The Big PictureThe Big PictureCarrie DavenportCarrie Davenport“It’s never just about the child. They bring with themtheir cultural histories, their own assumptions aboutwhat it means to engage in learning, and nativelanguages that must be understood and valued.”- Professor Elizabeth Kozleski
Chapter’s IntentChapter’s IntentHelp educators understand that in ourHelp educators understand that in ourefforts to assist students in reachingefforts to assist students in reachingbenchmarks, attaining standards,benchmarks, attaining standards,and passing standardized tests, weand passing standardized tests, wemay loose sight of the whole child.may loose sight of the whole child.
Realities of ESL EducationRealities of ESL Education Loss of status and difficultyLoss of status and difficultycommunicatingcommunicating Impact of PovertyImpact of Poverty Impact of family separationImpact of family separation Household responsibilitiesHousehold responsibilities Teacher attitudesTeacher attitudes Teenage angstTeenage angst
Issues Faced by EnglishIssues Faced by EnglishLearners in SchoolLearners in School Academic LanguageAcademic Language Background knowledge andBackground knowledge andExperienceExperience Cultural Values and NormsCultural Values and Norms
Factors Associated WithFactors Associated WithUnderachievementUnderachievement Lack of qualified teachersLack of qualified teachers Inappropriate teaching practicesInappropriate teaching practices At risk school environmentsAt risk school environments
Factors Associated withFactors Associated withEducational SuccessEducational Success High Expectations for all studentsHigh Expectations for all students Effective teaching practicesEffective teaching practices Relationships of respectRelationships of respect
RTI and Cultural and LinguisticRTI and Cultural and LinguisticDiversityDiversity Guided by questions and concernsGuided by questions and concerns– Has adequate support in EnglishHas adequate support in Englishlanguage development been given?language development been given?– How should we decide what additionalHow should we decide what additionalsupport to provide?support to provide?
The Important Role of ParentsThe Important Role of Parents Why don’t they come?Why don’t they come? What can we do?What can we do? Overall RoleOverall Role
Tier 1 InterventionsTier 1 Interventions??????????????????????????????“The success of the RTI process forculturally and linguistically diversestudents depends on teachers havingaccess to appropriate evidence-basedinstructional approaches that have beenvalidated with diverse populations”-Klinger & Edwards
Tier 2 InterventionsTier 2 InterventionsShannon UrbanekShannon Urbanek“Focused classroom instruction is not sufficient tomeet the needs of some children. To accelerate theirprogress and ensure that they do not slip furtherbehind, these students require more strategicintervention.”-Vaughn, Wanzek, Woodruff, & Linan-Thompson
What is Tier 2 Intervention?What is Tier 2 Intervention? Supplement InstructionSupplement Instruction Focus and target specific needs to meetFocus and target specific needs to meetthe broader academic successthe broader academic success Students who are not developing andStudents who are not developing andacquiring their core skills to meet theiracquiring their core skills to meet theiroverall academic skills.overall academic skills. Focuses on the instructional skills that ELLFocuses on the instructional skills that ELLneedneedex. Oral language, vocabulary , interactionex. Oral language, vocabulary , interactionShould be 20-25% of students in a gradeShould be 20-25% of students in a gradelevel/class, or schoollevel/class, or school
5 Key Elements5 Key Elements Using data to identify Tier 2 interventionUsing data to identify Tier 2 intervention Small groupsSmall groups Conducting interventionConducting intervention Monitoring progressMonitoring progress Reflect on data and make decisionsReflect on data and make decisions
Tier 2 In ActionTier 2 In Action Grade 5Grade 5– Team meets 2x a monthTeam meets 2x a month– 4 teachers, a bilingual specialist and resource4 teachers, a bilingual specialist and resourcespecialist(special Education teacher.specialist(special Education teacher.– Decisions for intervention are made in lateDecisions for intervention are made in lateOctoberOctober– Data sheet is used by each teacher to monitorData sheet is used by each teacher to monitorthe progress of each individual students.the progress of each individual students. Analyzing the dataAnalyzing the data– Discuss and decide who and when theDiscuss and decide who and when theintervention will be provided.intervention will be provided.– Consider others needs of the students such asConsider others needs of the students such asstaying on taskstaying on task
6 Principles of6 Principles ofCore Intervention Model (CIM)Core Intervention Model (CIM) Principle 1: Small groupPrinciple 1: Small group Principle 2: Setting ObjectivesPrinciple 2: Setting Objectives Principle 3: Content Materials and programsPrinciple 3: Content Materials and programsare reflective of student abilitiesare reflective of student abilities Principle 4: Skills taught explicitly,Principle 4: Skills taught explicitly,intensely, and quicklyintensely, and quickly Principle 5: Students must be provided manyPrinciple 5: Students must be provided manyopportunities to create correct responsesopportunities to create correct responses Principle 6: Corrective Feedback using thePrinciple 6: Corrective Feedback using thestaircase approachstaircase approach
