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  • “ News of the Day” in kindergarten HighScope automaticity
  • Phonics

    1. 1. Conquer the Code: Sounds, Symbols, and Syllables
    2. 2. Reading . . . <ul><li>an extraordinary ability, </li></ul><ul><li> peculiarly human and yet </li></ul><ul><li> distinctly unnatural. </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Sally Shaywitz, Overcoming Dyslexia , 2003 </li></ul>
    3. 3. Literacy . . . <ul><li>Begins at birth, </li></ul><ul><li> and </li></ul><ul><li>is a lifelong process! </li></ul>
    4. 4. Unfortunately, <ul><li>Children are not born with this insight, nor does it develop naturally without instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Reid Lyon, 1997, NICHD </li></ul>
    5. 5. In today’s world, <ul><li>learning to read well is a key to the future success of our children. Not only is reading fluently and with comprehension by third grade a legislated priority, it is an ethical and professional imperative. </li></ul><ul><li>(Wolfe and Nevills, 2004) </li></ul>
    6. 6. In fact, <ul><li>teaching reading is </li></ul><ul><li>Rocket Science! </li></ul><ul><li>(See Teaching Reading Is Rocket Science: What Expert Teachers of Reading Should Know and Be Able to Do by Louisa C. Moats, AFT, June 1999) </li></ul>
    7. 7. Research Practice <ul><li>National Research Council: Committee on National Research Council: Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children (1998) </li></ul><ul><li>National Research Council - Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children’s Reading Success (1999) </li></ul><ul><li>National Reading Panel: Teaching Children to Read (2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read (2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific Research in Education (2002) </li></ul>
    8. 8. Reading and the Brain <ul><li>“ If we provide intervention at an early age, then we can improve reading fluency and facilitate the development of the neural systems that underlie skilled reading.” </li></ul><ul><li>( Sally and Bennett Shaywitz, </li></ul><ul><li>Educational Leadership , March 2004, p. 10) </li></ul>
    9. 9. Language Components <ul><li>Receptive Expressive </li></ul><ul><li>Oral Listening Speaking </li></ul><ul><li>Written Reading Writing </li></ul>
    10. 10. “The Big Five” <ul><li>Phonemic Awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Phonics </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Fluency </li></ul><ul><li>Text Comprehension </li></ul>
    11. 11. Reading Components and the “Big Five” <ul><li>Means </li></ul><ul><li>DECODING </li></ul><ul><li>Phonemic Awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Phonics </li></ul><ul><li> End </li></ul><ul><li>COMPREHENSION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Text Comprehension </li></ul></ul>Fluency
    12. 12. Lesson Plan Format <ul><li>Preread Schema </li></ul><ul><li>Read it Story grammar </li></ul><ul><li>Reread it Fluency </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss it Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>React to it Comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Code it Alphabetic code </li></ul><ul><li>Apply it Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer it Generalization </li></ul>
    13. 13. Read with “ H u G s” <ul><li>u niting </li></ul><ul><li>H olistic & G raphophonic </li></ul><ul><li> s trategies </li></ul>
    14. 14. Reading is the union of <ul><li>Comprehension + Decoding </li></ul><ul><li> (Holistic) (Graphophonic) </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-read it Code it: </li></ul><ul><li>Read it Hear it </li></ul><ul><li>Reread it See it </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss it Associate it </li></ul><ul><li>React to it Expand it </li></ul>
    15. 15. Code it: Alphabetic Code <ul><li>Hear it </li></ul><ul><li>See it </li></ul><ul><li>Associate it </li></ul><ul><li>Expand it </li></ul><ul><li>Phonological: sound </li></ul><ul><li>Print: symbol </li></ul><ul><li>Sound/symbol </li></ul><ul><li>Structural analysis </li></ul>
    16. 16. Conquer the Code: Sounds, Symbols, and Syllables <ul><li>Sounds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phonological Awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phonemic Awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Symbols </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Print Awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alphabet knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Syllables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vowel Patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Syllabication </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Oral Language <ul><li>Listening and Speaking </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy Events </li></ul><ul><li>“Grand Conversations” </li></ul><ul><li>Phonological Awareness: sensitivity to the sounds of language </li></ul>
