Bab 5 slides_tinjauan_amalan_bayaran_semester_a111

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Bab 5 slides_tinjauan_amalan_bayaran_semester_a111

  1. 1. BAB 5TINJAUAN AMALAN BAYARAN 17hb Oktober 2011 Email: ahalim@uum.edu.my
  2. 2. Tinjauan Bayaran Pasaran Market Salary Survey Oktober 2011 BSMH3043 PENTADBIRAN PAMPASANBSMH3043 COMPENSATION ADMINISTRATION 3
  3. 3.  Proses yang sistematik dlm mengumpul maklumat tentang amalan pembayaran upah/gaji dlm pasaran kerja yg relevan dgn organisasi, dan membuat penilaian ke atas pakej bayaran yg ditawarkan oleh pesaingnya. … is a systematic process of collecting and making judgments about the compensation paid by other employers 4
  4. 4.  Adjust pay level (How much to pay?) ◦ Pay level merupakan nilai purata bayaran oleh majikan [(jumlah gaji pokok+ bonus+ faedah+ options)/jumlah pekerja] ◦ Pemantauan ke atas perubahan pay level pesaing adalah perlu utk membolehkan perbandingan dibuat Adjust pay mix (what forms?) ◦ Pay mix merupakan gabungan pelbagai jenis bayaran yg menghasilkan pakej bayaran ◦ Memantau bentuk bayaran yg digunakan oleh pesaing (gaji pokok, bonus, saham, faedah) & keutamaan setiap bentuk tersebut dlm pakej bayaran yg ditawarkan oleh pesaing 5
  5. 5.  Adjust pay structure ◦ Penyelarasan struktur bayaran dalaman orgn berdasarkan maklumat tinjauan pasaran (hasil tinjauan boleh digunakan utk mengesahkan keputusan JE orgn) Estimate competitor’s Labor Cost ◦ Membolehkan orgn membanding perubahan purata bayaran dlm industrinya ◦ Data tinjauan gaji boleh digunakan utk menganggar perletakan harga produk & amalan pengeluaran pesaing dlm industri yg sama 6
  6. 6.  Special situations ◦ Utk masalah khusus yg berkaitan dgn bayaran ◦ Cthnya bayaran gaji permulaan utk kerja-kerja tertentu yg kritikal (dot.com company). Mempertahankan amalan bayaran organisasi (CA or court-case) ◦ Keputusan mahkamah industri ke atas aduan ketidakadilan amalan bayaran masih banyak berasaskan sejauh mana amalan bayaran organisasi berdasarkan kepada trend amalan di pasaran secara umum. 7
  7. 7.  bergantung kepada: ◦ pekerjaan @ kemahiran yg diperlukan adalah sama ◦ kawasan geografi yg sama ◦ industri produk & perkhidmatan yg sama Kelayakan vs. kawasan geografi ◦ Kelayakan/kemahiran yg semakin tinggi @ komplek, skop pasaran semakin besar Kemahiran yg khusus utk industri tertentu sesuai berasaskan industri Penetapan bayaran gaji yg mengambil kira kawalan kos & kemampuan membayar lebih sesuai berasaskan skop pasaran produk/perkhidmatan 8
  8. 8. Geographic Production Office and Technicians Scientists & Managerial Executive Scope Clerical Engineers ProfessionalLocal: Within Most likely Most likely Most likelyrelatively smallareas such ascities.Regional: Only if in Only if in Most likely Likely Most likelyWithin a short supply shortparticular area or critical supply orof the state or criticalseveral statesNational: Most likely Most likely Most likelyAcross thecountryInternational: Only for Only for SometimesAcross several critical skills critical skills orcountries or those in those in very very short short supply supply 9
  9. 9.  Who should be involved? Siapa yg harus terlibat How many employers? Berapa banyak syarikat responden survey Which jobs to include? Pekerjaan mana yg perlu dilibatkan What information to collect? Jenis data yg perlu dikutip 10
  10. 10.  Biasanya melibatkan normally will involve ◦ pengurus pampasan (compensation manager) ◦ Pekerja employees Khidmat nasihat dari firma perunding luar selalunya digunakan utk mengelakkan sebarang tindakan perundangan hasil drp penetapan bayaran publicly available data or outsource to the third party…. 11