Final ThoughtsFinal Thoughts 5 key components of Tier 2 to assist in deciding5 key components of Tier 2 to assist in decidingwho is in need of Tier 2 interventionwho is in need of Tier 2 intervention Teacher who work together in teams and withTeacher who work together in teams and withcolleagues including those with second languagecolleagues including those with second languageacquisition and special education can makeacquisition and special education can makeappropriate informed decisions based on data forappropriate informed decisions based on data forEnglish learners.English learners. Decision made on an individual student base andDecision made on an individual student base andtake academic progress, language acquisition,take academic progress, language acquisition,and proficient into consideration.and proficient into consideration.
Tier 3 InterventionsTier 3 Interventions““A culturally responsive RTI model hasA culturally responsive RTI model hastremendous potential to…moretremendous potential to…moreappropriately diffierentiate betweenappropriately diffierentiate betweenculturally and linguistically diverseculturally and linguistically diverselearners who do and do not havelearners who do and do not havedisabilities. Only by doing so can alldisabilities. Only by doing so can allchildren achieve their full potential.”children achieve their full potential.”-Klinger, Sorrells, & Barrera-Klinger, Sorrells, & BarreraBarbara ShaughnessyBarbara Shaughnessy
It is difficult to distinguish struggling EnglishIt is difficult to distinguish struggling Englishlearners from those having disabilities because oflearners from those having disabilities because ofthese several profiles;these several profiles; English learners who are literate and fluent inEnglish learners who are literate and fluent intheir home languagetheir home language English learners who speak their native languageEnglish learners who speak their native languagefluently but are not literate in itfluently but are not literate in it English learners born in the US but are notEnglish learners born in the US but are notcompletely fluent in their home language nor yetcompletely fluent in their home language nor yetproficient in Englishproficient in English
Tier Three is different because….Tier Three is different because…. It is individualized, intensive, explicit ,small groupIt is individualized, intensive, explicit ,small groupinstruction.instruction. The most intensive level in instruction provided toThe most intensive level in instruction provided tostudents in general educationstudents in general education The goal is remediation of existing problems andThe goal is remediation of existing problems andprevention of more severe problemsprevention of more severe problems In the best of all worlds, the person deliveringIn the best of all worlds, the person deliveringinstruction should have an understanding ofinstruction should have an understanding ofsecond language acquisition and be familiar withsecond language acquisition and be familiar withthe students culturethe students culture
What is different about Tier Three?What is different about Tier Three? Tier Three is:Tier Three is: Teacher centered, systematic and explicitTeacher centered, systematic and explicit Intended for aIntended for a specificspecific duration of timeduration of time Part of a RTI process where studentsPart of a RTI process where students move in andmove in andoutout of tiersof tiers A way toA way to identifyidentify disabilitiesdisabilities Tier Three is not:Tier Three is not: More of the same instruction the student receivedMore of the same instruction the student receivedin the core curriculumin the core curriculum A life sentenceA life sentence A way to remove challenging students from theA way to remove challenging students from theclassroomclassroom Not necessarily special educationNot necessarily special education
Learning Disability –Hard to DefineLearning Disability –Hard to Define Learning Disability is used to describe a disorder that affectsLearning Disability is used to describe a disorder that affectslistening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, math, and sociallistening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, math, and socialskills.skills. More complicated when a student is culturally and linguisticallyMore complicated when a student is culturally and linguisticallydiversediverse Critical to assess students suspected of learning disabilities bothCritical to assess students suspected of learning disabilities bothin the home language and in Englishin the home language and in English English learners with learning disabilities will not make quickEnglish learners with learning disabilities will not make quickprogress with exposure to English.progress with exposure to English. Learning disabilities are life long and academic progress will beLearning disabilities are life long and academic progress will beslower than for a student whose only challenge is developingslower than for a student whose only challenge is developingEnglish proficiency.English proficiency.