    18. 18. Phonology: Sounds <ul><li>Phonological awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Phonemic awareness </li></ul><ul><li>44 phonemes (speech sounds) </li></ul><ul><li>Oral / auditory </li></ul><ul><li>Related to reading and writing </li></ul>
    19. 19. How many sounds? <ul><li>in the word box </li></ul><ul><li>in the word enough </li></ul><ul><li>in the word precious </li></ul>
    20. 20. 44 Sounds of the English Language <ul><li>Vowels (10) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>/ ă / / ā / </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>/ ĕ / / ē / </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>/ ĭ / / ī / </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>/ ŏ / / ō / </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>/ ŭ / / ū / </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consonants (18) </li></ul><ul><li>/b/ /j/ /s/ </li></ul><ul><li>/k/ /l/ /t/ </li></ul><ul><li>/d/ /m/ /v/ </li></ul><ul><li>/f/ /n/ /w/ </li></ul><ul><li>/g/ /p/ /y/ </li></ul><ul><li>/h/ /r/ /z/ </li></ul>
    21. 21. 44 Sounds of the English Language <ul><li>Vowel Diphthongs (2) </li></ul><ul><li>/ou/ </li></ul><ul><li>/oi/ </li></ul><ul><li>Vowel Variants (3) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>/au/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>/oo/ (moon) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>/oo/ (book) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Schwa (1) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>/ ə / </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consonant Digraphs(7) </li></ul><ul><li> /sh/ /ch/ /wh/ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>/th/ / th / /zh/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> /ng/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>r-controlled (3) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>/ar/ /or/ /er/ </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Phonological Awareness <ul><li>“ Funnel – ogical” awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitivity to the sounds of language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>words, syllables, and sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Includes phonemic awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Necessary for understanding the alphabetic principle and how sounds match print </li></ul>
    23. 23. Phonological Awareness <ul><li>Word awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Rhyming words </li></ul><ul><li>Syllable awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Alliteration </li></ul><ul><li>Onset-rime </li></ul><ul><li>Phonemic segmentation and blending </li></ul><ul><li>Phonemic manipulation </li></ul>
    24. 24. Phonological Activities <ul><li>Clapping, standing, using body motions </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulatives, e.g., linking blocks, puzzles, objects, chips or tokens </li></ul><ul><li>Pictures, books, posters </li></ul><ul><li>Music and rhyme </li></ul><ul><li>“ Feel it in your mouth!” </li></ul><ul><li>Elkonin (sound) boxes </li></ul>
    25. 25. Written Language <ul><li>Reading and writing </li></ul><ul><li>Print awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Reading: decoding + comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Sound – symbol connection [phonics] </li></ul><ul><li>Writing: spelling, handwriting, written expression [writing process] </li></ul>
    26. 26. Orthography: Symbols <ul><li>Alphabet (26 letters) </li></ul><ul><li>Represent speech sounds </li></ul><ul><li>Written / visual </li></ul><ul><li>Spelling patterns </li></ul>
    27. 27. Print Awareness <ul><li>Concepts of Print </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Book concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One-to-one correspondence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directionality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alphabet Knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formation </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. How do children develop print awareness? <ul><li>Read alouds </li></ul><ul><li>Shared reading </li></ul><ul><li>Print rich environment </li></ul><ul><li>Big Books, little books, lots of books </li></ul><ul><li>Hearing poems, nursery rhymes </li></ul><ul><li>Seeing charts, signs, lists, “Morning Message” and “Sign in” </li></ul>
    29. 29. Alphabet Activities <ul><li>Sort plastic or magnetic letters </li></ul><ul><li>Use letter cards with the ABC song </li></ul><ul><li>Match environmental print labels to alphabet letter cards </li></ul><ul><li>Locate target letter by using highlighter tape </li></ul><ul><li>Write letters in the air, using large muscle movements </li></ul><ul><li>Write letters in shaving cream, sand, or </li></ul><ul><li>rice trays </li></ul>