  11. 11.  Tiada satu peraturan yg tetap - no specific rule Biasanya syarikat besar (lead policy) mungkin akan melibatkan beberapa pesaing utamanya (6 hingga 10) – big companies with lead policy normally try to have between 6 – 10 main competitors Syarikat kecil hanya akan fokus kpd pesaing bersaiz kecil – small companies will focus on small competitors (within the same size) Tinjauan bayaran peringkat kebangsaan yg dikendaikan oleh firma perunding selalunya melibatkan > drp 100 syarikat responden – national survey (third party) will normally get data from more than 100 respondents. 12
  12. 12.  Several approaches to select jobs for inclusion Pendekatan menentukan kumpulan pekerjaan yg perlu dilibatkan dlm survey ◦ Benchmark job approach / Job matching ◦ Class matching ◦ Occupational approach ◦ Global approach/Maturity Curve ◦ Low-High approach ◦ Job evaluation approach 13
  13. 13.  Paling biasa digunakan Benchmark job merupakan pekerjaan yg mempunyai kandungan kerja yg stabil (jarang berubah) & sama di kalangan organisasi yg berlainan. survey yg bertujuan membentuk bayaran utk keseluruhan struktur bayaran orgn (semua fungsi utama & semua tahap), benchmark job yg dipilih harus merangkumi keseluruhan struktur pekerjaan orgn. Memerlukan syt responden padankan pekerjaan yg terdpt dlm syarikatnya yg sama dgn benchmark job dlm survey Darjah pemadanan benchmark job dlm survey dgn pekerjaan syarikat responden boleh ditentukan melalui ◦ Perbandingan point JE & pengagihan point dikalangan compensable factors 14
  14. 14.  Padankan pekerjaan yg di survey dgn pekerjaan yg terdpt dlm syt responden berdasarkan kump. kerja (kelas) yg mempunyai faktor boleh pampas yg sama Contoh: ◦ Kumpulan Kerja: Managerial Group (cth jawatan – supervisor) ◦ Faktor boleh pampas: Know-how, problem solving & accountability 15
  15. 15.  mengenal pasti kump kerja asas yg biasa digunakan cth accounting, manufacturing, HR, purchasing dll Responden diminta utk tanda jenis pekerjaan mengikut kump., kadar min & max pembayaran Kelebihan ◦ Tidak memerlukan responden menandakan specific job ◦ Memudahkan responden melaporkan data secara objektif. ◦ Memudahkan analisis & ringkasan data mentah dibuat Jika ditadbir dgn betul maka keputusan pemadanan kerja adalah mudah & tepat 16
  16. 16.  Sesuai digunakan utk pekerjaan profesional yang unik & sukar di tinjau Menggunakan data kadar bayaran keseluruhan kumpulan tersebut (dengan mendapatkan data-data gaji keseluruhan kumpulan) Maturity curve dibentuk berdasarkan kadar bayaran 17
  17. 17.  Sesuai utk pekerjaan yg sukar dipadankan (skill based data vs job based data) Job-based data perlu ditukar ke dlm btk yg bersesuaian dgn skill/competency structure. Tentukan bayaran gaji utk benchmark job yg tertinggi & terendah utk kemahiran yg relevan dlm pasaran yg relevan Garisan dibtk berdasarkan 2 nilai gaji tersebut. ◦ Nilai gaji tertinggi ◦ Nilai gaji terendah Tentukan gaji organisasi berdasarkan garisan tersebut. 18
  18. 18.  Memerlukan semua pihak gunakan pendekatan penilaian kerja yang sama Menekankan content (isi kandungan) kerja yg diukur dgn point/grade yang dibayar dalam bentuk wang Guna kaedah min, mid dan max bagi pembayaran untuk sesuatu pekerjaan Cth Hay Group 19
  19. 19.  Organization data Total compensation data Terdpt 3 jenis data yang biasa dikutip : ◦ latar belakang organisasi ◦ Maklumat ttg sistem pampasan keseluruhan ◦ Data bayaran yg diterima oleh setiap penjawat jawatan bagi sesuatu pekerjaan yg disurvey Jenis data yang perlu dikutip dlm survey bergantung kpd kegunaan maklumat/data tersebut 20
  20. 20.  Dapat membezakan responden Maklumat kewangan (keuntungan, jualan dll) yg lebih detail perlu dikutip bagi survey pekerjaan jawatan tinggi ◦ Pakej pampasan kumpulan ini selalunya lebih dipengaruhi oleh prestasi organisasi 21
  21. 21.  Secara teorinya, data segala bentuk asas bayaran perlu diliputi dlm survey untuk membezakan pakej bayaran yg ditawarkan serta dpt menilai amalan bayaran oleh pesaing Secara praktikalnya, hanya pakej benefit (faedah) yang mahal dan bersifat berubah sahaja yg diliputi ◦ Base pay ◦ Total cash (base pay, profit sharing, bonuses) ◦ Total compensation (total cash + benefits + stock options) Kutipan data utk setiap btk campuran bayaran mempunyai kelemahan & kelebihannya 22