How do we distinguish a Disability from a Difference?How do we distinguish a Disability from a Difference? 1. Use records – cumulative files will paint a picture of educational1. Use records – cumulative files will paint a picture of educationalhistoryhistory 2. Interviews – families are our best information source2. Interviews – families are our best information source 3. Observations – in-class observations are critical to see if the3. Observations – in-class observations are critical to see if thestudent is receiving high quality instruction that meets his needsstudent is receiving high quality instruction that meets his needs 4. Testing – assessments provides valuable information on4. Testing – assessments provides valuable information onperformance. However no single test should be used forperformance. However no single test should be used forplacementplacement
A successful IEP Meeting should:A successful IEP Meeting should: Reassure the parent that you are there to helpReassure the parent that you are there to help Have an interpreter available at the meetingHave an interpreter available at the meeting Make sure the parents understand everything being discussedMake sure the parents understand everything being discussed suggest what the parents can do at home to helpsuggest what the parents can do at home to help Offer an “open door” policy for frequent questions andOffer an “open door” policy for frequent questions andcommunicationscommunications Offer an list of community resourcesOffer an list of community resources
Wrap UpWrap Up Tier OneTier One Classroom modification, accommodations, andClassroom modification, accommodations, anddocumentationdocumentation Tier TwoTier Two Further modification, progress monitoring andFurther modification, progress monitoring anddocumentationdocumentation Tier ThreeTier Three Intensive instruction focusing on specific needsIntensive instruction focusing on specific needsfor longer, provided by a highly trained teacher,for longer, provided by a highly trained teacher,monitored weekly.monitored weekly.
Special Considerations forSpecial Considerations forSecondary English LearnersSecondary English LearnersCheri ZimmermanCheri Zimmerman“What RTI does is put everybody on the same playingfield. It doesn’t matter what your language structure is,whether or not you’re disabled, or whether or not you’repoor. What matters is that you need to progress at asatisfactory pace in the general curriculum.”-Wayne Sailor
Why do Secondary English LearnersWhy do Secondary English LearnersStruggle with Reading and Writing?Struggle with Reading and Writing? There is a strong relationship between literacyproficiency and academic achievement. Students need to use English to:– 1. Read and understand content– 2. Understand complex expository from textbooks– 3. Read reference material– 4. Write persuasively– 5. Make predictions– 6. Draw conclusions
Students must use their emergingStudents must use their emergingEnglish Knowledge to completeEnglish Knowledge to completeassignmentsassignments Knowledge of EnglishKnowledge of English Knowledge of ContentKnowledge of Content Knowledge of how tasks are to beKnowledge of how tasks are to becompletedcompleted
Major Challenges to improve literacy ofMajor Challenges to improve literacy ofadolescent English Learners are theadolescent English Learners are thefollowing:following: Lack of common criteria for identifying English learners and tracking theiracademic performance Lack of appropriate assessments for measuring native-language literacy,content knowledge, and English literacy development Inadequate educator capacity for improving literacy in adolescent Englishlearners Lack of appropriate and flexible program options Inadequate use of research-based instructional practices Lack of a strong and coherent research agenda about adolescent Englishlearners literacy*Short and Fitzsimmons (2006, p. 14)
RTI Effective Tier 1 SecondaryRTI Effective Tier 1 SecondaryInstruction: Eight PrinciplesInstruction: Eight Principles Assessment-based literacy program Explicit instruction to prepare them from college/work Rich text materials across genres and literacies A curriculum that is socioculturally aware Rich, engaging, motivating instruction Explicit Vocabulary Instruction Instruction in technologies Differentiated instruction
