NEOPOGANISM Neopoganism is bracketed together to contemporary religions. These denominations were formed as a result of renovating beliefs of gods, symbols, practice and other elements of ancient religions. Amongst believers, the name neopaganism seems to be offensive. A religion can be an example of such druid cult, as it is based on practice and customs of old Celts. In Poland, we can also find followers of this religion. This religion was common on Polish soil, before the Christianization was introduced.
HOW DID THIS RELIGION COME INTOEXISTENCE? Wicca is a modern pagan religion that draws upon a diverse set of ancient pagan religious motifs for its theological structure and ritual practice. The religion usually incorporates the practice of witchcraft. Developed in England in the first half of the 20th century, Wicca was later popularised in the 1950s and early 1960s by Gerald Gardner. Gardner was a retired British civil servant, and an amateur anthropologist and historian who had a broad familiarity with pagan religions, esoteric societies and occultism in general. Wicca is traditionally and primarily a duotheistic religion centred upon the idea of gender polarity and the worship of a Moon Goddess and a Horned God. The Goddess and the God may be regarded as the Divine Feminine and the Divine Masculine. They are complementary opposites or dualities, bearing similarities to the concept of yin and yang in Taoism
PRINCIPLES OF NEOPAGANISM - Right of the Triple Return - „Everything you do, whether good or bad, will return to you three times" Wiccan advice – „Do what you want, provided that your acts hurt nobody".
PHOTOSSymbol of the neopaganism: Neopaganist ceremony in Avebury:
CONFUCIANISM The Confucianism is rather a philosophical-religious system, rather than a religion itself. It was initiated in the 5th century BC by Confucius in China. The core of Confucianism is humanism, the belief that human beings are teachable, improvable and perfectible through personal and communal endeavour. Confucianism focuses on the cultivation of virtue and maintenance of ethics. Confucianism holds that one should give up ones life, if necessary, either passively or actively, for the sake of upholding the cardinal moral values of ren and yi. Although Confucius the man may have been a believer in Chinese folk religion, Confucianism as an ideology is humanistic and non-theistic, and does not involve a belief in the supernatural or in a personal god.
WHAT NEXT? Confucius never stated whether man was born good or evil, noting that By nature men are similar; by practice men are wide apart —implying that whether good or bad, Confucius must have perceived all men to be born with intrinsic similarities, but that man is conditioned and inﬂuenced by study and practise. Filial piety is considered among the greatest of virtues and must be shown towards both the living and the dead (including even remote ancestors). The term "filial“ characterizes the respect that a child, originally a son, should show to his parents.
HOW TO FULFIL HEAVENLY ORDER? In order to fulfil Heavenly Order one should have a strong willpower and fulfil ones role in the society. Every man should know his place in the social hierarchy. A master who is teaching you has an absolute power. Since the society is treated as the family, the master is treated as the father. Confucius divided people on noble (jünzi) and boors (xiaoren). The first group is guiding light, these are virtuous people, "natural- born" for exercising clerical positions. Whereas the second group have all negative features, but can become noble through the education. The Confucianism assumes that the society should be based on five connections of the relation and mutual obligations: The Five Bonds Ruler to Ruled Father to Son Husband to Wife Elder Brother to Younger Brother Friend to Friend
MORAL LAW Humanism is at the core in Confucianism. A simple way to appreciate Confucian thought is to consider it as being based on varying levels of honesty, and a simple way to understand Confucian thought is to examine the world by using the logic of humanity. Confucian ethics is characterized by the promotion of virtues, encompassed by the Five Constants. The five virtues are: Rén Yì Lǐ Zhì Xìn
PHOTOSSymbol of the Confucianism: Author of this religion:
FINISH Thank you for watching my presentation. By: Natalia W.