed: – Series of career paths – Workforce composition – Evolving roles and responsibilities – Teamwork: complex and dynamic interactions – Strong focus on relationship building
    10. 10. The Changing Nature of Organisations (contd)• Communication• Leadership – Many people fill leadership roles – Good leadership is expected in most workplaces• Decision making – More people participate in decision-making – Many sources of information guide decisions
    11. 11. The Changing Nature of Organisations (contd)• Change management – Ongoing process improvement• Worker motivation – Self-managing employees anticipate challenging and fulfilling work – Desire positive and constructive workplaces• Infrastructure – Systems and services which support the organisation
    12. 12. Types of Organisations• Organisations differ according to: – Their purpose and long-term goals – Who funds and directs their activities – The stakeholders• Types of organisations include: – Private – Public – Not-for-profit
    13. 13. Private Enterprises• Focus on profit• Likely to have shareholders, or may be privately owned• Anticipate ongoing growth and development, but with a healthy short-term return• Chief Executive Officer (CEO) is the public face of the firm
    14. 14. Public Enterprises• Sponsored and funded by government• Linked to ministerial portfolios• Provide service or govern the community• Increasing efforts to collaborate and work together, e.g. Australian Government Information Office
    15. 15. Not-for-profit agencies• Provide specialised support for community members• Funding may be derived from different sources including government, sponsors and members of the community• Frequently have higher demand than capacity to deliver• Strong staff loyalty and commitment
    16. 16. Strategic Management in Organisations• Long-term planning + ongoing responses to existing needs and demands• Relevance and appropriateness of the business to meet the users’ expectations• Goals are promoted to all employees
    17. 17. Organisational Influences on Strategic Management Values Organisational Priorities StrategicLeadership Focus and Process Systems and Policies Organisational Activities Employee Capabilities
    18. 18. Strategic Values • Collaboration Values • CommunicationOrganisational Priorities • Flexibility Systems and • Teamwork Policies • Service orientationOrganisational Activities • Quality focus Employee Capabilities
    19. 19. Organisational priorities • The goals and directions the Values organisation should emphasise toOrganisational ensure both long-term and short- Priorities term viability Systems and • Strongly guided by effective Policies leadership within the organisationOrganisational Activities Employee Capabilities
    20. 20. Systems and Policies • Policies provide guidance on the Values main principles which should beOrganisational reflected across the organisation Priorities • Systems enable the implementation Systems and Policies of the specified policies through practical and functional processesOrganisational Activities Employee Capabilities
    21. 21. Organisational Activities • Strategic management aims to Values align organisational activities with the values, priorities and systemsOrganisational Priorities which are in place • The goal is to ensure plans and Systems and Policies goals are actually reflected in the real activities of the organisationOrganisational Activities Employee Capabilities
    22. 22. Employee Capabilities Values • Employee skills, knowledge and expertiseOrganisational Priorities • Capabilities should reflect the organisational requirements Systems and Policies • As the firm evolves, so too will capabilitiesOrganisational Activities Employee Capabilities
    23. 23. Knowledge Management• Knowledge is the process of translating information and past experience into a meaningful set of relationships which can be applied by an individual• Knowledge is an organizational asset: it should be identified, managed and valued to the same degree as other assets. We are now living in the INFORMATION AGE.• Levels of Knowledge Evolution: – Data (Just Numbers and Facts) – Information (Logical arrangement of Data which starts making sense) – Knowledge (Info. from various sources used for informed and effective decision making) – Skill (Knowledge combined with Experience) – Art (Knowledge and Experience combined with Creativity)
    24. 24. Knowledge Management (contd)Knowledge as an asset• Explicit knowledge can be documented, categorised, transmitted, demonstrated… It can be accessed by other people even if the knowledge source is absent• Tacit knowledge draws on the accumulated experience and learning of an individual. It is hard to reproduce or share with others
    25. 25. Knowledge Management (contd) Sources of Organisational Knowledge Experience Individual Advice Knowledge Learning Organisational Knowledge Errors CorporateExternal Sources Knowledge History
    26. 26. Knowledge Management (contd)• Strategic Knowledge assists with taking the organisation toward its desired future goals• Closely linked to the organisational focus• May be different in each organisation
    27. 27. Knowledge Management: an Emerging Concept• The management of knowledge to enable its definition, identification, capture, organisation and dissemination across the organisational community• Knowledge management is dependent on effective leadership and a collaborative culture
    28. 28. Knowledge Management (contd) Values Organisational Priorities Systems andOrganisational Policies Knowledge Organisational Activities Employee Capabilities
    29. 29. Knowledge Management (contd)Knowledge Organisations• The Learning Organisation – Encourages learning, growth and development of individuals and the community• The Developmental Organisation – Undertakes regular review, adaptation and re-orientation to maintain strategic focus• Asset-based corporate development – Recognition and capitalising on knowledge assets of value to the organisation
    30. 30. A Model of Strategic Knowledge Management KnowledgeKnowledge Knowledge Knowledge EnhancementInfluences Foundations Applications and ReviewOrganisational Human Core Knowledge Context (1) Resource Knowledge (7) Evaluation (11) Management (5) Strategic Knowledge KnowledgeKnowledge (2) Knowledge Repositories (8) Sustainability (12) Systems (6) KnowledgeLeadership (3) Service (9) Issues and Research (13) Knowledge Learning and Culture (4) Development (10)
    31. 31. Concluding Points• Knowledge is an essential asset• Organisational knowledge draws on the collective knowledge held by both individuals and within corporate sources• A strategic focus assists with preserving the knowledge which is necessary for long-term viability• Knowledge management is the method of reaching these outcomes
    32. 32. THANK YOU