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  1. 1. Prepared by :Zhiyar muhammadnezif ibrahimParween dlovan muhammadamin
  2. 2. Scientific classificationKingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: NematodaClass: AdenophoreaOrder: TrichuridaFamily: TrichuridaeGenus: TrichurisSpecies: T. trichiura
  3. 3. a very common intestinal helminthic infection, and about onequarter of the worlds population is thought to carry the parasite.tropical Asia & to a lesser degree, in Africa and South America.Only patients with heavy parasite burden become symptomatic.
  4. 4. Poor hygiene is associated with trichuriasis transmission, and children areespecially vulnerable because of their high exposure risk.Prevalence of helminth infection was higher in the schools where hygieneconditions (i.e., tap water, hand washing soap) are lacking.Its recommended that the school health programs include deworming,health education, and improvement of hygiene conditions.
  5. 5. male, 30-45 mm; female, 35-50 mm
  6. 6. • Adults reside in the large intestine, cecum, and appendix of the host.• buries its thin, threadlike anterior half into the intestinal mucosa and feeds on tissue secretions, not blood.• . The cecum and colon are the most commonly infected sites,• in heavily infected individuals, infection can be present in more distal segments of the GI tract, such as the descending colon and rectum.
  7. 7.  Transmission: fecal-oral via embryonated ova. Reservoir: mainly human, others possible but host specificity not well documented. Epidemiology.Whipworm infection is more common in less-developedcountries. This parasite is carried by nearly one quarter of theworld population..
  8. 8. pathologyThe major pathology resembles that of inflammatorybowel disease due to mechanical disruption and toxicityof whipworms.The pathological changes include: hyperemia edema hemorrhage/bleeding In few cases, there are cellular proliferation and thickness of the intestinal wall causing inflammatory and granulomas
  9. 9. Clinical manifestations Light infestations (<100 worms) are frequently asymptomatic. Heavy infestations may have bloody diarrhea. Long-standing blood loss may lead to iron-deficiency anemia. Rectal prolapse is possible in severe cases. Vitamin A deficiency may also result due to infection. Mechanical damage to the mucosa may occur as well as toxic or inflammatory damage to the intestines of the host. Finger clubbing
  10. 10. Diagnosis T. trichiura eggs are detected in stool examination. Eggs will appear barrel-shaped and unembryonated, having bipolar plugs and a smooth shell.
  11. 11. o eosinophiliao Rarely, anemia.o Characteristic eggs on stool smear (oval with transparent bipolar plugs) are visible.o Each female produces up to 20,000 eggs per day. (No stool concentration technique is necessary.)Rectal prolapse can be diagnosed easily using .
  12. 12. Endoscopy often shows adult worms attached tothe bowel mucosa. (coconut cake rectum).
  13. 13. TREATMENTCauses worm death by selectively and irreversibly blocking glucoseuptake and other nutrients in the susceptible adult intestine wherehelminths dwell.Administer a second course if patient is not cured within 3-4 wk.Decreases whipworm ATP production, causing energy depletion,immobilization, and death.
  14. 14. Prevention & Control Avoid ingesting soil that may be contaminated with human feces, including where human fecal matter ("night soil") or wastewater is used to fertilize crops. Wash your hands with soap and warm water before handling food. Teach children the importance of washing hands to prevent infection. Wash, peel, or cook all raw vegetables and fruits before eating, particularly those that have been grown in soil that has been fertilized with manure.