  22. 22.  Tarikh Maklumat pekerjaan Maklumat pekerja ◦ Bil subordinate ◦ Peringkat jawatannya ◦ Years since degree ◦ Pendidikan ◦ Tarikh lapor diri Pakej bayaran yg diterima ◦ Kadar bayaran sebenar yg diterima ◦ Jumlah gaji yg diterima ◦ Jumlah kenaikan terbaru ◦ Bonus ◦ Insentif 23
  23. 23.  Mailed questionnaire ◦ Teknik yg paling biasa digunakan ◦ Sesuai utk survey yg berskala besar ◦ Kos persediaan (cetak) akan tinggi Online questionnaire ◦ Semakin mendapat perhatian para pengkaji ◦ Menjimatkan kos Telephone interview ◦ Sesuai utk responden yg sedikit ◦ Juga digunakan utk tujuan mendptkan penjelasan ttg sesuai maklumat yg dibekalkan Face-to-face interview ◦ Memakan masa & perlukan kemahiran utk temu duga ◦ Boleh digabungkan dgn penggunaan questionnaire 24
  24. 24.  Taburan frekuensi Kecenderungan memusat ◦ Min ◦ Mod ◦ median Sisihan ◦ Sisihan piawai 25
  25. 25. i. Informal a. Jenis – perbincangan dgn responden drp bidang/jawatan yg sama; pengiklanan tertentu (classified ads) & t/duga b. Kelebihan – kos lebih murah; bersesuaian dgn waktu c. Keburukan – data kurang tepat; maklumat kadar pembayaran gaji biasanya lebih tinggi drpd kadar pasaran 26
  26. 26. ii. Formal – Survey sendiri  Kelebihan – mengikut matlamat & obj sendiri  Kekurangan – kos tinggi, bias, halangan masa & kepentingan hak tertentu utk lakukkan suvey mengakibatkan data kurang tepat Survey pihak ketiga  Data/maklumat dr pihak lain digunakan utk orgn kita  Kelebihan – maklumat lebih konsisten; tepat & profesional  Kekurangan – database & metodhologi bergantung kpd pengkaji tersebut 27
  27. 27.  Mendapatkan pemadanan kerja yg sesuai ◦ memadankan bayaran bagi kerja yg berbeza ◦ perubahan dlm teknologi & ekonomi mengakibatkan sukar mendefinisikan kerja secara tepat ◦ Kerja yg sama gelaran tidak menjamin kandungan kerja yg sama Kutipan Data bayaran yg Berguna ◦ perlu tahu membezakan data yg betul-betul berguna bg menganalisis pasaran ◦ ketepatan maklumat bergantung kpd bila data itu dikutip Kesesuaian sampel orgn & kerja ◦ sampel mestilah sesuai & mengambarkan keadaan sebenar pasaran ◦ segmentasi perlu diambil kira bagi melihat maklumat pesaing dr pelbagai sudut 28
  28. 28.  hubungkait data yg dikutip dgn polisi bayaran organisasi. ◦ Samada data yang dikutip dpt memberi input tambahan & bernilai kpd polisi bayaran organisasi ◦ polisi bayaran yg didefinikan dgn jelas dpt membantu menentukan skop sesuatu survey dgn baik Ketepatan maklumat yg dilaporkan ◦ Maklumat hasil dapatan survey yg dilaporkan mungkin berbeza dgn apa yg sebenarnya diperlukan Ketepatan analisis data ◦ Penggunaan teknik statistik yg tidak sesuai akan menghasilkan tafsiran data yg tidak betul 29
  29. 29. External Merge Competitivecompetitiveness: Draw Select Design internal & pay levels,Pay relationships Set Policy policy market survey external mix, andamong lines pressures structuresorganizations Some Major Decisions in Pay Level Determination  Determine pay-level policy.  Define purpose of survey.  Specify relevant labor market.  Design and conduct survey.  Interpret and apply results.  Design grades and ranges or bands. 30
  30. 30. 31
  31. 31. 32
  32. 32. 16Survey: Salary ($000) 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Job Evaluation Points Tech A Sr Tech Eng 1 Eng 3 Eng 5 Mgr 1 Mgr 3 33
  33. 33.  Two parts of the total pay model have merged ◦ Exhibit 8.15 ◦ Internally aligned structure - Horizontal axis ◦ External competitive data - Vertical axis Two aspects of pay structure ◦ Pay-policy line ◦ Pay ranges 34
  34. 34. 55,000Salaries paid by competitors External Competitiveness: 50,000 45,000 40,000 35,000 Pay Policy Line 30,000 AB CDEF GHIJK LMN OP Internal Structure: JE Points 35
