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  2. OBJECTIVES  Principles of IEC  Communication purpose and Barriers  Methods and Techniques of (IEC)  Designing, Preparation and Selection of teaching Aids  Teaching Methodology  Principles of Teaching and Learning  Audio Visual aids  Utilisation of Learning Opportunities
  3. DEFINATIONS Learning: This is a process of gaining knowledge and expertise. The emphasis is on a recipient of knowledge and skills and results in behavioural changes. Teaching: his is the process of transferring information. It involves establishing and arranging events t facilitate learning. Teaching emphasises on the provider of the knowledge. Communication: the imparting or exchanging of
  4. DEFINATIONS  Information is telling something to an individual about a person or a thing or a subject.  Education: is a gradual process of learning through which a person gains knowledge and understanding of a subject.  Communication is a two way process of giving information or sharing ideas between two or more people.  Message: a verbal or written communication is what is transmitted in the communication process Information Education and Communication: a public health approach aiming at changing or reinforcing health-related behaviours in a target audience, concerning a specific problem and
  5. PRINCIPLES OF INFORMATION, EDUCATION AND COMMUNICATION (IEC) WHO recommends the following framework principles wh developing, implementing, and evaluating IEC interventio Clear objectives Client centeredness Appropriate research methodology Emphasis on positive behaviour change Carefully crafted and tested educational messages Appropriate channels of communication
  6.  Use of inexpensive educational materials  Culturally relevant graphic messages for home use  Linkage with health care delivery system  Mechanisms for monitoring, evaluation and feedback
  7. PURPOSE OF COMMUNICATION The purposes of communication include the following: For sharing of Information and Ideas To increase Knowledge To influence people for change in attitudes and beliefs For bringing about behavioural change For persuasion and negotiation For motivation To provide counselling
  8.  For giving Instructions  To help reaching a decision  To building human relationship  For entertainment
  9. BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION As a good communicator, you should be aware of the following communication barriers so that your message can be well received. The following are some of the barriers to communication: Physiological. These are barriers that result from the receivers physical state. For example, if a person is hard of hearing, they may have a problem hearing what you are saying. You should therefore use media that can get the message to them, e. g, a poster or written document.
  10. Psychological – emotional disturbances, neurosis, levels of intelligence, language or comprehension. When the receiver has a psychological problem it means they may not be able to appreciate what you are saying, therefore the problem will need to be solved before proceeding with giving the information you want to send. If the problem is with the sender it means you also need to solve your issue in order to effectively communicate to your clients
  11. Environmental barriers to effective IEC are noise, invisibility and congestion. These can cause distraction and lack of concentration. Identify a place where it is quiet and enough lighting in order for the participants to get the information. Cultural – illiteracy, low levels of knowledge and understanding, customs, beliefs, religion, attitudes, economic and social class differences, language variations, cultural difficulties between foreigners and nationals, between urban education and the rural population.
  12. Even when health services are readily available, the social and cultural barriers can present serious problems to the achievement of health behaviour change. Using words: which cannot be understood by the audience (bombastic words). As health care provider you need to assess the level of education of those listening to your information so that you use the language that is appropriate and they can understand.
  13. Information- The information you prepare may be too much so that the receiver is overloaded and they lose concentration or it can be inadequate to meet their needs this will lead to failure to get the information you are trying to send. There are times that the message you choose might contradicting the beliefs or priorities of your clients, this will make them loose interest in what you are talking about. Poor communication skills by the sender – The sender might not be loud enough to be heard or
  14. Media- In certain circumstances the means you use to send the message may not be appropriate for the information you are trying to pass on. For example you are teaching mothers on the exercises to use after delivery; you decide to give a lecture, when demonstration could have been more appropriate. Insufficient feedback- Feedback helps you to identify whether the methods you are using for teaching are ideal for your clients therefore it is important to ask them whether they are getting the message. It can also be that you do not give response when they ask questions hence they will
  15. HEALTH COMMUNICATION Individual Approach Group Approach  Personal contact Lectures  Home visit Demonstrations  Personal letters Discussion methods
  16. -Group discussion Printed material (fliers) -Panel discussions Direct mailing -Symposium Posters, bill boards & signs -conferences Health museums & exhibitions -serminars Folk methods -Role play (drama) exhibitions -Role play (drama) Internet
  17. METHODS AND TECHNIQUES OF (IEC)  Selecting and sequencing content Select the content that is most appropriate and relevant to clients’ needs and that is likely to result in accomplishing the stated learning objectives Organize content in logical sequence from simple to complex or from familiar to less familiar.  Selecting teaching technique Depends on characteristics of clients, type of learning tasks, content involved, and availability of resources to implement strategies.