    30. 30. Pre-Phonics <ul><li>Phonological Awareness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Print Awareness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbols </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Phonics <ul><li>“ refers to instructional practices that emphasize how spellings are related to speech sounds in systematic ways.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998) </li></ul>
    32. 32. What is the Alphabetic Principle? <ul><li>the systematic and predictable relationship between the letters of written language and the sounds of spoken language </li></ul><ul><li>the way print matches speech </li></ul><ul><li>the relationship between phonology and orthography </li></ul><ul><li>also known as the alphabetic code </li></ul>
    33. 33. Why learn the Alphabetic Code? <ul><li>It provides the understanding for the internal structure of words. </li></ul><ul><li>It helps children recognize familiar words and decode new words. </li></ul><ul><li>It connects reading and writing. </li></ul><ul><li>It enables children to read with fluency and comprehension. </li></ul>
    34. 34. Phonics <ul><li>Synthetic Phonics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Part to whole </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Analytic Phonics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whole to part </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word families (rimes) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vowel Patterns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6 Syllable types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>85-88% regularity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structural Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Root words, prefixes & suffixes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compound words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contractions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Syllabication </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Color-Code Blends bl- cr- st- -nd -mp etc. Digraphs sh ch th wh ph Vowels a e i o u -y -w
    36. 36. Orthography: Syllables <ul><li>Six basic syllable types </li></ul><ul><li>85 – 88% of English language </li></ul><ul><li>Vowel Patterns (syllable types) </li></ul><ul><li>Structure of our language </li></ul><ul><li>Alphabetic code </li></ul>
    37. 37. Vowel Patterns <ul><li>Regular </li></ul><ul><li>Reliable </li></ul><ul><li>Research-based </li></ul><ul><li>Effective </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to use </li></ul>
    38. 38. Vowel Pattern Chart C+le 2 Vowels Talkers Whiners Bossy r Silent e Open Closed
    39. 39. Vowel Pattern Chart C+le t a - ble b u b - ble t u r - tle 2 Vowels Talkers Whiners b oa t b oy m ea t cl ow n Bossy r c a r g i rl t u r- Silent e r i d e c a p e h o p e Open m e g o t a - Closed c a t f i sh b u b-
    40. 40. Vowel Patterns <ul><li>Closed: </li></ul><ul><li>A word or syllable that contains only one vowel followed by one or more consonants; </li></ul><ul><li>the vowel is short. </li></ul><ul><li>“ One lonely vowel squished in the middle, </li></ul><ul><li> says its special sound just a little.” </li></ul><ul><li>s a t b e d f i n t o p g u m </li></ul><ul><li> s a nd b e st pr i nt sh o p l u nch </li></ul><ul><li>a t E d i n o n u p </li></ul>
    41. 41. Vowel Patterns <ul><li>Open: </li></ul><ul><li>A word or syllable that ends with one vowel; the vowel is long. </li></ul><ul><li>“If one vowel at the end is free, it pops way up and says its name to me.” </li></ul><ul><li>m e sh e h i g o fl u fl y </li></ul>
    42. 42. Vowel Patterns <ul><li>Silent e [Magic e]: </li></ul><ul><li>A word or syllable that ends in e, containing one consonant before the final e and one vowel before that consonant; the vowel is long. </li></ul><ul><li>“ The magic e is quiet, but it has a claim to fame; </li></ul><ul><li>it makes the vowel before it say its real name.” </li></ul><ul><li>The magic e is so powerful, it gives all its strength to the other vowel so that it can say its real name. </li></ul><ul><li>m a k e St e v e r i d e h o p e c u b e </li></ul>
    43. 43. Vowel Patterns <ul><li>Bossy r [r-controlled]: </li></ul><ul><li>A word or syllable containing a vowel followed by r; the vowel sound is altered by the r. </li></ul><ul><li>The letter r is so bossy, it tells the vowel that it can’t say its real name (long vowel) or its special sound (short vowel), but must say the r sound (as in car, for, her). </li></ul><ul><li>c a r h e r g i rl f o r c u rl </li></ul>
    44. 44. Vowel Patterns <ul><li>Double Vowel Talkers: [vowel digraphs] </li></ul><ul><li>A word or syllable containing two adjacent vowels; the first one is long. </li></ul><ul><li>“ When two vowels go walking, the first one does the talking and says its name.” </li></ul><ul><li>r ai n d ay s ee m ea t p ie </li></ul><ul><li>b oa t t oe sl ow s ui t bl ue </li></ul>