  35. 35. 36
  36. 36.  Approaches to translate external competitive policy into practice ◦ Choice of measure  50th percentile for base pay  75th percentile for total compensation ◦ Updating Policy line as percent of market line ◦ Specify a percent above or below market line an employer intends to match ◦ Other options  Pay among the leaders  Lead for some job families and lag for others 37
  37. 37.  Why bother with grades and ranges? ◦ Offer flexibility to deal with pressures from external markets and differences among firms Develop grades ◦ Exhibit 8.15 Establish range midpoints, minimums, and maximums Overlap 38
  38. 38.  External pressures ◦ Differences in quality (KSAs) among individuals in external market ◦ Differences in productivity or value of quality variations ◦ Differences in mix of pay forms of competitors Internal pressures ◦ Recognize individual performance differences with pay ◦ Meet employees’ expectations that their pay will increase over time ◦ Encourage employees to remain with organization 39
  39. 39.  Grades group job evaluation data on horizontal axis ◦ All jobs considered substantially equal for pay purposes placed in same grade ◦ Each pay grade has its own pay range and all jobs in a single grade have same pay range ◦ Enhances ability to move people among jobs within a grade with no change in pay How many pay grades? ◦ Number of jobs ◦ Organization hierarchy ◦ Reporting relationships 40
  40. 40.  Ranges group salary data on vertical axis ◦ Establish upper and lower pay limits for all jobs in each grade ◦ Exhibit 8.16 Midpoints correspond to competitive pay policy ◦ Point where pay-policy line crosses center of each grade ◦ Often represents base pay for a seasoned employee 41
  41. 41. 42
  42. 42.  Size of range based on judgment about how ranges support ◦ Career paths ◦ Promotions ◦ Other organization systems Typical range spread ◦ Top-level management positions – 30 to 60% above and below midpoint ◦ Entry to midlevel professional and managerial positions – 15 to 30% above and below midpoint ◦ Office and production positions – 5 to 15% above and below midpoint 43
  43. 43.  Importance of overlap ◦ Exhibit 8.17: Range Overlap 44
  44. 44. 45
  45. 45.  Alternative to traditional salary structures Involves collapsing salary grades into a few broad bands, each with a sizable range ◦ One minimum and one maximum ◦ Range midpoint often not used Purposes ◦ Provide flexibility to define job responsibilities more broadly ◦ Foster cross-functional growth and development ◦ Ease mergers and acquisitions Example ◦ Exhibit 8.18 46
  46. 46. 47
  47. 47. Ranges support . . . Bands support . . . Some flexibility within  Emphasis on flexibility within controls guidelines Relatively stable organization  Global organizations design  Cross-functional experience Recognition via titles or career and lateral progression progression  Reference market rates, Midpoint controls, shadow ranges comparatives  Controls in budget, few in Controls designed into system system Give managers “freedom with  Give managers “freedom to guidelines” manage” pay Up to 150 percent range-  100 – 400 % spreads spread 48
  48. 48. 1. Set number of bands ◦ Determine number of distinct levels of employee contributions within organization that actually add value ◦ Challenge - How much to actually pay people in same band who are performing different functions and work2. Price bands: Reference market rates ◦ Exhibit 8.20: Reference Rates Within Bands 49
  49. 49. 50
  50. 50. Internal Pressures External Pressures Job Structure Pay Structure 51
  51. 51. Rasulullah SAW bersabda maksudnya: "Siapa yang menjurusi satu jalan untuk mencari ilmu nescaya Allah akan mempermudahkan padanya jalan ke syurga." (Sahih Muslim) 52
  52. 52. 53
  53. 53. 54
  54. 54. 55

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