  18. Strategies should address content to be presented and interest of the audience Consider learner’s preferred mode of learning e.g. visually, discussion, role play, drama.  Reviewing Or Developing Educational Material Materials used should be appropriate to the audience and content in terms of age group, adolescents, youths, adults. Example if projecting information, audience must have a clear view of the information. If demonstrating all must have clear vision of what is being demonstrated.
  19.  Planning Evaluation Evaluation is a systematic continuous process of collecting, analyzing and interpreting information to determine the extent to which the participants are receiving instructional (specific) objectives, quality of teaching effectiveness of the programmer. There are two types of evalution namely: - • Formative evaluation: is continuous evaluation during the session. It involves the effects of the presentation as it is given. It includes determining whether clients understand what is being presented
  20. Summative evaluation: comes at the end of the session. It is designed to determine the extent to which the instructional (specific) objectives have been achieved. Purposes of evaluation  Provides feedback to clients and make them aware of the parts learnt and those that are not understood.  Monitor progress so as to identify specific difficulties of individuals and suggest remedial measures.  Measures effectiveness of teaching.
  21. DESIGNING, PREPARATION AND SELECTION OF TEACHING A (tape, mega-phone, camera, sound examples o multimedia) No health education can be effective without audio visual Aids. Audio-visual Aids help to: Simplify unfamiliar concepts Bring about understanding where words fail Reinforce learning by appealing to more than one sence Provide a dynamic way of avoiding monotomy. Some of the Audio-visual Aids are
  22. 1.Auditory Aids – Radio, tape-recorder, microphone, amplifiers, earphones 2.Visual Aids Not requiring projection: chalkboard, white board and markers, leaflets, posters, charts, models, specimens.  Requiring projections: Slides, film strips. Computers and LCDs, overhead projector and transparencies. 3.Combined Audio-Visual Aids: elevision, sound films (cinemas), slide-tape combination, computer. Knowledge of the advantages and disadvantages of
  23. AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS This Is the use of models, pictures and other things to help the learner visualize the message being sent. TYPES OF AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS • Auditory Aids (Radio, Earphone, Microphone) • Visual aids  Not requiring projector(chalkboard, white board, poster,charts and models)  Requiring projection(computer, LCD, film strip)
  24. COMBINED AUDIO VISUAL AIDS • TV • SOUND FILM • CINEMAS • SLIDE TAPE Examples Of Audio Visual Things to note when using Audio visual aids  Social economic status(interest of the audience, experience, intelligent).  The presenter’s familiarity with the originality and the skill in the selection, preparation and use of it’s very important.
  25.  Audio visual aids should have specific education value and stimulate interest.  Audio visual aids should have specific education value and stimulate interest. Audio visual aids should suit the objective and should have unique features.
  26. MERITS OF AUDIO VISUAL AIDS • It brings about understanding where words fail • Provide a dynamic way of avoiding monotony • Teaching aids makes it easier for the educator to relate to everyday activities • Simply unfamiliar concepts • They improve concentration when various method are used • It relates theory to practice
  27. TEACHING METHODOLOGY • Is refer to a set of practices and principles used by teachers to make the process of teaching and learning highly effective for their learners. Lesson Planning • A lesson plan is a written description of what will be done in a teaching and learning situation to achieve the purpose of the session. Purposes Of A Lesson Plan i. Lesson presentation is organised and systematic ii. Time required for the session is identified and made available
  28. Componets Of A Lesson Plan There are different formats of organising a lesson plan. However, all matter what format is used the lesson plan for teaching session defines the following:- Topic: the subject matter to be discussed Objective: indication of what the participants will receive Target group: know the level of your audience Facilitator: person conducting the lesson plan. Content: the learning experiences that the
  29. Content: the learning experiences that the participants should have to achieve the stated objectives. Teaching methods: techniques you are going to use to deliver the subject matter. Venue: where the lesson will be conducted from Duration: how long it will take to present the lesson. Time: time of presentation. Teaching or learning materials/aids: items that are
  30. Introduction: A brief discussion of what is to be presented by the facilitator Evaluation: to find out/assess how much the learns know or have assimilated. Summary: reinforcement of key elements relevant to the topics. Conclusion: brief or opinion which is as a result of reasoning or make final decisions for something/lesson.