RTI Effective Tier 1 and 2RTI Effective Tier 1 and 2Secondary InstructionSecondary Instruction Consider both in-school and out-of-school literacieswhen designing interventions– *out-of-school internet searches, social networking, hobbies,games etc. Consider the household literacy skills students havedeveloped while helping family members, holding part-time jobs Motivation, identity, choice and engagement areimportant factors, including self-selection of readingmaterial, vocabulary The schedule
Putting It All Together:Putting It All Together:Options for organizing a Secondary RTIOptions for organizing a Secondary RTIprogram for ELLsprogram for ELLsLevel 1: Enhanced content Instruction withthe SIOP ModelUse of instructional methods in core subjectsthat develop language, literacy and contentproficiency for all students, regardless ofliteracy levels, and that provides students thecompetitive skills they need for post-graduatesuccessLevel 2: EmbeddedStrategy InstructionUse of instructional methods in and acrosscontent classes that provide practice in theuse of learning strategies in w hole-classconfigurations that allow access to college-ready curriculumLevel 3: Intensive Strategy Instru ctionUse of instructional methods that developmastery of specific learning strategies forstudents needing short-term instruction of thestrategies embedded throughout the classroomlessons.Level 4: Intensive Basic Skill InstructionUse of instructional methods that developmastery of entry-level language and literacyskills for students needing intensive,accelerated language and literacy intervention.Level 5: Therapeutic InterventionUse of instructional methods that developmastery of language and literacy foundationsrelated to the content and learning strategiesthat occur in classroom instruction forlanguage-disabled students.
Other OptionsOther OptionsOption 2 Option 3 Option 4ELD/ESL, depending onstudents’ English proficiency.ELD/ESL, depending onstudents’ English proficiencyELD/ESL, depending onstudents’ English proficiencyTier 1 and 2 students receivegrade-level instruction inheterogeneous classes.Tier 1 and 2 students receivegrade-level instruction inheterogeneous classes.All language arts classes arehomogenously grouped in 2period blocksTier 2 students receive anextra period of strategicinterventionTier 2 students receive anextra period of strategicintervention in homogenousclasses.Tier 1 and 2 students receivegrade-level instruction plus anextra period for enrichment orstrategic instructionStudents receive Tier 3interventions for 2 periodsTier 3 students receive 2periods of intensive instructionthat is either in addition to orreplaces the core and anelective classTier 3 students receive 2periods of intensive instructionthat is either in addition to orreplaces grade-levelinstruction and an electiveclass. Classes are parallelscheduled to allow studentmovement based on data.Classes occur throughout thedayReading/language arts classesare parallel scheduled.
Success and Barriers toSuccess and Barriers toRTI ImplementationRTI ImplementationChristine DiakosChristine Diakos“The great aim of education is notknowledge, but action.”-Herbert Spencer (1820–1903)
Goal of RTIGoal of RTIRTI is intended to function as aschoolwide approach for maximizingstudent outcomes and minimizingthe number of students whoeventually are labeled as “disabled.”
6 Elements for6 Elements forEffective RTI ImplementationEffective RTI Implementation 1. Professional Development 2. Engaged Administrators 3. District Level Support 4. Willingness of Staff 5. Sufficient Time 6. Grass Roots Buy-In/Participation
How do these elements relate toHow do these elements relate toEnglish Language Learners?English Language Learners? Professional Development Best Practice New Hires Redefinition of Roles Time Changing Instructional Practice Voice
Six Principles ofSix Principles ofSuccessful RTI ProgramsSuccessful RTI Programs 1. Instruction 2. Responsive Teaching and Differentiation 3. Assessment 4. Collaboration 5. Systemic and ComprehensiveApproaches 6. Expertise