    45. 45. Vowel Patterns <ul><li>Double Vowel Whiners :[diphthongs and variants] </li></ul><ul><li>A word or syllable that contains two adjacent vowels; the vowels say neither a long or short vowel sound, but rather a very different sound. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes when two vowels are next to each other, they make a funny whining sound, like when you fall down and say “ow,” “aw,” “oy,” and get a “boo-boo.” </li></ul><ul><li>f au lt s aw f oi l b oy l ou d c ow m oo n n ew b oo k </li></ul>
    46. 46. Vowel Patterns <ul><li>C+le: [ c onsonant + le] </li></ul><ul><li>This syllable ends with “le” preceded by a consonant, and occurs in two-syllable words. </li></ul><ul><li>When a word ends with a consonant and “le,” the “le” grabs the consonant before it, and the word breaks into two parts right before that consonant. </li></ul><ul><li>b u b–ble c a –ble ea –gle p oo –dle p u r-ple </li></ul>
    47. 47. Vowel Pattern “Prediction Power” The prediction power of the patterns ranges from 77 to 89%, each of which is much better than predictions on the basis of chance alone. Teaching children vowel patterns can make a difference in their fluency and comprehension (May, 2002). C+le 2 Vowels Talkers Whiners 77% Bossy r Silent e 81% Open 77% Closed 86 – 89%
    48. 48. Irregular / “Memory” Words <ul><li>About 12 – 15% of English words do not conform to the regular patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Can be taught through context, repetition, multisensory techniques, and learning games, e.g., Word Wall activities, VAAKT (associative word cards), BINGO </li></ul>
    49. 49. Structural Analysis <ul><li>Root words and affixes </li></ul><ul><li>Compound words </li></ul><ul><li>Contractions </li></ul><ul><li>Syllabication </li></ul>
    50. 50. Root Words and Affixes <ul><li>Prefix Root Suffix </li></ul><ul><li>un friend ly </li></ul><ul><li>re heat ed </li></ul><ul><li>in spect or </li></ul><ul><li>Color-highlight or draw a box around affixes (prefix = green; suffix = red) </li></ul><ul><li>Make charts for similar affixes </li></ul>
    51. 51. Compound Words <ul><li>Begin with whole word, e.g., doghouse </li></ul><ul><li>Segment and blend </li></ul><ul><li>Use fists, puzzles, linking blocks </li></ul><ul><li>Make lists of compound words </li></ul><ul><li>Use color-coding ( dog house ) </li></ul><ul><li>Practice deletion (say doghouse without dog) </li></ul>
    52. 52. Contractions <ul><li>Compare “long” and “short” forms, e.g., do n o t (long – 2 words) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>don ’ t (short – contraction) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Highlight apostrophe (use elbow macaroni) and deleted letter/s in red </li></ul><ul><li>Use a rubberband to show long and shortened forms (same meaning) </li></ul><ul><li>Make lists of contractions from stories </li></ul>
    53. 53. Syllabication Patterns <ul><li>C+le turtle tur – tle </li></ul><ul><li>VC/CV rabbit rab – bit </li></ul><ul><li>V/CV tiger ti – ger </li></ul><ul><li>VC/V camel cam – el </li></ul><ul><li>V/V lion li - on </li></ul>
    54. 54. Strategy for Syllabication <ul><li>“ Spot and dot” the vowels </li></ul><ul><li>Connect the dots </li></ul><ul><li>Look at the number of consonants between the vowels </li></ul><ul><li>If 2 – break between the consonants </li></ul><ul><li>If 1 – break before the consonant; if it doesn’t sound right, move over one letter </li></ul>
    55. 55. Apply and Transfer <ul><li>Provide many opportunities to use these skills and strategies, both in isolation and in connected text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fiction and non-fiction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poetry and songs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decodable text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning games and activities </li></ul></ul>
    56. 56. Why? <ul><li>When students have the MEANS to conquer the code, </li></ul><ul><li>they will reach the GOAL , and </li></ul><ul><li>master the meaning! </li></ul>
    57. 57. The End <ul><li>Remember . . . </li></ul><ul><li>Teach a child to read, </li></ul><ul><li>Give a gift for life!! </li></ul><ul><li>Thank you for your </li></ul><ul><li>kind attention! </li></ul><ul><li>Happy Teaching! </li></ul>
    58. 58. Websites of Interest <ul><li> American Federation of Teachers </li></ul><ul><li> Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development </li></ul><ul><li>www. educationworld .com Education World </li></ul><ul><li>www. fcrr .org Florida Center for Reading Research </li></ul><ul><li> Florida Branch - IDA </li></ul><ul><li>www. interdys .org International Dyslexia Association </li></ul><ul><li> National Institute for Literacy </li></ul><ul><li> National Reading Panel </li></ul><ul><li> International Reading Association </li></ul><ul><li> Reading Rockets </li></ul>