  31. Specific Objective Content Teaching Aids Teacher’s Activity learners Activity Evaluation
  32. PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING AND LEARNING Credibility: the degree to which the message to be communicated is perceived trustworthy by the receiver, unless people have trust and confidence in the communicator, no desired action will ensue after receiving the message. Interest: Pschologically, people may not listen to the message unless they have an interest in it. The communicator has to explain the need of the message before he starts to communicate to the
  33. Participation: A key to health education. It is based on the psychological principle of active learning. Motivation: in every individual there is fundamental desire to learn. Awafening this desire is called motivation. Comprehension: in health education we must know the level of understanding, education and literacy of people whom the teaching is directed. Never use words which cannot be understood by the people.
  34.  Reinforcement: few people can learn all that is new in asingle period of time.if there is no repetition there is a tendency of going back to pre-awareness stage. If the massage is repeated in different ways, people are more likely to remember it.  Learning by doing: learning is an action process;nota memorising one in thenarrow sence.”If I hear I forget; if I see I remember; if I do I know” illustrate the importance of doing.
  35.  Known to unknown: in health education we proceed from a concrete to abstract i.e. from the particular to the general, from simple to the more complicated; from easy to more difficult; and from known to unknown. The rules are that where people are and with what they understand and then proceed to new knowledge.  Setting an example: a health educator must set a good example in the things he is teaching. If he is explaining on the hazards of smoking, he
  36. Leaders: psychologists have shown and established that we learn best from the people whom we have regard and respect in the community e.g the village headman, school teacher or political worker.  Good human relations: sharing of information, ideas and feelings happen most easily between people who have a good relationship. This goes hand in hand with developing communication skills.  Feedback: for effective communication feedback is
  37. UTILISATION OF LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES Priority Learning Needs A client may exhibit several unrelated learning needs. Because clients can assimilate only a certain amount of information at a time, the nurse and client need to decide which learning needs should be addressed first. Other needs can be addressed later. Identifying Goals And Levels Of Prevention
  38. Goals: (vision) involve specifying the broad purpose of the lesson e.g. the goals of a presentation on AIDs, might be a broaden learners’ understanding of AIDs and decrease fears of the disease. Identifying Goals for an educational encounter also enables the community health nurse to identify the level of prevention to be addressed e.g. the goal of reducing the incidence of HIV infection.
  39. DEVELOPING AND CLASSIFYING OBJECTIVES Developing Learning Objectives Learning objectives are statements of specific behaviours expected in the health education encounter. There are two types or objectives: - General Objective It is a general description of the qualifications that a student can acquire with the aid of the study unit, (Horst & Martens, 2013). This is an overall aim or goal. It states the end product or outcome of the learning/training experiences e.g. if the client is lacking knowledge on the importance of family
  40. Specific Objectives These are also called instructional objectives. They describe behaviour that constitutes learning. These are are much smaller components or precise tasks that are are part of the activities to be performed e.g. some specific objectives on the importance of family planning planning would be: -  Define family planning.  State the methods of family planning used.  Mention advantages /disadvantages of family
  41. Characteristics of a well stated specific objective Relevant: it should relate to the aims of the training that are primarily based on the professional functions the health service provider will perform. They are derived from the health needs of the production. Feasible: something that can be done and achieved. Observable: something that can be observed otherwise it will be impossible to measure. Measurable: can be measured by some criterion.
  42. Specific: Describe the exact action that is expected from the learning experience. Use verbs such as list, mention, state, define, identify, describe, outline. Do not use loaded words like; know, understand, appreciate, discuss These are used in general objectives because they need to be defined further into components to indicate what they exactly mean.
  43. Summary We have looked at the definition of key terms like learning and teaching. We discussed the principles of IEC among which are clarity of objectives, client centeredness, emphasis is on positive behaviour change etc. We looked on communication purposes and barriers; the purpose is to share information and ideas while barriers include physical, psychological social barriers just to mention a few. We also discussed various methods and techniques involved in delivering the message such as type of audience and appropriate teaching methods e.g discussion role play etc. We discussed designing, preparation and selection of teaching Aids and looked at a lesson plan preparation which emphasised on clarity of objectives. We also discussed some of the principles of teaching and learning so as to make IEC effective. I hope this knowledge you have achieved will help you provide good and effective IEC to your clients.
  44. References  Basavanthappa B.T. (2005). Nursing Education ,Jaypee Brothers medical Publications, New Delhi India  Clark, M.J. (1998). Nursing in the Community. Dimensions of Community Health Nursing.3rd ed. Applieton and Lange, California.  Horst, Z & Martens, M, 2013: The formulation of learning objectives, University of Twente, Netherlands.  Ministry of Health, (2002). Integrated Technical Guidelines for Front Health Workers. Lusaka, Zambia Oxford dictionary, oxford university press.  Park, K. (2005). Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine. 18th ed. PremNager, Jabalpur.